Skip to main content

Full text of "Gettysburg College Catalog"

See other formats






COLLEGE 



Table of Contents 



GETTYSBURG COLLEGE— THE COMMUNITY 

ADMISSION 

Admission Evaluation, Campus Visit, 
Admission with Advanced Credit and 
Placement, International Student 
Admission, Statistical Summary 

EXPENSES/SERVICES 

Comprehensive Fee Plan, VA Benefits, 
Payment Plans, Insurance 

FINANCIAL AID 

Student Financial Aid, Presidential 
Scholars Program, Grants, Loans 

STUDENT SERVICES 

Residence Life, Intercultural 
Advancement, Dining, Health Center, 
Counseling, Career Planning, Safety and 
Security 

COLLEGE LIFE 

Student Conduct, Honor Code, College 
Union, Student Government, Programs 
and Activities, Campus Media, Greek 
Organizations, Chapel Programs, Center 
for Public Service, Athletics, Campus 
Recreation 



FACILITIES 

ACADEMIC POLICIES AND PROGRAMS 

Academic Purposes, Degree 
Requirements, Special Major, Academic 
Advising, Senior Scholars' Seminar, 
Academic Internships, The Gettysburg 
Revieiu, Off-Campus Study, Dual-Degree 
Programs, Preprofessional Studies 

ACADEMIC REGULATIONS 

Registration, Grading, Residence 
Requirements, Transcripts, Withdrawal 

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 

Graduation Honors, Dean's Lists, Phi 
Beta Kappa, Alpha Lambda Delta 

COURSES OF STUDY 

ANNUAL PRIZES AND AWARDS 

ENDOWMENT FUNDS 



The provisions of this catalogue are not 



to be regarded as an irrenocable contract 
between the College and the student. The 
College reserves the right to change any 
provision or recjiiirement at any time. 
This right to change provisions and 
requirements includes, but is not limited 
to, the right to reduce or eliminate course 
offerings in academic fields and to add 
requirements for graduation. 



REGISTER 



Trustees, Faculty, Administration 



Gettysburg College 

Course Catalogue 2002-2003 



Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 



Gettysburg College — The Community 



A HERITAGE OF EXCELLENCE 



As we begin the twenty-first century, higlier education faces a new world of change and 
challenge. Revolutionary advances in technology, unprecedented access to information, a tich 
diversity of perspectives, and frequent calls to social action will demand more from a liberal 
arts education than ever before. Leading colleges must respond xvith innovative programs, appropriate 
resources, and exceptional teaching. ♦ At Gettysburg College, loe are committed to preparing our students 
[or the opportunities of this changing roorld. Our founding principles embrace a rigorous liberal arts 
education that fosters a global perspective, a spirit of collaboration, a dedication to public service, and 
an enriching campus life. We believe that this approach to education instills in Gettysburg College 
students a life-long desire for learning a drive for discovery and contribution, and a compassionate 
respect for others and our xvorld. 



Dedicated to Success 

The history of Gettysburg College has 
intersected with events of political, social, and 
global significance. Chartered in 1832, Gettysburg 
College was born in an era of dramatic change. 
Our young nation faced political and economic 
challenges, pioneers pushed into new frontiers, 
and academic institutions were established that 
woidd become today's finest colleges and 
universities. 

In 1863, Union and Confederate soldiers 
clashed on the fields of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. 
Pennsylvania Hall, the first building on campus, 
served as a temporary hospital for the woimded 
from both sides. Today, its name appears on the 
National Register of Historic Places. On 
November 19, 1863, Gettysburg College students 
witnessed the legendary address of Abraham 
Lincoln, which to this day links our country's 
sixteenth president with Gettysburg in the 
minds of Americans. 

Years later, President Dwight D. Eisenhower 
arrived at Gettysburg, sharing his experience 
and insights as a national leader. Follo\ving his 
term, Eisenhower returned to Gettysburg to 
write his memoirs in what is now Eisenhower 
House, the college admissions office. Visits by 
Elie Wiesel, General Colin Powell, and leaders 
from the American Civil Liberdes Union, the 
civil rights movement, and the Peace Corps 
continue to demonstrate Gettysburg College's 
dedication to issues of global importance. 

Today, Gettysburg College continues to 
champion independent thinking and public 
action by providing students with the abilities to 
reason and communicate, and the incentive to 
make a difference in our world. A Gettysburg 
College education blends a rigorous foundadon 



in the sciences, the social sciences, and the 
himianiues with a highly personal atmosphere 
of challenge and support. The curricular and 
co-curricular opportimities are carefully designed 
to stimulate logical thinking, encourage public 
service, and instill a global perspective in our 
students. 

At Gettysburg College, nearly 2,400 young 
women and men learn, explore, discover, and 
create with the challenge and support of 150 
full-time faculty members. Approximately 90 
percent of the teaching faculty' hold the doctorate 
or the highest earned degree in their field. 

As devoted as they are to their chosen fields of 
study, Gettysburg College faculty are equally 
dedicated to the success of their students. 
Small classes averaging eighteen students and a 
student/ faculty ratio of 11:1 foster an open and 
informal exchange of ideas, a sense of 
community and collaboration, and endless 
opportunities for accomplishment. 

As part of Gettysburg College's balanced 
imdergraduate program in the liberal arts and 
sciences, students may choose from thirty-four 
majors, pursue interdisciplinary and self- 
designed majors, or complete one of several 
cooperative and dual-degree programs. The 
college also provides a certification in 
elementary and secondary education, and 
preparation for professional schools in law, 
medicine, and the allied health sciences. 
Study abroad, internship, and student/faculty 
research opportunities are plentiful and 
encomaged. 

We welcome your interest in Gettysburg College. 



GETTYSBURG-AT-A-GLANCE 



Type of College: Four-year, coeducational college 
of liberal arts and sciences founded in 1832. 

Enrollment: Nearly 2,400 students (approximately 
one-half are men and one-half are women), 
representing 40 states and 35 foreign countries. 
Approximately 90 percent of the students live 
on campus in more than thirt}'-six residence 
halls, including theme halls, the Residential 
College, and special interest houses. 

Location: Beautiful 200-acre campus with over 
60 buildings. The College is adjacent to the 
Gettysburg National Park. Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, is 36 miles from Harrisburg, 
55 miles from Baldmore, 80 miles from 
Washington, D.C., 117 miles from Philadelphia, 
and 212 miles from New York City. 

Academic Information: Thirty-four majors, 
special majors, double majors, minors, and an 
extensive area studies program. Student/faculty 
ratio of 11:1 with an average class size of 18 
students. More than 150 full-time faculty with 
approximately 90 percent of the permanent 
facult}' holding the doctorate or highest earned 
degree in dieir fields. One of only 19 chapters 
of Phi Beta Kappa in Pennsylvania. Honorary or 
professional societies in 16 academic areas. 
Academic Honor Code in effect since 1957. 

Special Programs: Extensive study abroad 
programs; internships; Washington Semester 
(government and politics, economic policy, 
ethical issues and public affairs, foreign policy, 
public administration, justice, urban studies, 
journalism, art and architecture, arts and 
humanities) ; United Nations Semester; dual- 
degree programs in engineering, nursing, 
optometry, and forestry and environmental 
studies; cooperative program in marine biolog)'; 
certification in elementary and secondary 
education; premedical and prelaw counseling. 
Cooperative college consortium with Dickinson 
and Franklin & Marshall Colleges. 

Exceptional Facilities: Musselman Library; 
computing environment, including full network 
capabilities in all campus buildings and each 
residence hall room, high-speed access to the 
Internet, microcomputer laboratories and 
workstations; state-of-the-art science facilities. 



including two electron microscopes 
(transmission and scanning units), Fourier 
Transform Infrared and NMR Spectrometers, 
greenhouse, planetarium, observatory, and 
optics and plasma physics laboratories; the 
Child Study Center; extensive facilides for the 
fine arts, music, and drama; writing center; 
comprehensive phvsical education complex; 
health center and counseling services; career 
planning and advising office; College Union 
Building, student activities center; center for 
public service. 

Student Activities: Student Senate; Student 
Activities .Alliance; FM radio station; yearbook; 
newspaper; literary magazine; full range of 
musical groups, including choirs, marching, 
symphonic, and jazz bands, college/community 
orchestra, and numerous ensembles; black 
student union; international student club; 
theatre groups; special interest groups; more 
than 100 clubs and communitv' service 
organizations; more than 1,000 leadership 
positions. 

Athletics: Division III level within the Centennial 
Conference. Twelve sports for men, twelve 
sports for women, and one coeducational sport. 
A wide array of intramural activities to satisfy' 
various interests and levels of skill. 

Religious Life: Lutheran related. Programs for 
students of all faiths coordinated through the 
College Chapel, including Newman Association 
and Hillel. 

School Colors: Orange and blue. 



< 



Admission 



ADMISSION 



► 



Gettysburg College students come from a wide variety of backgrounds and secondary school 
programs. The College encourages applications from students of differing ethnic, religious, 
racial, economic, and geographic backgrounds. ♦ Tfie admission staff encourages applications 
from students who have demonstrated a capacity for academic achievement, responsiveness to intellectual 
challmge, eagerness to contribute their special taknts to the College community, and an awareness of 
social responsibility. Such persons give promise of possessing the ability and the motivation that will 
enable them to profit from the mciny opportunities that the College offers. 



Campus Information 

A wide varit'ly of iniormation about Gettysburg 
College can be found in the C>)llege's various 
publications. 

Prospective students may request College 
publications and material by contacting: 

Director of Admission 
Eisenhower House 
Gettysburg College 
Gettysburg, PA 17325 

717-337-6100; 800-431-0803 
(Fax) 717-337-6145 
admiss@gettysburg.edu 
www.gettysburg.edu 

Admission Evaluation 

Since the competition for admission is highly 
competitive, the admission staff gives careful 
consideration to each application. Its decisions 
are based on three categories of evidence 
described below. 

Evidence of high academir achievement as indimted 
hy the secondary school record. 
The College considers grades in academic 
courses, quality and distribution of subjects, and 
rank in class as highly significant parts of the 
applicant's credentials. Participation in 
accelerated, enriched, and advanced placement 
courses is highly desirable. The College regards 
superior facility in the use of the English 
language and an vmderstanding of fundamental 
mathematical processes as essential to a 
successful college experience. It al,so assumes 
graduation from an approved .secondary school. 

Evidence of ability to do high quality college loork as 
indicated try aptitude and achievement test residts. 
The SAT 1 of the College Board or the test 
results of the American College Testing (ACT) 
program are required of all candidates. 



Evidence of personal qualities. 

There is high interest in individuals of character 
who will contribute in positive ways to the College 
commimity. Such contributions should be 
appropriate to the talents of each student, whether 
these be leadership in campus programs, 
involvement in the welfare of others, expression 
of artistic creativity, or the quiet pursuit of 
scholarly excellence. In estimating such qualities, 
the College relies on what students say about 
themselves; the confidential statements from 
secondary school principals, headmasters, and 
guidance counselors; and on personal appraisals 
by its alumni and friends. Essentially, any evidence 
of in-depth involvement in secondary school 
activities and/or participation in commimity 
affairs (especially volunteer services) is favorably 
considered in the admission process. 

The Campus Visit 

Personal inter\iews, group sessions, and campus 
tours are strongly recommended: they give 
prospective students a personal look at the 
opportunities and variety offered in the 
academic and extracurricular program. 
Gettysburg students give generously of their 
time and talents to the College and surrounding 
community, and are pleased to share their 
experiences with visiting students. 

Prospective students are welcome to visit the 
campus for a tour and/or a group session at any 
time. Interviews may be scheduled between 
April 1 of the jimior year and March 1 of the 
senior year. Students considering a major in art 
or music should make their interest known when 
requesting an interview, so that arrangements 
can be made for an appointment with a 
member of the department concerned. 

Students can arrange an interview, group 
session, or campus tour by calling the Office of 
Admissions at 717-337-6100 or 800-431-0803. 
During the academic year, the admissions office 
is open from 9:00 to 5:00 on weekdays and from 
9:00 to 12:00 on Satiudays; summer hours are 
between 8:00 and 4:30 weekdays. 



Admission Process 

Early Decision. 

Students for \vhom Gettysburg College is a first 
choice are strongly encouraged to apply for 
Early Decision admission. The application will 
be considered between November 15 and 
February 1 of the senior year; a non-refundable 
fee of $45 must be sent with the application. 
Those students accepted under this admission 
plan are obligated to enroll at Gettysbing 
College and to withdraw applications submitted 
to other institutions. Notification of the decision 
on admission will be made between December 
15 and February 15. Payment of a nonrefimdable 
advance fee of $300 is required to validate this 
offer of acceptance . 

Although the Early Decision applicant should 
take the SAT 1 or the ACT in the junior year, 
scores from the October/November testing date 
of the senior year \vill also be considered. Those 
students submitting applications for Early 
Decision who are not offered acceptance at that 
time will automatically be considered for 
Regular Decision admission upon receipt of 
subsequent semester grades and test scores from 
the senior year. 

Regular Decision. 

Students applying as a Regular Decision 
candidate to Gettysburg College should submit 
an application during the fall of their senior 
year and by February 15; a nonrefundable fee of 
$45 must be sent with the application. Most 
offers of acceptance will be mailed by early- 
April, after the receipt of November, December, 
or January SAT 1 results and senior year first 
semester grades. Results for the SAT 1 or ACT 
taken prior to the senior year may be used to 
satisfy test requirements. 

Paviuent of a nonrefundable advance fee of 
$300 is required to validate the offer of 
acceptance. Since Gettysburg College subscribes 
to the principle of the Candidate's Reply Date, 
students have until May 1 to make their decision 
and pay the advance fee. 

/Ml acceptances by Gettv'sburg College are 
conditional and based upon students 
continuing to do satisfactory work in all 
subjects, avoiding disciplinary circumstances, 
and earning a secondary school diploma. 



Admission with Advanced Credit and Placement 

Students who have taken advanced placement 
courses in secondary school and wish to be 
considered for advanced credit or placement 
must take advanced placement tests of the 
College Board. All entering students who submit 
a score of four or five on these tests shall receive 
one or two course credits for each tested area 
toward the 35-course graduation requirement. 
Course credit for advanced placement will be 
lost if a student takes the equivalent course at 
Gettysbiug. Students who have completed 
advanced-level or honors courses may be 
considered for advanced placement. 

Those high school students who have taken 
regular courses at the college level in regionally- 
approved junior or four-year colleges may 
receive credit for these courses if there has been 
no duplication of high school units and college 
credits. 

Gettysburg College recognizes the quality of the 
International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma in the 
admission process. In addition, the College 
awards two course credits in each subject area 
for Higher Level examination scores of five or 
higher. Credit for a Higher Level score of four 
will be given at the discretion of the department. 

For students who plan to complete their 
gradtiation requirements in less than four full 
years, see the section on residence requirements 
and schedule limitations for information about 
planning of the academic program. 

International Student Admission 

The College welcomes applications from 
international students who can read, write, 
speak, and understand the English language 
with considerable proficiency. International 
applicants should send the completed 
application form with official secondary school 
transcripts, and an explanation of grading 
procedures; the SAT of the College Board or 
the test results of the ,\merican College Testing 
(.ACT) program; the Test of English as a Foreign 
Language (TOEFL) results; the application 
essay; and the certification of the Finances 
Form. International students appl)ing for 
financial aid must also file the Foreign Student 
Financial Aid Form. 



< 



► 



Transfer Student Admission 

(iettysburg welcomes applications from students 
interested in transferring to the College. Transfer 
students applying for the spring semester should 
submit their application by December 1, and 
students applying for the fall semester should 
apply bv April 15; uansfers applying after those 
preferred dates should do so as soon as possible. 

Reactivating the application. 
Students who have previously applied to 
Gettysburg College and now wish to reactivate 
their application should send a letter requesting 
a reactivation. In order to update and complete 
the application, send the final secondary school 
transcript, SAT and/or ACT results, college 
iranscripts(s), the Dean's Recommendadon 
Form, and the financial aid transcript. 

Applying for the first time. 

Transfer students should submit an application 
for admission, the final secondary school 
transcript, SAT and/or ACT results, college 
ij-anscript(s), the Dean's Transfer Recommendation 
Form, and the financial aid transcript. 

Transfer of credits. 

Transfer credits are granted provisionally for 
individual courses passed with a C or better at 
approved institutions, provided that these 
courses fit reasonably well into the Gett\'sburg 
College curriculum. During the first semester, 
transfer students must re\iew the giaduation 
I equirements with their academic adviser or 
the registrar. Transfers are required to earn all 
addifional credit at Gettysburg College or 
through a regular College-approved program 
of off-campus study. In order to complete the 
transfer of course credits, transfer students are 
required to complete one year of satisfactory 
work at Ciettysburg College. All transfer students 
must satisfy the course requirements in their 
major area of interest. 

Admission as a Guest Student 

A high school graduate, not a candidate for a 
degree, may apply for admission as a nonmatri- 
culated student. Normally, such a student may 
enroll in a maximum of two courses. Permission 
to take more than two courses must be secured 
from the Academic Standing Committee. 

Taking courses as a guest student requires 
permission of the instructors of the courses 
involved, as well as filing an application for 
guest student status with the admissions office. 



A guest student who may later wish to become a 
candidate for a degree must submit an application 
under regular admission procedures. Guest 
students have the same classroom duties and 
privileges as regular full-time students, but no 
promise is made in advance that the guest 
suident will be admitted as a candidate for degree. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY 

Students in college 

2001 Full-Time Enrollment 

Fall Semester 

M W Total 

Senior 226 285 511 

Junior 296 282 578 

Sophomore 309 338 647 

First Year 321 350 671 

1152 1255 2407 

The above enrollment includes 166 students 
who were studying off campus. In addition, 10 
students were enrolled part-time for a degree. 

Geographic Distribution Matriculated Students 

2001 Fall Semester 

Number 
of 

Students Percent 

Pennsylvania 705 29.3 

Newjersey 458 19.0 

New York 310 12.9 

Maryland 239 10.0 

Connecticut 183 7.6 

Massachusetts 144 6.0 

Virginia 65 2.7 

Maine 42 1.7 

New Hampshire 38 1.6 

30 Otlier States or territoiies 166 6.8 

International (28 counuies) 57 2.4 

2407 100.0 

STUDENT RETENTION 

Of the students who entered Gettysburg College 
as first-year students in September 1997, 70.5% 
received their degree within four years; an 
additional 5.1 % of the class were continuing 
at Gettysburg. Twenty-seven students (4.2% of 
the class) were required to withdraw from the 
College. Of the students who entered Gettysburg 
College as first-year students in September 1995, 
75.6% received their degree within six years. 



Expenses /Services 



COMPREHENSIVE FEE PLAN 



Gettysburg College charges each student, on a semester by semester basis, a comprehensive 
fee, which covers tuition, board, and room. Not included in this fee are books and supplies, 
telephone charges, telecommunications fee, some private lessons in music, optional off- 
campus courses, and optioned health insurance coverage. 



The comprehensive fee applies to each full-time 
student. A full-time student is one registering for 
at least three courses per semester. Part-time 
matriculating students will be charged $3,000 
per course. 

2002-2003 FEES 
Academic Fee (Tuition) 



$27,070 



Board 

Traditional Meal Plan, 20 meals per week $ 3,120 
(Rates for reduced meal plans are available fiom 
Dining Services.) 



Room Rents 

Regular Room 
Middle Rate Room 
Single or Apartment Room 



$ 3,520 
I 4,020 
$ 4,400 



Special Student Fees 

Any student who is not a candidate for a degree 
will be charged at the rate of $1,500 per course. 

Telecommunications Fee 

Students living in College residence halls or 
fraternities pay an annual $200 Telecommunica- 
tions and Technolog)' fee. The fee covers the 
following services and appropriate support: 
network and internet access, cable TV, local tele- 
phone and voicemail. Non-residential students are 
assessed an annual $50 fee for on-campus 
network and internet access. Limitations of 
services apply as set forth in the network 
utilizadon policy. 

Payment of Bills 

Checks should be made payable to Gettysburg 
College and sent to the Office of Financial 
Services, GettNsburg College, Gettysburg, PA 
17325-1483 by die dates outlined. 

Credit card payments, through PhoneCharge, Inc. 
at 1-877-206-5356 (toll free), are accepted as a 
means of payment of die College tuidon and fees. 
A fee is charged Ir/ PhoneCharge, Inc. for this service. 

The College operates on a two-semester 
calendar. An itemized statement of charges for 
each semester is mailed approximately one 



month before the payment due date. First 
semester charges are due on August 1; second 
semester charges are due on January 3. The 
College has an optional monthly payment plan, 
which runs from June 1 to March 1. (See PaymenI 
Plans.) 

Delinquenl accounts are subject to a late payment 
charge at the rate of 1% per month. This late charge 
will be waived for Student Loan amounts 
processed by the College prior to due dates for 
payments. 

Students are required to complete payment of 
their tuition and fees by the stated deadlines to 
maintain active enrollment status and their 
abilit)' to register for courses for futine 
semesters. Gettysbiug College policy requires 
the withholding of all credits, educadonal 
services, issuance of transcripts, and 
certification of academic records from any 
person whose financial obligadons to the 
College (including delinquent accounts, 
deferred balances, and liabilit)' for damage) are 
due and/or unpaid. If any overdue obligation is 
referred either to the College collection 
department or to an outside agency or attorney 
for collection efforts and/or legal suit, die debt 
shall be increased to cover all reasonable costs 
of collection, including collection agency and 
attorneys fees and court costs. By registering for 
any class at the College, each student accepts 
and agrees to be bound by the foregoing 
College policy as applied to any preexisting or 
future obligation to the College. 

Reserve/Security Deposit 

The advance payment of $300 made under 
either the early or regular acceptance plans is 
credited to a reserve deposit account. Wliile the 
student is enrolled, this noninterest-bearing 
account remains inactive. The securit) deposit is 
activated after the student graduates or 
withdraws from school. At that time security 
deposit funds are transferred to the student's 
account to satisfy any unpaid bills. Any 
remaining amounts will be refunded after this 
process. 



< 



► 



Preregistration Fee 

The preregistration fee of $300 is billed in 
the middle of February and must be paid by 
March \5"^ in order for a student to preregister 
for classes, hi addition, the student's account 
must be in good financial standing in order to 
preregister for classes. This fee will be applied 
toward the students fall semester College bill. 
No refimds of this fee will be made after the 
date of spring registration. 

Veterans' Administration Benefits 

Gett\'sburg College has made the necessary 
arrangements whereby eligible veterans, depen- 
dents, and members of the military may receive 
monthly pa)Tnents from the Veterans' Adminis- 
tration in accordance with the appropriate laws 
and regulations. Please contact the Office of the 
Registrar for more information. 

Payment Plans 

The College offers an interest-free optional 
monthly payment plan through Key Education 
Resources for those who wish to make 
installment payments over an eight- to ten- 
month period. The first installment is due 
August 1 or June 1 , respectively. There is a 
nonrefundable fee of $50 to enroll in this plan. 
For details, contact Key Education Resources at 
1-800-539-5363 or the Office of Financial 
Services. 

Refund Policy 

A student must notih' the Registrar's Office in 
writing that he or she intends to withdraw or 
request a leave of absence from Gettysburg 
Collge. (See withdrawal and leave of absence polity.) 
The date the written nouce is received by the 
Registrar's Office will be the official date of 
withdrawal or leave of absence. 

Financial aid recipients who leave the College 
during a term will have their Title IV aid 
recalculated according to the federal refund 
requirements, which state: "If a recipient of Title 
IV aid withdraws before completing 60 percent 
of the payment period (app. 9 weeks), the 
institution must calculate the amount of Title IV 
aid the student did not earn. The amount of 
unearned aid equals the difference between the 
Title IV aid that was disbursed or could have 
been disbursed for the payment period and the 
amount of Title IV aid that was earned. Schools 
must return the unearned portion of the Title 
rV' funds." (Blue Book, June 1999, 2-44) 

Title IV funds include and will be returned in 
the following order: Unsubsidized Federal 
Stafford Loans, Subsidized Federal Stafford 



Loans, Federal PLUS Loans, Unsubsidized 
Federal Direct Stafford Loans, Subsidized 
Federal Direct Stafford Loans, Federal Direct 
PLUS Loans, Federal Perkins Loans, Federal 
Pell Grants, and Federal Supplemental 
Educational Opportunity Grants (FSEOG). 

Students receiving financial assistance may have 
a portion of their original award returned to the 
programs as required by federal regulation and 
the Gett)'sburg College refund policy, thus 
creating a balance due to the Ccjllege. For this 
reason, students contemplating withdrawing 
during a term of enrollment are strongly 
encouraged to meet with the Financial Services 
and Financial Aid Office prior to leaving the 
College. 

Refunds for Tuition, Room, and Board 

Refunds for tuition, room, and l^oard are 
calculated as follows: 100 percent, if notice is 
received by the twelfth day of classes; 80 
percent, if notice is received by the third week 
of classes; 50 percent, if notice is received by the 
fourth week of classes; 25 percent, if notice is 
received by the sixth week of clas.ses. 

No refund will be calculated after the end of the 
sixth week of classes. Exceptions to the stated 
policy may be granted for reasons of health. 

Required Withdrawal: A student who is required 
to withdraw for disciplinary reasons 
(involuntary withdrawal) will forfeit all fees 
which he or she has paid. 

Deruar Insurance: Opdonal insurance is available 
through A.W.G. Dewar, Inc., which supplements 
the College refund policy for a student who 
withdraws as a result of a serious illness or 
accident. 

Reduction of financial aid obligations and 
advances will receive priority in the payment of 
refunds. Any unused reserve deposit balance 
will be refunded approximately six weeks after 
the student's graduation or withdrawal. 

College Store 

Students may open a College Store account with 
parental/guardian appro\al and may charge 
books, supplies, and miscellaneous items to that 
account. A student's charge balance may not 
exceed $750. College Store charges will be 
added to die student's tuition account on a 
monthly basis and will be subject to a late 
charge if not paid by the due date reflected on 
the statement. The College Store also accepts 
cash, checks, MasterCard, Visa, and Discover as 
methods of payment for purchases made there. 



Accident Insurance 

Upon payment of the comprehensive fee, each 
student recehes coverage imder an accident 
insurance policy. Information concerning the 
coverage pro\ided by this insurance is made 
available at the time of registration or in advance 
if requested. 

Health Insurance 

The College requires all students to have 
adequate health insiuance coverage. Student 
Health Insiuance is billed to each student on the 
fall bill. This coverage is optional for those who 
already have an existing health plan. The College 
will waive the charge for those with an existing 
health plan upon receipt of the proof of health 
insurance waiver card. The card must be returned 
by Sept. 15. 



Personal Property Insurance 

The College does not carry insurance on 
personal property of students and is not 
responsible for the loss or damage of such 
propert)'. Students are encouraged to provide 
their own personal property' insiuance. 

Board Policy 

First-year students are required to participate i 
the traditional 20 meals per week plan. 
The Meal Plan Placement Chart (below) 
illustrates the meal plan requirements of all 
students based on residency. 





Meal Plan Placement 
















Residence Hall 


Class Year 


Housing Type 


Meal Plan Requirement 


Hanson 


First Year 


Residence Hall 


20 Meal Plan 


Huber 


First Year 


Residence Hall 


20 Meal Plan 


Rice, Paul, Stine 


First Year 


Residence Hall 


20 Meal Plan 


Patrick 


First Year/ Upper 


Residence Hall 


20 Meal Plan 


Cntenon 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan Offered 


Lamp Post 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan Offered 


Musselman 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan Offered 


Paxton 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan Offered 


QuaiT>' Suites 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan Offered 


Stevens 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan Offered 


Majestic 


Upper 


Residence Hall 


Any Plan Offered 


133/135 N. Washington 


Upper 


Small House 


Any Plan OtTered 


239 Carlisle 


Upper 


Small House 


Any Plan Offered 


Appleford Inn 


Upper 


Small House 


Any Plan Offered 


Carlisle House 


Upper 


Small House 


./liny Plan Offered 


Comer Cottage 


Upper 


Small House 


Any Plan Offered 


129/131 N.Washington 


Upper 


Small House 


Not Required * 


215 N. Washington 


Upper 


Small House 


Not Required * 


225 N. Washington 


Upper 


Small House 


Not Required * 


38. 42, 48 N. Washington 


Upper 


Small House 


Not Required * 


Tudor 


Upper 


Small House 


Not Required * 


Women's Center 


Upper 


Small House 


Not Required * 


Apple 


Upper 


Apartment Complex 


Not Required * 


College Apts 


Upper 


Apanment Complex 


Not Required * 


Constitution Apt 


Upper 


Apartment Complex 


Not Required * 


Ice House 


Upper 


Apartment Complex 


Not Required * 



* Meal Plan not required but available to all students. 



Financial Aid 



Although charges made by colleges and universities have risen sharfyly in recent years, the fact 
remains that at most institutions the fees paid by a student or a student's parents cover only a 
portion of the total cost of a student's education. In private institutions the remainder comes 
from endowment income and gifts from various sources, such as alumni, businesses, foundations, and 
churches. ♦ Gettysburg College recognizes the primary responsibility oftlie student and his or her parents 
to provide as much as possible totoard the total cost of the student's college education. Since an education 
is an investment luhich should yield lifelong dividends, a student should be prepared to contribute to it 
from his or her own earnings, both before enteiing and while in college. 



Gettysburg College has a program of financial 
aid for worthy and promising students who are 
unable to fmance their education from personal 
and/or family resources. Access to such aid is 
considered a privilege, not a right. The 
qualifications for assistance, in addition to need, 
are academic ability, academic achievement, and 
promise of conuibution as a student and citizen. 
The amount of aid in any particular case is 
based upon the financial need of the student. 

The College participates in the College 
Scholarship Service (CSS) and requires all 
applicants to file the Financial Aid PROFILE 
and the Free Application for Federal Student 
Aid (FAFSA) to receive full consideration for 
financial aid. Each form should be sent to the 
appropriate, separate mailing address in the 
preaddressed envelope that is provided with 
the form. 

The College also requires that enrolled students 
submit notarized copies of the parents' and 
student's most recent U.S. Individual Income 
Tax Returns (Form 1040) directly to the Office 
of Financial Aid to verify income data. Applicants 
for admission must submit tax forms when the 
$300 admissions deposit is paid, or by May 1 . 

A prospective student seeking financial aid 
should mail the completed PROFILE and 
FAFSA as soon as possible after January 1 and 
before February 15. Both forms should be 
completed in their entirety (including 
Gettysburg College in the colleges to receive 
results) and forwarded in the envelopes 
provided. There is no fee for the Free Federal 
Application (which determines eligibility for 
Pell Grant and other federal programs of 
student financial assistance), but there is a 
processing fee for the PROFILE. 

A student already enrolled who has previously 
had some form of aid should secure a renewal 
application from the Office of Financial Aid and 
should request his or her parents to help 
complete these forms. The renewal application 



packet should be completed, with the FAFSA 
and PROFILE being forwarded by April 15 and 
the other forms being forwarded to the Office 
of Financial Aid by May 1. 

The Gettysburg College federal code number 
for the FAFSA is 003268 and the PROFILE code 
number is 2275. 

Financial aid is awarded in the form of grants, 
loans, work-study, or a combination of these. /\11 
financial aid awards are made for one year only. 
The director of financial aid will consider a 
request for renewal and will act on the basis of 
the applicant's record as a student and campus 
citizen, as well as his or her continuing 
financial need. 

Satisfactory Progress Guidelines 
for Renewal of Financial Aid 

A student is expected to maintain an academic 
record that will enable him or her to complete 
the requirements for graduation in the normal 
eight semesters. Any student who falls below the 
2.00 minimum accumulative average needed for 
graduation will be warned, placed on academic 
probation, placed on dismissal alert, or dismissed. 
Additionally, it is expected that each student 
will continue to make normal or satisfactory 
progress toward the completion of degree 
requirements. The student who falls below the 
following minimum standard is considered to 
not be making satisfactory progress and is 
normally advised or required to withdraw: 

For first-year students: 1.50 GPA and 6 courses 
completed 

For sophomores: 1.80 GPA and 15 courses 
completed 

For juniors: 1.90 GPA and 25 courses 
completed. 

In addition to these miniminn standards, a 
student on probation must show significant 
improvement during the following semester in 
order to remain at the College. Normally, a 



student may not remain at the College with 
three consecutive semester averages below 2.00. 

The Academic Standing Committee interprets 
and applies these standards on a case-by-case 
basis at the end of each semester. Following the 
decision of that committee, the Office of 
Financial Aid may be required to review the 
student's progress as it relates to the renewal of 
financial assistance for subsequent terms. 

Students who are not maintaining sadsfactory 
academic progress will be required to resume 
normal progress before additional financial aid 
can be awarded. That may require completion 
of coursework without the benefit of financial 
aid. Any appeals regarding satisfactory progress 
must be filed through the Academic Standing 
Committee. 

The recipients of Federal Stafford Loans and 
other programs of financial assistance through 
federally subsidized Title FV Programs are also 
subject to minimiun progress standards. In 
addition, students who are recipients of grant 
funds from their home states are t)'pically 
required to successfully complete a minimum 
of 24 credits per year to maintain continued 
eligibility for those grants. Conditions of those 
grants are included in the notice to the student. 

The Presidential Scholars Program 

Gettysburg College believes that intelligent, 
highly-motivated and high-achieving secondary 
school students should be recognized for their 
accomplishments. With this in mind, the 
Presidential Scholars Program was established 
to reward prospective students for academic 
excellence. 

The Presidential Scholars selection process is 
a competitive one: benchmark qualifications 
include SAT scores that fall within the top ten 
percentile nationally and a class rank within the 
top ten percent of the high school graduating 
class. All selections are made (without any 
special application on the part of those students 
selected) as the Admissions Staff reads the 
application forms of all applicants for an 
incoming first-year class. 

Students selected for the Presidential 
Scholarship will be awarded an amount that 
is tiot based upon financial need. Eligible 
applicants applying for need-based financial aid 
as listed below could recei\e additional financial 
aid without jeopardizing the Presidential 
Scholarship amount. 



Need-Based Financial Aid 

Applications from all students who apply for 
financial aid and demonstrate financial need 
will automatically be reviewed to determine 
eligibility for the following forms of assistance 
available from Gettysburg College. 

Gettysburg College Graw/.- Awarded to students 
who, in addifion to financial need, show 
evidence of good academic ability and academic 
achievement. These grants are renewable as 
long as the recipient continues to demonstrate 
need, and maintains a sound academic record. 
Normally, such grants are combined with loans 
and/or student employment in order to meet 
the student's financial need. 

In cases of students who demonstrate exceptional 
talent, skills, and abilities, need may be satisfied 
entirely with grant funds. 

Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity 
Grant: A grant program funded by the Federal 
Government and administered by the College. 
The program is designed to assist students from 
low-income families. 

Gettysburg College Loan: A loan program made 
available by Gettysburg College. 

Federal Perkins Loan: A loan program funded by 
the Federal Government and administered by 
the College. 

Federal Work-Study Program: Employment program 
funded by the Federal Government and the 
College. 

Grants need not be repaid, but the College 
hopes that recipients will recognize that they 
have incurred an obligation and will therefore 
subsequently contribute as they can to help 
insure that the benefits which they enjoyed will 
be available to others. 

Approximately fifty percent of Gettysburg 
College students receive financial assistance in 
some form from the College. About sixt)' percent 
of the Gettysburg College student body receives 
aid from the College or other sources. 

Rules governing all types of financial aid are 
stated in the Financial Aid Agreement that is 
enclosed with the Notification of Financial Aid. 

State and Federal Guidelines 

To be eligible for federal and state programs of 
financial assistance, a full-time student must 
meet minimum academic requirements for the 
academic year. The Gett)sburg College academic 



i 



\car is 30 weeks in length of insuuctional time. 
In addition to being enrolled for all of those 
weeks, a student must complete at least 24 
credits (seven courses) during the enrollment 
period to maintain continued eligibility for 
financial assistance. 

Some recipients of federal financial assistance 
through Tide FV programs (Perkins Loan, 
Stafford Loan, Federal Work-Study, and SEOG) 
may be subject to verification of the income and 
family information data provided on the E-VPSA. 
Those selected for verification will be asked to 
follow .some prescribed procedines, and 
additional instructions will be provided by the 
Office of Financial .\id for tliose asked to 
comply. 

State and Federal Grant Programs 

Students must appl) for the following grants and 
loans through the Free Application for Federal 
Student Aid (FAFSA). Further information may 
be acquired from the secondary school guidance 
office. 

Federal Pell Grant: A federal grant program to 
enable students to attend colleges and uni\'ersities; 
and is available to students with the highest 
levels of need. 

Pennsylvania Higher Education Grant: An award 
given to students who are residents of Pennsvh'ania, 
selected on the basis of financial need. 

Other states also have scholarships and/or grant 
programs. The states that have most recently 
made grant awards to students attending 
Gettysburg College are ConnecticiU, Delaware, 
Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Ohio, Rhode 
Island, Vermont, West Virginia, and the District 
of Colimibia. 

State and Federal Loan Programs 

Federal Stafford Loan: Allows a student to borrow 
directly from a bank, savings and loan association 
or other participating lender. First-year students 
may borrow $2,625; that increases to $3,500 
during the second year, and third- and foiuth- 
year students are eligible to borrow up to 
$5,500; maximimi total borrowing for all 
undergraduate study is $23,000. The rate of 
interest for these loans is set at the bank 
equivalent rate for 91-day Treasury bills plus 
3.10%. New rates will be announced each July 1 
for the entire year, and rates of interest cannot 
exceed 8.25%. The rate of interest until July 1, 
2002, is 5.39%. 



Federal Parent Loan for Undergraduale Study: 
Parents of dependent undergraduate students 
may borrow through the PLUS Loan Program 
to help finance educational costs. Maximum 
loan per year is limited to the cost of education 
minus other aid that the student has received. 
Repayment begins within 60 days of loan fimds 
being advanced and the maximum repayment 
period is 10 years. Interest rates will be set on 
July 1 on the basis of Treasury bills plus 3.10%, 
btit not to exceed 9%. Applications for the 
PLUS Loan are made through any participating 
bank or other lending agency. The interest rate 
until July 1, 2002, is 6.79%. PLUS Loans are 
disbursed on a co-payable basis to the borrower 
and the College. 

Other student/parent loan plans for education 
are also available. One such option is EXCEL 
throvigh Nellie Mae and the Education 
Resources Institute. EXCEL offers loans of up to 
$20,000 per year, with a maximum twenty-year 
repayment period. 

A similar plan is offered through TERI Loans. 
Both programs are based in Massachusetts, but 
are national in scope. More information is 
available through the Office of Financial Aid. 

Financial Aid for Off-Campus Study 

Financial aid is a\ailable for programs of off- 
campus study (both domestic and study abroad) 
which are approved by the Academic Standing 
Committee. College Grant and Loan funds will 
normally be awarded for a maximum of two 
semesters of off-campus study through College- 
affiliated programs only. 

International students may have College-funded 
financial aid applied to off-campus study 
programs on a case-by-case basis. Written 
application must be made to the President, 
explaining the program's relevance to the 
individual's academic program as a whole. 

Financial Aid for Off-Campus Study 

For all Dual-Degree programs, once Gettysburg 
students apply for and are accepted to an 
affiliated university, they become students of 
that university. Students who qualify' for 
financial aid at Gettysburg College are not 
guaranteed a similar financial aid package at 
our affiliated universities. Financial aid at the 
iiffiliated university must be applied for directly 
dirough that university. All other services will 
also be provided by that university. 



Student Services 



G 



etlyshurg College offers a loide variety of services to assist students inside and outside the 
cUissroom. Faculty, deans, and staff members are readily available to talk with individuals or 
groups. Their goal is to help students nuike the best use oftlie College's resources and opportunities. 



RESIDENCE LIFE 



Residence Life at Gettysburg College is a major 
influence on the total development of the 
student. The residential environment (persons, 
policies, and facilities) promotes the formation 
of a communit)' and encourages a style of life 
that is conducive to the de\elopment of respect 
for both the individual and the society in which 
one lives. During a student's experience at 
Gett)'sburg College, decisions are made 
concerning personal values, occupational 
choices, one's identity, personal responsibilit)', 
and a philosophy of life. The residential 
program provides opportunities for examining 
these areas of development. 

Recognizing the influence of the environment 
on development, Gettysburg College requires all 
students (unless married or residing with their 
families) to live on campus. Exemptions from 
this requirement are granted only by the director 
of Residence Life. 

Area coordinators of Residence Life are 
professional, live-in staff members who directly 
select and super\ise the student staff of residence 
coordinators and resident assistants. Student 
staff members participate in an ongoing training 
program, which enables them to help other 
students adjust to the college environment. 
The residence hall staff provide a variety of 
educational and social programs that enhance 
the educational and .social development of all 
residence hall students. Residence hall 
governments exist to provide residents with the 
opportunit) to work with members of the 
administration in shaping policies that apply to 
all College residences and establish an 
environment that supports student needs. 

Gettysburg College offers a variety of options in 
living environments. LIppercla.ss students may 
choose to live in one of twelve residence halls, 
varying in occupancy from 35 students to 219 
students. There are coeducational and a small 
number of single sex options. 

.\nother living opportunity exists in the area of 
Theme Housing. This option is for students who 
wish to live together in a group of 4 to 20 
residents and work on a project of mutual 
interest throughout the academic year. 



Also included as an optional living environmeni 
is the opportunity for sophomore, junior, and 
senior men to live in a fraternity house on or 
near the campus. 

Student cumulative grade point averages are 
considered as part of the upperclass lottery 
svstem utilized to obtain housing during the 
spring semester for the following academic yea: 

Most of the student rooms are double occupancy; 
however, a few single rooms are available and 
some rooms are large enough for three or four 
people. (There is some cost difference between regular 
and apartment-style housing.) Each student is 
provided with a bed and mattress, a dresser, and a 
desk and chair. Students provide their own 
pillows, bedding, spreads, study lamps, and 
window curtains. Card-operated washers and 
dryers are available on the campus for student 
use. Each student room in residence halls is 
equipped with network access, a telephone, and 
cable TV service. Microfridge combination 
microwave refrigerators are available lor rent 
from Campus Vending Services. Because of its 
particular energ) efficiency, this is the only 
microwave or refrigerator permitted in the 
regular residence halls. 

INTERCULTURAL ADVANCEMENT 

The Office of Intercultural Advancement, 
located in the hitercultural Resource Center, is 
committed to supporting and promoting the 
value of a diverse and culturally enlightened 
communit)' based on mutual respect and 
understanding. The staff is dedicated to raising 
awareness and committed to celebrating cultural 
pluralism and diversity. 

The office provides a warm affirming 
atmosphere for people of diverse cultural back- 
grounds. Focusing on the needs and concerns 
of students of color (African Ainerican, Latino, 
Asian American, and American Indian), 
the staff provides academic and personal 
enrichment services for students by offering 
educational and cultural programs, activities, 
workshops, and events that inspire and inform 
students. In addition, the office sponsors and 
cosponsors programs, lectures, and events 
on campus and beyond, which enrich our 
understanding and appreciation of cultures 
and peoples. 



< 



International students receive a full range of 
services and programs through the Office of 
Intercultural Advancement. Throughout their 
four-year program at Gettysburg, international 
students will ha\e contact with this office for 
advice on a variet}' of matters, mostly associated 
\\ilh their status as F-1 students in the United 
Slates. The office provides programming to help 
students in their transition to a new country. 
The many resources located in the Office range 
from ideas for travel within the United States to 
cultural resources for a better understanding of 
American customs to practical information on 
how to file taxes. Students are free to use these 
resources any time the office is open, and many 
materials also may be checked out of the office. 

Located in the Center are a library/conference 
room, study area, lounge, and small computer 
lab. In the Center, we celebrate and value the 
rich mosaic of different cultures, which 
continue to contribute to the advancement of 
world ci\'ilization. All are welcome to share in 
this supportive, intercultural environment. 

DINING ACCOMMODATIONS 

The Gett)'sburg College Dining Ser\ices offers a 
varietN' of dining options for e\'ery student. 
Students can select from the follow offerings: 20 
meals per week, 14 meals per week, a block of 
150 meals per semester and a declining balance 
of $150, a block of 75 meals per semester and 
$550 declining balance dollars per semester, or a 
block of 75 meals per .semester and $75 declining 
dollars. Declining dollars are non-refundable and 
must be used within die semester that they were 
purchased. Cooking is not allowed in the 
residence hall rooms, so students are urged to 
select a meal plan that enables them to eat a 
majority of their meals in the Dining Hall. 

Dining Hall Hours of Operation 

Breakfast 7:15 a.m.-10:15 a.m.; continental 
breakfast, 10:15 a.m.-ll:00 a.m.; lunch, 11:15 
a.m.-2:00 p.m.; dinner, 4:30 p.m.-?: 15 p.m.. 
The College Union Building, which houses Cafe 
101 — the College snack bar — is open daily from 
7:00 a.m.-12:00 midnight. Ike's Italian Eatery, 
al.so located in the CUB, is open for take-out for 
lunch and dinner. 

Requirements 

All first-year students are required to enroll in the 
20-meal plan for their first year. Transfer 
students may choose from any plan offered. 
Students who have special dietary needs 



associated with a medical condition are urged to 
contact Dining Services for assistance. Initiated 
members of fraternities li\ing in nonapartment- 
st\le residence halls are required to enroll in at 
least the minimum dining plan each semester. 
(Seepa<re 9 for ol he)- meal plan information.) 

HEALTH CENTER 

The Gettysburg College Health Center is 
dedicated to the delivery of personalized primary 
health care. The health center contains both 
health and counseling services in order to 
maintain both physical and emoUonal well-being. 

The health center maintains a strict policy of 
confidentiality. Only with the patient's consent 
can any health record or health-related 
information be shared outside of the health 
center. The contents of the health/counseling 
record are not incorporated into the official 
college record. 

Gett)'sburg College has an HfY'/AIDS policy, the 
purpose of which is to support the confidential 
needs of individuals with HFV/AIDS, as well as 
maintain the safety of the campus community. 

Health Services 

The student health services component of the 
health center offers a variety of illness, wellness, 
and health educadonal services for students. 
The professional staff includes nurse 
practitioners, family physicians, registered 
nurses, medical assistants, and an administrative 
assistant. All of these individuals specialize in 
college health-related issues. 

A limited number of in-house laboratory 
evaluations can be performed during a health 
visit. Any additional lab work, immunizations, 
x-rays, medications, ER visits, or physician 
referrals are the financial responsibility of the 
student. All students are required to have health 
insurance coverage. (Further information regarding 
insurance may be obtained from, the Office of Human 
Resources.) 

Health history and physical examination forms 
are required for each new student prior to 
registradon. All students must have the 
following immunizations: 1) Tetanus 
immunizafion within 10 years; 2) Tuberculin 
(Manloux) skin test within one year; 3) Measles, 
Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) at age 12-15 
months or later and the second dose at age 
4—6 years or documented immune titre: 4) 
Hepatids B immunization (series of three 



injections); 5) Polio, completed primary series 
and date of last booster; 6) documentation of 
Varicella disease, immvme titre, or receipt of 
vaccine is required. Meningitis vaccine is 
recommended. 

All patients are seen in the health service by 
appointment only. Walk-in services are for 
minor emergencies. For after-hours health care 
emergencies, students may go directly to the 
Gett)'sburg Hospital Emergency Department, 
located one mile from campus. The health 
service has an on-call arrangement with the 
College Physicians for non-emergency medical 
advice/treatment after the health service has 
closed dining the week and on weekends. 

Counseling Services 

The Counseling Service's professional staff, 
which includes three coimseling professionals 
and a consulting psvchiatrist, works with 
individual students in a confidential 
relationship, exploring personal issues and 
possible resolutions. Some areas of concern that 
students talk to counselors about are: feelings of 
anxiet)' and/or depression, relationships issues, 
drug and alcohol related issues, self-esteem 
issues, problems with family, friends, or 
roommates, goals and plans, values, 
performance pressures, sexuality concerns, 
difficulties at home, and how to reach their full 
potential. While much of counseling involves 
specific problem solving experiences, the focus 
is often simply helping a student to better 
understand himself or herself. 

The College, through Counseling Services, 
provides the campus commimity with a program 
of alcohol and drug education that includes 
prevention programming, help for problem 
users, various support groups, and awareness 
presentations. Campus health education is also 
provided by student peer educators through 
CHEERS (Communicating for a Healtliy 
Environment by Educating Responsible 
Students). The drug education coordinator is 
available to the campus community to develop 
and maintain appropriate educational programs 
and to counsel with individuals. 

Counseling Services also offers a number of 
topic-oriented group experiences, which are 
designed to help students with adjustment issues 
and to assist them when they move beyond 
Gettysburg College. 



Counseling Service activities are free, 
confidential, and available to all Gettysburg 
College students. It is the desire of counseling 
staff members that their services complement 
the College academic program. 

CAREER PLANNING AND ADVISING 

The Office of Career Planning and Advising at 
Gettysburg College helps students and alumni 
make informed career decisions and assists 
them with turning those decisions into actions. 

Students are encouraged to take advantage of 
Career Planning and Advising's resources and 
services throughout their time at Gettysburg 
College. First-year students and sophomores 
may seek assistance in considering and selectint; 
majors or learning about summer employment 
opportunities. Self-assessment exercises and 
activities are available and can be discussed wiili 
the career counselors on staff. Sophomores and 
juniors who are considering career options or 
career-enhancing extracurricular activities can 
learn more by speaking with the career 
counselors and utilizing the extensive career 
exploration library and computer resources. 
Juniors and seniors often utilize the Center 
when considering graduate school options. 
Up-to-date resources on graduate school 
opportunities, testing requirements, and 
application procedures can be found in Career 
Planning & Advising. Juniors and seniors also 
seek assistance from Career Planning and 
Advising when they are making decisions about 
career direction and developing job search 
plans. Career counselors are available to assist 
students with writing resumes and cover letters, 
preparing for job interviews, developing 
networking skills, connecting with alumni, 
targeting companies for employment, 
evaluating job offers, and other aspects of the 
career planning and job search process. Alumni 
are also able to access services at any stage of 
their careers, whether they are new graduates 
seeking their first positions, or seasoned 
professionals planning a career change. 

Special programs and services of Career 
Planning and Advising include job and graduate 
school fairs, workshops, an extensive on-campus 
recruiting program, an active off-campus 
resume referral network, special interest 
sessions on career choices and topics, transition 
issues, graduate school choices, and more. 



< 



Speciall)' trained student career-oiitreac h 
assistants offer programs and outreach efforts 
to clubs, organizations, residence hall groups, 
and others. 

Career Planning and Advising also maintains 
an excellent web site with information and 
links to a variety of career-related issues for all 
users at any stage in their career planning. 

DEPARTMENT OF SAFETY AND SECURITY 

The Department of Safet) and Securit) is 
responsible for law enforcement, security, 
and emergency response on the campus. The 
Department of Safet) and Security is guided by 
the strategic principles of service, protection, 
enforcement, continuous qualit)' improvement, 
constancy of purpose, and commimit}' service- 
oriented patrolling (CSOP). 

The department is under the leadership of 
the director who reports to the dean of the 
College. The department's associate director, 
who reports to the director, is responsible for 
coordinating the daily securitv' operations and 
activities of the department. The department 
is open and staffed 24 hours a day by eight 
security officers and four supervisors who 
patrol the campus and four communications 
specialists who staff the communications 
center. The department also has a large 
contingent of part-time security' officers who 
supplement patrol and communications center 
operations and work campus special events 
and details performing crowd and vehicular 
control activities as well as other pertinent 
security-related operations. 

To be successful in providing the highest 
degree of safety and security on the campus, it 
is important that community members follow 
good safety practices and understand that 
safety is the responsibility of all community 
members, not just those officially and formally 
charged with enforcing the laws, policies, and 
rules. This includes using the escort service, 
locking your valuables, and reporting 
suspicious/criminal activities. 

The Department of Safety and Security takes 
a leadership role in this area. This includes 
educational programs on campus safet)'. 



preventative patrols, incident investigation 
and reporting, fire safety and prevention, crime 
prevention, and community service-oriented 
patrolling. CSOP is a philosophical and 
organizational strateg)', which focuses on the 
following core principles: 

• Establishing positive and professional 
communit)' relationships; 

• Reducing campus crime and the fear of crime; 

• Developing and employing collaborative 
problem-solving strategies; 

• Enhancing the qualit)' of life at Gettysburg 
College; 

• Emplo)ing total qualit)' management (TQM), 
shared leadership, and an organizational 
learning philosophy \vithin the Department of 
Safet)' and Securit)'; and 

• Striving for continuous qualit) improvement 
of work processes for the benefit of the depart- 
ment's staff and the communit)' members they 
serve. 

CSOP also focuses on the fact that safety and 
security issues are everyone's concern and the 
best way to solve community problems is to 
interdependently work with the commimit)' in 
reaching collaborative resolutions. 

Safety and Security Officers receive training in 
security, law enforcement, and emergency care. 
Officers are required to be Pennsylvania 
certified emergency responders and to be 
certified in various self-defen.se techniques. The 
Department of Safet)' and Securit)' is located on 
the corner of North Washington, Stevens, and 
Mummasburg Streets. 



College Life 



An important element of the education at Gettysburg College is the opportunity to exchange ideas 
and share interests outside the classroom. When students live together in a residential setting, 
these opportunities are greatly enhanced, not only by daily contacts in living quarters and the 
dining center, but also by ready access to campus activities. After becoming accustomed to the rigorous 
demands of their academic schedules, most students decide to become involved in other aspects of campus 
life. With entertainment, mltund events, and a constant calendar of student activities available on 
campus, students can soon choose tofdl their time to whatever- extent they wish. 



The Office of the Dean of the College, an 
administrative division within the College, 
has as its central purpose the provision of an 
environment, programs, and services that 
enhance the students' education. The diverse 
interests and needs of Gettysburg College 
students are reflected in the wide-ranging and 
continuously evolving selection of activities. 

STUDENT CONDUCT 

Gettysburg College seeks to establish and 
maintain an environment that provides for the 
development of the young adult as a whole 
person with an emphasis on inquiry, integrity, 
and mutual respect. 

The College expects its students to conduct 
themselves in all places and at all times in such 
a manner as to show respect for order, morality, 
personal honor, and the rights of others as 
demanded of good citizens. The Gettysburg 
College communit) fosters respect for the 
rights and dignity' of all residents, including 
members of both majority and minority groups. 
Membership in the Gettysburg College 
community is a privilege that may be rescinded 
with cause. 

Believing that it is sensible and proper for all 
students to be fully aware of their obligations 
and opportunities as Gettysburg College students, 
the College publishes a statement entitled "The 
Student Judicial System." This document is the 
result of discussions and conclusions reached by 
the student-faculty-administradve committee. It 
deals with such questions as the academic, 
citizenship, and governance rights and 
responsibilities of students. It is published 
annually in both the electronic and printed 
versions of the Student Hmidhook. 



Before a student decides to apply for entrance 
into Gettysburg College, he or she should be 
aware of the rules governing student conduct. 
A complete copy of the rules and reguladons 
may be obtained by writing to the Dean of the 
College. 

THE HONOR CODE 

An academic honor system was insdtuted at 
Gettysburg College in 1957 and was strongly 
reaffirmed in 1976 and 1992. It is based upon 
the belief that undergraduates are mature 
enough to act honorably in academic matters 
without faculty surveillance and that they should 
be encouraged to conduct themselves accordingly. 
At the same dme the College clearly recognizes 
the obligadon placed upon each student to 
assist in maintaining the atmosphere required 
for an honor system to succeed. 

The Honor Pledge, reaffirmed on all academic 
work submitted, states that the student has 
neither given nor received unauthorized aid 
and that he or she has witnessed no such 
violation. The preservadon of the atmosphere 
of trust and freedom promoted by the Honor 
Code is the responsibility of the commimity as a 
whole. Students must comply widi the Honor 
Code both in presendng their own work and in 
repordng violations by others. Faculty will not 
evaluate students' academic work unless they 
have signed the Pledge. Students who would 
sign the Pledge with reservadon should not 
apply for admission. 

Alleged violadons of the Honor Code are 
handled by an Honor Commission elected by 
the students. 



> 



FIRST-YEAR RESIDENTIAL COLLEGE 

The Residential College Program offers students 
the opportunit)' to learn and work with other 
first-year students, facult)', peer tutors, and 
iipperclass student teaching associates on 
common educational interests and goals, and 
deliberately fosters connections that support 
first-year transition and learning. Academic 
courses are coordinated with housing in the 
rnst-year residence halls. The program provides 
a singular opportunity for students with similar 
interests to experience an especially powerful 
first-year educational program. 

Small coinse sections provide an opportunity 
for conversation and discussion, centered on 
course themes, for the development of ideas 
and for lively debate on issues raised, both in 
and outside the classroom. First- Year Seminars 
are designed to employ and develop a variet)' 
of learning skills. Although some are 
interdisciplinary, most are likely to provide a 
window on the approaches and methods of a 
particular discipline. English Composition 
courses develop the students' abilities to express 
themselves in clear, acciuate, and thoughtful 
English prose. 

Extending the classroom into residence halls 
provides a natural channel for combining 
formal teaching, informal learning, and 
jjersonal support, and promotes an atmosphere 
of mutual concern and active exchange of views. 
Seminar rooms are available in residential halls 
for seminar and study group meetings. This 
residential arrangement complements the 
academic curriculum and promotes an exciting 
living and learning environment. 

Special programming opportunities may 
include field trips, film series, guests from 
within and outside the college community, 
special meals, coffee breaks, library/electronic 
media workshops, academic advising/career 
|)lanning tips, and community .service projects. 
Some courses may choose to combine for joint 
meetings or special events. The Residence Life 
staff of each hall will provide opportimities for 
student residents to initiate anci develop other 
social and cocurriciilar programs. 

FIRST-YEAR EXPERIENCE 

The First-Year Experience (EYE) is a 
comprehensive program designed to assist first- 
year students with making the transition to the 
College community. The FYE program helps 



first-year students imderstand their 
responsibilities as members of our community 
and helps them begin to develop the skills and 
knowledge they will need to be successful at 
Gettysburg. Upperclass student orientation 
leaders serve as mentors to students, and 
specially trained resident assistants ad\ise first- 
year students in their residential communities. 

Components of the First- Year Experience 
include an intensive orientation program held 
when students arrive on campus in the fall; an 
extended set of activities regarding ongoing 
transition and sttident success issues held 
throughout the fall semester; and a Residential 
College Program, First- Year Seminars, special 
social programs for first-year students, and 
ongoing contact with first-year facult)' advisors. 

COLLEGE UNION 

The College Union is the community center of 
the college, serving students, facult)', staff, 
alumni, and guests. Through a myriad of 
services and activities, the Office of Student 
Activities supports many opportunities for 
students to become involved in planning and 
participating in student-initiated campus 
activities and campus traditions, as well as 
assisting students with the development of 
interpersonal and leadership skills. They 
provide support to students and the general 
campus community' in offering a well-balanced 
program of cultural, educational, recreational, 
and social activities. The College Union 
Information center is among the many services 
provided by the professional and student staff 

The Plank center is an informal gathering place 
for students tfj meet witli their student 
organizations. A games room with billiards and 
table tennis is located here. 

The Plank Center is also home to the Plank 
Fitness Room. Many pieces of cardiovascular and 
selectorized weight ec|iiipment are available to the 
Gettysburg College community. A full array of free 
weight dumbbells also complements this area. 

Hours of Operation 
College Union 
Monday-Friday 

8:00 a.m.-midnight 
Saturday 

9:00 a.m.-midnight 
Sunday 

noon— midnight 



The Junction 
Monday-Thursday 

8:00 a.m.-midnight 
Friday 

8:00 a.in.-2:00 a.m. 
Saturday 

9:00 a.m.-2:00 a.m. 
Sunday 

noon-midnight 

Pl.\nk Fitness Room 
Monday-Friday 

7:00 a.m.-l 1:00 p.m. 
Saturday 

noon-8:00 p.m. 
Sunday 

noon-ll:00 p.m. 

STUDENT GOVERNMENT 



Students participate in College governance by 
serving on various College, class, and faculty 
committees; as well as in the Student Senate, 
residence hall associations, and Greek organizations. 

Student Senate 

The Gettysburg College Student Senate works in 
cooperation with the trustees, administration, 
and faculty to bring to the campus communit) a 
well organized, democratic form of student 
government. It represents the student view in 
formulating policies, while working to promote 
cooperation among all constituencies of the 
College. 

The Student Senate is composed of four executive 
officers, twenty cla,ss .senators, residence hall 
senators, and many dedicated committee 
members. The standing committees of the 
Senate are Academic Policy, Budget Management, 
Public Relations, Student Concerns, Spirit, 
Safety and Security, and College Life Ad\isory. 
Students can also serve on various facult\' and 
trustee committees. 

Student Life Council 

The Student Life Council is an organization 
composed of members of the student body, 
faculty, and College administration. This Council 
has responsibilits' for studying matters and 
developing policies pertaining to student life 
and student conduct. Business may be brought 
to the Council or legislation proposed by any 
member of die College communit). Major issues 
are debated in Student Senate and in faculty 
meetings before resolution by the Council. The 
Council makes recommendations to the President, 



who accepts, rejects, or refers them to the Board 
of Trustees prior to implementation. 

Inter-Residence Association 
Since life outside the classroom is a vital part 
of a student's education, the Inter-Residence 
Association has been established to address 
related issues and concerns of Gett)'sburg 
College students. The Inter-Residence Association 
encourages leadership development, greater 
student involvement, recognition of student 
leaders, and growth through change in order 
to optimize the college environment. 

The Honor Commission 

The Honor Commission is a student organization 
authorized by the constitution of the Honor 
Code. The Commission is composed of sixteen 
students, aided by case investigators, eight 
faculty advisers, and four advisers from the 
College administration. Its function is to 
promote and enforce the Honor Code at 
Gettysburg College, to secure the cooperation ol 
students and faculty to these ends, and to 
adjudicate allegations of Honor Code violations. 

Interfralernity Council 

The Interfraternity Council (IFC)is responsible 
for governing fraternities at Gettysburg College. 
It is composed of an executive board, the 
president, and a representative from each social 
fiaternity. The Council formulates and administei s 
general regulatory policies by which fraternities 
must abide. 

Panhellenic Council 

Important responsibility for governing the 
sororit)' system at Gettysburg College is 
assumed by the Panhellenic Coimcil, to which 
each sorority elects a delegate. This Council 
establishes and enforces the Panhellenic "rush" 
regulations and functions as a policy-making 
body in matters invoking scjrorities and 
intersorority relations. 

Student Activities and Organizations 
The Plank Center serves as the primary locadon 
for the offices of many student organizations 
have offices — i.e.. Student Senate, Campus 
Activities Board, Black Student Union, 
Panhellenic and Interfraternit)' Council, GECO, 
Hillel, Circle K, International Club, Celtysburgiaii. 
Spectrum, and WZBT Radio) . The games area, 
student lounges, and meeting spaces are also 
available. 



< 



PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES 



The Office of Student Activities supports many 
opportunities for students to become involved 
in planning and participating in student- 
initiated campus activities and campus 
traditions, as well as assisting students with the 
development of interpersonal and leadership 
skills. They pro\ide support to students and the 
ii,eneral campus communitv in offering a well- 
balanced program of cultural, educational, 
1 ecreational, and social activities. 

Programs 

The Campus Activities Board is a collaboration 
of various independent, student, social 
programming organizations that imite with 
a piupose to pro\nde exceptional social 
programming for Gettysburg College. It 
promotes an active student voice aroimd social 
life issues and works in partnership with Student 
Senate and the Office of Student Activities to 
help enhance the social life of students. Some of 
the current groups that make up the Campus 
Activities Board are Concerts, Coffeehouse, 
Traditions, LFVE Bands and Dance Parties, 
Special Events, and Greeks. 

The Common Hour Progratn: A regularly scheduled 
time during the academic year when the campus 
commimity can come together for information, 
discussion, and reflection on issues of commimit) 
importance. 

Challenge Course: The Challenge Course — a 
unique structure of cables, pulleys, and ropes — 
is used to assist groups with development and 
cohesion. Course workshops enable groups to 
gain insight on leadership, followership, 
commimication and trust. 

CFL\B:T\\e Gettysburg Recreational Adventure 
Board (GRAB) offers outdoor-based activities 
to all members of the College communit)' to 
participate in hiking, backpacking, rock climbing, 
caving, and kayaking trips. The trips are 
facilitated by students and are designed for both 
the novice and the experienced participant. 

Leadership Development: Each year, leadership 
programs, e.g., BASE (Building an Active 
Student Environment), Sophomore Leadership 
Series, provide opportunities for student leaders 
to discuss common issues and to help prepare 
them to develop a more active role on campus. 



Student Organizations 

There are approximately 100 student organiza- 
tions on campus. They provide opportunities for 
students to pursue their special interests in 
campus clubs, special-interest organizations, 
Greek-affiliations, club sports, honorary 
societies, and professional or departmental 
affiliated associations. Many of the student 
organizations are recognized and funded by 
Student Senate, the student governing board. 
The Office of Student Activities/College Union 
registers all student organizations, maintains an 
updated list of student organizations, and 
proxides general support to them. 

Lectures 

Robert Fortenbaugh Memorial Lectures: An 
endowment provided by Clyde E. (Class of 
1913) and Sara A. Gerberich supports a series of 
lectures and other programs in the Department 
of History. 

Musselman Visiting Scietitist: A fund provided by 

the Musselman Foundation in honor of 

Dr. John B. Zinn, former chair of the chemistry 

department, supports an annual three-day visit 

by a renowned scientist to the chemistry 

department. 

Stuckenberg Lecture: A bequest from Mary G. 
Stuckenberg in memory of her husband, the 
Rev. J. H. W. Stuckenberg, enables the College 
to sponsor a lecture in the area of social ethics. 

Bell Lecture: A fund from the estate of the Rev. 
Peter G. Bell (Class of 1860) established a 
lectin eship on the claims of the gospel ministry 
on college men. The fimd strives "to keep 
before the students of the College the demand 
for men of the Christian ministry and the 
condidon of the age qualifying that demand." 

Norman E. Richardson Memorial Lectureship Fund: 
A fund established to commemorate the 
outstanding contributions made to the College 
by Norman E. Richardson, professor of 
philosophy, from 1945 to 1979, supports each 
year an event that stimulates reflection on inter- 
disciplinary studies, world civilization, the 
philosophy ol religion, values, and culture. 

Henry M. Scharf Lecture on Current Affairs: A fimd 
provided by Dr. F. William Sunderman (Class of 
1919) in memory of Henry M. Scharf, akminus 
and member of the College's Board of Trustees 



from 1969 to 1975, is used to bring a recognized 
authority or scholar to the campus each year to 
speak on a subject of timely interest. 

Performing Arts 

Performing Arts Committee: Each year recognized 
professional groups and indi\dduals present to 
the campus performances of dance and drama, 
as well as vocal and instrumental music. 

Choral Program: Includes six ensembles designed 
to meet the needs of singers with a wide variety 
of experience and expertise. Large and smaller 
ensembles include the Gettysburg College 
Choir, Concert Choir, Camerata, Women's 
Choir, World Music Ensemble, and Chapel 
Singers. .\n\^ Gett)'sburg College student may 
participate in the choral groups, and there 
are members from nearly e\ ery field of study. 
Academic credit can be earned for membership 
in the College Choir or Concert Choir. 

Bands:T\\e "Bullet" Marching Band begins its 
season with a band camp in preparation for 
performances at football games, festivals, and 
parades. At the conclusion of the marching 
band season, the College Symphonic Band 
begins its rehearsals. In addition to home 
concerts, there is an annual tour through 
Pennsylvania and neighboring states. 

Small Ensembles: A vital segment of the overall 
instrumental program. Clarinet choir, brass 
ensemble, jazz ensemble and others are open 
for membership to band members. 

Gettysburg College /Community Chamber Orchestra: 
Performs concerts throughout the academic 
year. Membership is open to all students who 
have the necessary proficiency. Auditions are 
held at the beginning of each school year. 

Sunderman Chamber Music Concerts: The 
Sunderman Chamber Music Foundation, 
established by Dr. F. William Sunderman (Class 
of 1919) to "stimulate and further the interest 
of chamber music at Gettysburg College," each 
year sponsors important campus performances 
by distinguished and internationally recognized 
chamber music groups. 

Chul & Nightingale Players: Each \'ear this 
distinguished group of performers stage three 
major productions under the leadership of the 
College's theatre faculty. The program is a 
varied, and all productions are offered in the 
handsome 245-seat Kline Theatre, which features 
a thrust stage. 



Laboratory Theatre: Lab Theatre produces a 
dozen one-act plays each year, many of which 
are new and some of which are the work of 
campus playwrights. 

Otherslage: Troupe performs short plays on 
campus and in the community. Their work 
encompasses lunchtime theatre, street theatre, 
and children's theatre. 

Artist-in-Residence: During the year, the College 
invites professional performing artists to the 
campus for one-month residencies. 

CAMPUS MEDIA 

Every community needs to keep its members in 
contact with each other and with the rest of the 
world. On the Gettysburg College campus, 
student communication media not only inform 
the members of the community, but also afford 
students an opportunity to express their ideas 
effectively and to learn the practical necessities 
of producing newspapers, radio broadcasts, 
magazines, and yearbooks. 

The Gettysburgian: The College newspaper is 
staffed completely by students who are responsible 
for editing, feature writing, news writing, layout, 
personnel management, subscription 
management, and circulation. 

The Mercury: Poems, short stories, and illustrations 
published in The Merctiry are contributed by 
students. 

l^he Spectrum: A pictorial essay of life on campus 
is featured in the College yearbook. Staffed by 
students, the yearbook offers the opportunit)' 
for creativity in design, layout, photography, and 
writing. 

VVZBT.The College radio station (91.1 megacycles) 
has been the voice of the campus for many 
years. WZBT operates as a noncommercial, 
educational FM radio station over the public 
airwaves and vmder FCC regulations. The 
station is student staffed and broadcasts a variet)' 
of programs from its fully-equipped studio. 

GREEK ORGANIZATIONS 

Greek organizations have a long and rich 
Uadition at Gettysburg College. The first national 
organization was formed for men on campus in 
1852. National sororities were first formed on 
campus in 19.S7. Ciurently, there are eleven 
social fraternities and four social sororities. 



< 



The fraternities, which have individual chapter 
houses owned by alumni corporations on or 
near campus, offer an alternative living option 
lo their members. The sororities do not have 
iiouses, but each has a chapter room in the Ice 
House Complex, which serves as a meeting and 
social place for the group. 

In addition to providing a social outlet for their 
members, Gettysburg College's fraternities and 
sororities serve the campus and commimit)' with 
philanthropic activities. The goals of the Greek 
system are to instill in its individual members 
the qualities of good citizenship, scholarship, 
service, and respect for oneself and others. 

In order to join a social Greek organization at 
Gettysburg College, a student must earn a 
minimtun of 5 credits at the College (excludes 
transfer and advance placement credits). Men 
must earn a minimum 2.0 grade point average. 
By vote of the Panhellenic Council women must 
earn a minimum 2.2 GPA. Effective with the fall 
semester 2003, the minimum required GPA for 
men will rise to 2.1, and increase to a 2.2 GPA 
minimiun in fall 2004. Some individual Greek 
organizations have higher minimiun grade 
requirements. In addition a student may not be 
on Conduct Probation at the dme of Formal 
Rush. 

RELIGIOUS SPIRITUAL LIFE 

We protect time and space for worship at 
Gettysburg College so that this community may 
integrate the deep resources of faith, wisdom, 
and reason with the ever-expanding knowledge 
gained in the classroom, laboratory, and life. 
Our mission is to assist this community of 
learning in exercising and contemplating life 
with God. 

Every Sunday morning (while classes are in 
session) we celebrate Holy Communion. As an 
institution of the Evangelical Lutheran Chinch 
in America (ELCA), we practice Eucharislic 
hospitality. Ecumenically, ELCA Lutherans have 
inter-communion agreements with the 
Presbyterians, United Church of Christ, 
Disciples of Christ, Church of the Brethren, 
Moravians, Methodists, Episcopal, and Anglican 
communions. All baptized Christians are 
welcome to receive Holy Communion at the 
1 1:00 a.m. Simdav morning worship. 



As a college affiliated with the ELCA, we cherish 
faith and freedom of enquiry. We welcome 
students of all beliefs and provide them 
opportunities to explore religious and spiritual 
issues as part of their formation in faith We do 
this with a spirit of openness, reason, and 
tolerance, while at the same time remaining 
faithful to the lived confessional practices, 
worship, and mission of the Lutheran 
confessions. 

Highlighted each spring is the celebration of 
Religious Emphasis Week. During this week we 
strive to involve the entire college community in 
dialogue aimed at knowledge of their own faith 
traditions and practice, as well as increased 
understanding, respect, and tolerance of other 
major world religions. A key component of this 
week has been an Interfaith Dialogue led by 
informed representatives of the world's major 
religions. 

Students exercise leadership in the campus 
community through the Interfaith Council. 
Comprised of at least one representative from 
each registered student religious group, this 
Council promotes religious freedom for all by 
advocating religious tolerance, understanding 
and respect. The Council assists in planning 
and programming Religious Emphasis Week 
and assists the Chaplain in monitoring and 
nurturing religious and spiritual life on campus. 

Students and members of the college 
community are invited to share leadership in 
worship services by serving as readers, assisting 
ministers, playing an instrtmient, or joining a 
choir. Active student religious groups currently 
include Canterbury, Hillel, Newman, Lutheran 
Student Movement, Fellowship of Christian 
Athletes, and Christian Fellowship. New student 
groups may be developed in accord with student 
interest and with the approval of the Chaplain. 

In addition to the Chaplain of the College, an 
ordained (ELCA) Evangelical Lutheian Church 
in America pastor, ministry is provided to the 
college through a Roman Catholic priest and a 
Catholic laNwoman Campus Minister. Quaker 
services are held every Sunday morning in 
Gladfeller Lodge. Hillel schedules Shabbat 
meals and Holy Day remembrances and is 
available to advise and counsel Jewish students. 



CENTER FOR PUBLIC SERVICE 



Men 



Women 



Coed 



The Center for Public Service promotes, 
organizes, and supports public and commimity 
service by members of the Gettysburg College 
commimity and seeks to develop in students the 
knowledge, skills, and commitment for a lifetime 
of engagement with social issues. Fifteen student 
coordinators administer the program. 

More than 1 ,000 members of the Gettysburg 
College comnumit)' participate in some form of 
community action sponsored by the Center. The 
Center maintains relations with more than 35 
local agencies. 

Each year the Center also organizes up to 15 
ser\ice learning immersion projects during 
winter and spring breaks. Recent trips have 
included two Native American sites, one with 
AIDS populations, one with the homeless, one 
with the African American commimity in the 
South, and one each in Jamaica, Mexico, 
Russia, and Nicaragua. 

ATHLETICS 

The College has an extensive program of 
intercollegiate and intramural athletics for men 
and women. It is possible for all students to 
participate in some supervised sport; for those 
with particular athletic skills and interests, a full 
array of varsity teams are available. Gettysburg 
College maintains membership in the National 
Collegiate Athletic Association, the Eastern 
Collegiate Athletic Conference, and the 
Centennial Conference, which includes Bryn 
Mawr College, Dickinson College, Franklin & 
Marshall College, Haverford College, Johns 
Hopkins University, Muhlenberg College, 
Swarthmore College, Ursinus College, 
Washington College, and Western Maryland 
College. 

Gettysburg College teams consistently win 
athletic contests at the conference, regional, 
and national levels. In 1998, the College 
finished 25th nationally in the Sears Cup 
standings and won the Centennial Conference 
all-sports trophy for the fifth year in a row. 

The intercollegiate program includes teams for 
men, teams for women, and one athletic team 
for which men and women are eligible. 
Gettysburg also has a varsit)' cheerleading squad, 
in which both men and women are eligible to 
participate. The various teams are: 



Fall Cross Country Cross Country Cheerleadint; 

Football Field Hockev 

Soccer Soccer 

Golf Volleyball 

Golf 



Winter 


Basketball 


Basketball 


Cheerleadin; 




Swimming 


Swimming 






Wrestling 


Indoor Track 






Indoor Track 






Spring 


Baseball 


Lacrosse 






Lacrosse 


Softball 






Tennis 


Tennis 






Track and 


Track and 






Field 


Field 






Golf 


Golf 





CAMPUS RECREATION 



The Office of Campus Recreation is dedicated 
to complementing the academic goals of 
Gett\'sburg College by providing a \ariety of 
recreational activities for all students, facult)', 
administrators, and staff. Programs include 
intramural sports, aerobics/fitness, sports clubs, 
and informal recreation. 

Intramiual sports include a wide range of team, 
individual, and dual sports. Team sports include 
Softball, flag football, basketball, floor hockey, 
indoor soccer, outdoor soccer, and volleyball. 
Special events include tennis, table tennis, golf, 
billiards, 4x4 volleyball, and 3-on-3 basketball. 
Fitness activities are the fastest growing portion 
of the campus recreation program. Aerobics 
classes held daily are designed to meet the 
needs of all students by offering high impact 
and low impact classes. Tone and stretch classes, 
aqua aerobics, and step aerobics are also 
offered. 

The sport club program is another growing 
segment of the campus recreation program. 
These clubs are designed so that anyone of any 
skill level may participate. Sport clubs currenth 
active on campus include tae kwon do, cuong 
nhu, men's voUevball, men and women's rugby, 
equestrian, and ice hockey. 

The campus recreation office provides time foi 
informal recreation. Activit)- areas include a 
swimming pool, basketball courts, tennis courts, 
weight room with NaiUiliis and free weights, a 
fitness room with stationary bikes, stairclimbers, 
treadmills, rowers and selecterized weight 
equipment, and a multipurpose area within the 
Bream/Wright/Hauser Athletic Complex for a 
varietv of recreational activities. 



Facilities 



Set amidst the southern Pennsylvania countryside, the Gettysburg campus is exceptionally beautiful. 
Many of the 60 buildings enjoy a rich history. Although most buildings have been restored to 
include advanced technology, their exteriors maintain their architecture charm and historical 
integtity. ♦ Gettysburg is a "walk-around" campus and while cars are permitted, they are not necessary. 
Yoii can easily get anywhere on campus or xoalk into town in minutes. 



In the center of Gettysburg College's campus is 
Musselman Library, housed in an architectural 
award-winning building consUucted in 1981. 
The library, which contains more than 303,000 
volumes, microforms, recordings, audiovisual 
media, archival materials, and selected 
government documents, is the hub of research 
activity on campus. A computerized library 
catalog is accessible through fully networked 
public access terminals, offering access to 
thousands of databases and full-text joiunal 
and newspaper articles online. Electronically 
delivered course reserve readings are available 
through the College's Curriculum Navigation 
network. The library is open 24-hours a day 
and reference librarians are on-hand to assist 
students with research papers and other 
assignments. Individual and group study spaces, 
a theatre, a media production center, an 
electronic classroom and computer laboratory 
are all located in the library. 

Gettysburg College has exceptional computing 
power. Every building is fully networked, 
including each residence hall room. This allows 
each student access to electronic mail, the 
Internet, and Gettysburg's sophisticated College 
Navigation System. Gettysburg's micro- 
environment includes over 1300 microcomputers 
and a complex system of Sun workstations and 
laboratories. Facilities in biology, chemistry, and 
physics include large departmental laboratories, 
microcomputer laboratories, student/facility 
research areas, and extensive departmental 
libraries. Students and faculty use outstanding 
instrumentation to enhance instruction and 
research on a daily basis. As a result, Gettysburg 
students enjoy "hand-on" use of advanced 
science equipment that most institutions reserve 
for graduate students. This includes a Zeiss EM 
109 transmission electron microscope (TEM), 
JOEL TS20 scanning elecuon microscope (SEM), 
a Fourier Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 
Spectrometer, a herbarium, a plasma physics 
laboratory, an optics laboratory, a planetarium, 
an observatory, the Child Study Center, and 
psychology laboratories equipped with 
observation desks. 



Student life facilities include a College Union 
Building, Student Activities Center, well- 
maintained and varied residence hall space, 
including theme houses, a center for public 
service, a women's center, the Intercultural 
Resource Center, a health center, the Chapel, 
Safety and Security office, a Career Planning 
and Advising office, and an Outdoor Challenge 
coiuse. 

For students with an interest in theatre, Brua 
Hall features the Kline Theatre, a 250-seat 
playhouse with a thrust stage and state-of-the-art 
sound and lighting; and the Stevens Laboratory 
Theatre, a studio/classroom with TV recording 
and monitoring equipment. 

Schmucker Hall supports the music and art 
departments with interactive lecture rooms, 
music practice rooms, the 196-seat Paul Recital 
Hall, art studios, a metals coating foundry, and 
the College's art gallery. 

An extensive program of intercollegiate and 
intramiual athletics encourages students of all 
abilities to extend their education to the playing 
field. Gettysburg views athletics and recreation 
as important components of a well-roimded 
undergraduate experience. 

The Bream-Wright-Hauser Athletic Complex 
and the Eddie Plank Student Activities Center 
house the College's impressive indoor sports 
facilities. These include four indoor tennis 
courts, an indoor track, a first-class weight room, 
a fitness room, state-of-the-art training 
equipment, and a 3,000-seat basketball, 
wrestling, and volleyball arena. A six-lane, 25- 
yard pool is located in the College Union 
Building. Outdoor facilities include a sand 
volleyball court, a 6,176-seat stadium for 
football, lacrosse, and track-and-field; 14 tennis 
courts; baseball and softball diamonds; and 
playing fields for soccer, lacrosse, and field 
hockey. A challenging cross-country course 
extends over the campus and diroughout the 
adjacent National Park. 



Academic Policies and Programs 



ACADEMIC PURPOSES OF GETTYSBURG COLLEGE 



Thefacully oJOettysburg College has adopted the following skUemeni of the College's academic 
purfmses. ♦ Gettysburg College believes that liberal education liberates the human mind from 
many of the constraints and limitations of its finiteness. In order to accomplish its liberating 
functioji, Cettysburg College believes that it owes its students a coherent airriculum that emphasizes the 
following elements: 



1 . Logical, precise thinl;ing and clear use of 
language, both spoken and written. These 
inseparable abilities are essential to all the 
liberal arts. They are not only the practical skills 
on which liberal education depends but also, in 
their fullest possible development, the liberating 
goals toward which liberal education is directed. 

2. Broad, diverse subject matter. The curriculum 
of the liberal arts college should acquaint 
students with the range and diversity of human 
customs, piusuits, ideas, values, and longings. 
This broad range of subject matter must be 
carefully planned to include emphasis on those 
landmarks of human achievement which have 
shaped the intellectual life of the present. 

3. Rigorous inuoduction to the assumptions 
and methods of a representative variet\' of the 
academic disciplines in the sciences, the social 
sciences, and the humanities. The curriculum 
must encourage students to recognize that the 
disciplines are traditions of systematic inquiry, 
each not only addressing itself to a particular 
area of subject matter but also embodying an 
explicit set of assumptions about the world and 
employing particular methods of investigadon. 
Students should recognize that the disciplines 
are best seen as sets of carefully constructed 
questions, continually interacting with each 
other, rather than as stable bodies of truth. 
The questions that most preoccupy academic 
disciplines involve interpretation and evaluation 
more often than fact. Students should learn that 
interpretation and evaluation are different from 
willful and arbitrary opinion while at the same 
time recognizing that interpretations and 
evaluations of the same body of facts may differ 
drastically gi\ en different assumpdons, metliods, 
and purposes for inquiry. Human thought is not 
often capable of reaching imiversal certitude. 

This necessary emphasis of the College's 
curriculum is liberating in that it frees students 
from narrow proxnncialism and allows them to 
experience the joys and benefits of conscious 
intellectual strength and creativit). 



Liberal education should free students from 
gross and unsophisticated blunders of thought. 
Once exposed to the diversit)' of realit) and 
the complexity and arduousness of disciplined 
modes of inquiry, students will be less likely 
than before to engage in rash generalization, 
dogmaUc assertion, and intolerant condemnation 
of the strange, the new, and the foreign. 
Students will tend to have a sense of human 
limitations, for no human mind can be a match 
for the world's immensit)'. Promoters of 
universal panaceas will be suspected as the gap 
between human professions and human 
performance becomes apparent. Students will 
tend less than before to enshrine the values and 
customs of their own day as necessarily the 
finest fruits of human progress or to lament 
the failings of their time as the world's most 
intolerable evils. 

But wise skepticism and a sense of himian 
fallibility are not the only liberating effects of 
the liberal arts. With effort and, in all likelihood, 
some pain, students master difficult skills and 
broad areas of knowledge. They acquire, 
perhaps with unexpected joy, new interests and 
orientations. In short, they experience change 
and growth. Perhaps this experience is the most 
basic way the liberal arts liberate: through 
pro\iding the experience of change and growth, 
they prepare students for lives of effective 
management of new situations and demands. 

The liberal arts provide a basis for creative work. 
Creati\it) is rarely if ever the work of a mind 
imfamiliar with past achievements. Instead, 
creativit)' is almost always the reformulation of, 
or conscious addition to, past achievement with 
which the creative mind is profoundly familiar. 
By encouraging students to become responsibly 
and articulately concerned with exisdng human 
achievement and existing means for extending 
and deepening hiunan awareness, Gettysburg 
College believes that it can best en.sure the 
persistence of creativity. 



The intellectual liberation made possible 
throtxgh liberal education, though immensely 
desirable, does not in itself guarantee the 
development of humane values and is therefore 
not the final purpose of a liberal education. If 
permitted to become an end in itself, it may 
indeed become destructive. A major 
responsibilit)' of those committed to liberal 
education, therefore, is to help students 
appreciate our common humanity in terms of 
such positive values as open-mindedness, 
personal responsibilit)', mutual respect, 
empathic understanding, aesthetic sensibility, 
and playfulness. Through the expanding and 
diverse intellectual activities offered in liberal 
education, students may develop greater 
freedom of choice among attitudes based on a 
fuller appreciation of our common humanity', 
and based on clearer recognition of oiu' 
immersion in avast, enigmatic enterprise. 

CREDIT SYSTEM 

The course unit is the basic measure of 
academic credit. For transfer of credit to other 
institutions, the College recommends equating 
one course unit with 3.5 semester hours. 
Because of the extra contact hours involved, 
some laboratory science courses earn 1.25 units 
of credit. These courses, identified with the 
symbol "LL" (Lecture/Lab) on the coiuse title 
line, equate to 4.0 semester hours. Half unit 
courses equate to 2.0 semester hours. The 
College offers a small nimiber of quarter course 
units in music and health & exercise sciences. 
Except for the quarter-unit courses in major 
music ensembles, these courses may not be 
accumulated to qualify as course units for 
graduation. Quarter course units equate to 1.0 
semester hour. 

Beginning with the fall 2000 semester, to insure 
that a full load under another credit system 
equates to a full load at Gettysburg College, the 
following conversion scheme applies to students 
presenting more than three transfer course 
credits for evaluation: 

Sem. Hrs. G'burg Units Qtr. Hrs. G'burg 



Units 








4 


1.15 


6 


1.15 


3 


.85 


5 


1.00 


2 


.50 


4 


.75 






3 


.50 



REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE 

The College confers three undergraduate 
degrees: Bachelor of .^its (BA), Bachelor of 
Science (BS), and Bachelor of Science in Music 
Education (BSME). The general graduation 
requirements are the same for all degree programs: 

1) 35 course units in some combination of 
1.25, 1.00, or .50-unit courses, or vip to four .25- 
unit credits in music ensemble. The 35 course 
unit requirement must include a minimum of 
32 full-unit courses. For this purpose, transfer 
courses equivalent to .75 or .85 units count as 
full-unit courses. 

2) One quarter-unit course in Health and 
Exercise Sciences. 

Please note: This quarter-unit course does not count 
toiuard the 35 course unit graduation requirement. 

3) Minimiun accimiulative GPA of 2.00 and a 
GPA of 2.00 in the major field 

4) Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

See the listing at the beginning of the Courses of 
Study section far the specific courses that fulfill the 
Liberal Arts Core. Any requirement may be satisfied, 
with or mthout course credit, by students who can 
qualify for exemption. fSff Exemption from Degree 
Requirements.) 

The Liberal Arts Core is comprised of courses 
which the faculty has deemed central to a liberal 
educadon. The Core consists of courses in each 
of four academic divisions — arts, humanities, 
social sciences, and natural sciences — and 
courses that enable students to strive for greater 
proficiency in writing, quantitative reasoning, 
and foreign language. 

The Liberal Aits Core prepares students in two 
complementary ways. By taking courses in each 
division, students encoimter the perspectives 
and modes of inquiry and analysis that 
characterize academic disciplines. Because a 
liberally educated person should be able to 
reason and communicate effectively, students 
must successfully complete courses in writing, 
quantitative reasoning, and foreign language. 
Together, the Gettysburg College core courses 
provide the solid foundation of a liberal 
education. 



Goals of the Liberal Ails Core are met in the 
following way: 

• The Arts: One course in the Division of Arts. 

• Humanities: Three courses in the Division of 
Humanities. 

• Natural Science: Two courses in the Division 
of Natmal Sciences. 

• Social Sciences: Two courses in the Division of 
Social Sciences. 

• Foreign Language: Attainment of competency 
through the intermediate level (equivalent of 
202). 

• Quantitative Reasoning: One course with 
major emphasis on mathematical problem- 
solving and the presentation and interpretation 
of quantitative information. 

• English Composition: One coiu.se, to be taken 
in the first year of enrollment. 

• Non-Western Culture: One comse with 
primary emphasis on African, Asian, or non- 
European American cultures. This may be one 
that also fulfills one of the other Liberal Arts 
Core requirements. 

5) Concentration requirement in a major 
field of study 

(See Major Requirements following this section.) 

6) Minimum of the last year of academic work as 
a full-dme student in residence at Gettysburg 
College or in an approved College program 

7) Discharge of all financial obligations to the 
College 

No course used to obtain a bachelor's degree 
may be counted toward the requirements for a 
Gettysburg College degree. 

Each student is responsible for being sine that 
graduation requirements are fulfilled by the 
anticipated date of graduation. The College 
normally requires students to complete degree 
requirements in effect at the time of their 
original enrollment and the major requirements 
in effect at the time that students declare the 
major at the end of the first year or during the 
sophomore year. 



Writing Policy: Since the ability to express oneself 
clearly, correctly, and responsibly is essential for an 
educated person, the College cannot graduate a 
student whose uniting abilities are deficient. 
Instructors may reduce grades on poorly written 
papers, regardless of the course, and in extreme cases, 
may assign a fni ling grade for this reason. 

MAJOR REQUIREMENTS 

Each student must successfully complete the 
requirements in a major field of study. Most 
majors consist of eight to twelve courses and 
may include specific courses from one or more 
departments and/or programs. No more than 
twelve courses may be required from a single 
subject area, with the exception of the B.S.M.E. 
degree. (Requirements of the various majors 
are listed in the department and program 
introductions in the Courses of .Study section.) 

The following are major fields of study at 
Gettysburg College: 

Bachelor of Arts: 

.\rl History 

Art Studio 

Biolog)' 

Chemistry 

Classical Studies 

Computer Science 

Economics 

English 

Environmental Studies 

French 

German 

Greek 

Health and Exercise Sciences 

History 

Latin 

Management 

Mathematics 

Music 

Philosophy 

Physics 

Political Science 

Psychology 

Religion 

Sociology 

Anthropology/Sociolog)' 

Spanish 

Spanish and Latin American Studies 

Theater Arts 

Women's Studies 



Bachelor of Science: 

Biology 

Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 

Chemistry 

Physics 

Bachelor of Science in Music Education: 

Music Education 

A student must file a declaration of major with 
the Registrar before registering for the junior 
year. A student may declare a second major as 
late as the beginning of the senior year. 

Optional Minor: Students may declare a minor 
concentration in an academic department or 
area that has an established minor program. 
Not all departments offer minor programs. A 
minor shall consist of six courses, no more than 
two of which shall be 100-level courses. Because 
of the language required, an exception to the 
two 100-level course limitation may occur in 
Classical Studies. Students must maintain a 2.00 
average in the minor field of study. Although a 
certain number of courses constitute a minor 
field of study, all courses in the minor field will 
be considered in determining the minor average. 

SPECIAL MAJOR 

As an alternative to the major fields of study, 
students may declare a special major by 
designing an interdisciplinary concentration 
of courses focusing on particular problems 
or areas of investigation which, though not 
adequately included within a single department 
or discipline, are worthy of concentrated study. 

Students intending to pursue a special major 
must submit a proposal for their individual plan 
of study to the Committee on Interdisciplinary 
Studies. The proposed program must be an 
integrated plan of study that incorporates 
coiu'se work from a minimum of two 
departments or fields. A special major nuist 
include a total of ten to twelve courses, no fewer 
than eight of which must be above the 100-level; 
three or more courses at the 300-level or above; 
and a 400-level individualized study course 
which is normally taken during the senior year. 
Individualized study allows students to pursue 
independent work in their areas of interest as 
defined by the proposal and should result in a 
senior thesis demonstrating the interrelationships 
among the fields comprising the special major. 



After consulting witli and obtaining an application 
from the interdisciplinary studies chairperson 
and meeting several times with two prospective 
sponsors/advisers, students should submit their 
proposals during the sophomore year. The latest 
students may submit a proposal is October 15 of 
their junior year. It is often possible to build into 
a special major a significant component of off- 
campus study. 

Normally, to be accepted as a special major, a 
student should have a 2.3 overall GPA. Students 
should be aware that a special major program 
may require some departmental methods or 
theory ccjiuses particular to each of the fields 
within the program. 

A student may graduate with honors from the 
special major program. Honors designation 
requires a 3.5 GPA in the special major, the 
recommendation of the student's sponsors, the 
satisfactory completion of an interdisciplinary 
individualized study, and die public presentation 
of its results in some academic forum. 

ACADEMIC ADVISING 

The Office of Academic Ad\ising, located on 
the second floor of the College Union, offers 
support in many areas of academic life. Working 
in conjunction with the individual student's 
advisor, associate deans assist students in making 
educational plans and solving academic 
problems. In addition, the first-year student 
faculty advising program is coordinated by this 
office. Deans' Lists, academic deficiencies, 
withdrawals and readmissions, and petitions to 
the Academic Standing Committee are processed 
by this office. Peer tutoring and learning 
disabilities counseling are also available here. 

The College believes that one of the most 
valuable services it can render to its students 
is careful advising. Each first-year student is 
assigned a facult)' advisor to assist in dealing 
with academic questions, in explaining college 
regulations, in setting goals, and in making the 
transition from secondary school to college as 
smooth as po.ssible. Faculty advisers are assigned 
a small number of first-year students (usually 
six) , so that they can develop strong one-on-one 
relationships with their advisees. 



Sopliomores may continue their advising 
relationship with their first-year advisors, or they 
may select another faculty member in a field of 
study they anticipate as their major. Wlien 
students choose a major field of study, which 
must be done no later than the beginning of the 
Junior year, a member of the major department 
becomes their advisor and performs functions 
similar to those of die first-year achdsor, including 
the approval of all course schedules. 

Students may confer at any time with their 
adNdsor, an associate dean of Academic Advising, 
Career Planning and Advising, or faculty 
members as they consider their options for a 
major or special fellowship opportimities during 
or after college, weigh their career objectives, 
choose graduate or professional schools, or 
search for employment after graduation. 

POLICY ON ACCOMMODATION OF 
PHYSICAL AND LEARNING DISABILITIES 

Gettysburg College provides equal opportimities 
to students with disabilities admitted through 
the regular admissions process. The College 
promotes self-disclosure and self-advocacy for 
students with disabilities. Students seeking 
accommodation should contact the Office of 
Academic Advising. 

For students with physical disabilities, the 
College provides accessibility within its facilities 
and programs and will, within the spirit of 
reasonable accommodation, adapt or modify 
those facilities and programs to meet individual 
needs. 

For students with learning disabilities, the 
College accommodates on a case-by-case basis, 
provided the accommodation requested is 
consistent with the data contained in 
docimientation that meets the College's 
standards and is reviewed by the College's own 
consultant. Reasonable accommodation for 
students with learning disabilities may involve 
some ciuricular modifications without 
substantially altering course content or waiving 
requirements essential to the academic program. 
Some examples of reasonable accommodation 
are: 

a) extended time on exams and assignments; 

b) use of auxiliary equipment (tape recorders, 
lap top computers, calculators); 



c) modified examination formats and/or oral 
examination. 

An associate dean of Academic Advising will 
assist students with disabilities with their 
requests for accommodation. 

INDIVIDUALIZED STUDY AND SEMINARS 

There are opportimities in most departments 
for students to engage in seminars and 
individualized tiuorials, research or internships. 
These opportunities are primarily for seniors, 
but other students frequently are eligible. In 
some departments participation in this type of 
activity is part of the required program of study; 
in others it is optional. Most of these courses are 
numbered in the 400s under Courses of Study. 

STUDENT ORIGINATED STUDIES (SOS) 

SOS courses are student initiated and run courses, 
with students having the primary responsibility 
for the content, readings, assignments, and 
conduct of the course. A faculty member assists 
in the development of the proposal, advises the 
students throughout the semester, attends 
course meetings as appropriate, and assigns the 
final grade. Each SOS course provides a half 
course unit of credit toward the 35-course 
graduation requirement and is graded S/U. 

SENIOR SCHOLARS' SEMINAR 

The College offers a unique and valuable 
opportunity for its outstanding senior students. 
Senior Scholars' Seminar, composed of selected 
seniors, undertakes a study of a contemporary 
issue that affects the future of humanit)'. The 
issues are always timely and often controversial. 
Past topics have included genetic engineering, 
conflict resolution, global disparities, computer 
and human communication, aging and the 
aged, dissent and nonconformity, the concept of 
the hero, the media and presidential campaigns, 
creative leadership in groups, the impact of 
television on conscience and consciousness, 
immigration in America, and the Holocaust. 

Authorities of national stature are invited to 
serve as resoiuce persons for the Senior Scholars' 
Seminar. Experts who have visited past .seminars 
include John Simimu, Colin Powell, David 



p 



Broder, Stuarl Udall, Da\id Freeman, Thomas 
Szasz, Daniel EUsberg, Jonathan Schell, Daniel 
Bell, James Gould, and Elie Wiesel. Student 
participants in the seminar present a final 
report based on their findings and 
recommendations. 

The issues explored in the seminar are always 
interdisciplinary in scope, and the students 
selected for this seminar represent a \vide variety 
of majors. The seminar is team-taught by two 
professors of different departments. 

Earl) in tlie second term of the junior year, 
qualified students are invited to apply for 
admission to the course. After the members of 
the class have been selected through a process 
of interviews, they begin to plan the course with 
two facults' directors and become active 
jjarticipants in the entire academic process. 
The Senior Scholars' Seminar is assigned one 
course credit. 

ACADEMIC INTERNSHIPS 

Through the Center for Internships and 
Prelaw/Premed Advising, students at Gett)'sbiug 
College have the opportunity to participate in 
several internships during their four years of 
study. All students who wish to participate in an 
internship should register with the Internship 
Office, which is the repository for all internship 
information on campus. The Internship Office 
maintains information on thousands of 
internship sites located in both the U.S. and 
abroad. The Internship Office staff will also 
assist students in looking for an internship site 
clo.se to a student's home. Internships taken for 
academic credit are carefully designed to 
provide a program with a substantial academic 
component, as well as practical value. These 
internships are generally advised by a faculty 
member within a student's major field of study. 
Academic credit is awarded by the appropriate 
department once the student completes the 
requirements of the department. Internships 
provide students with a valuable opportimit)' to 
apph academic theory to the daily task of 
business, nonprofit, and government settings. 



This experience also helps students identif)' 
career interests and gain valuable work 
experience. Students are encouraged to begin 
the process of finding an internship early in 
their sophomore year. 

THE CIVIL WAR INSTITUTE 

The Civil War Institute provides opportunities 
for students to assist programs under the 
direction of Gabor Boritt, Fluhrer Professor of 
Civil War Studies. Activities range from an 
internationally known summer session 
coinciding with the anniversary of the Battle of 
Gettysburg, to sponsoring battlefield toius, 
visiting lecturers (from PBS's Ken Burns and 
Princeton's James McPherson to Nobel 
Laureate Robert Fogel and bestselling novelist 
Jeff Shaara) , dramadc and musical 
performances (the opera The Death of Lincoln) , 
film (Gettysburg, the director's cut before public 
release), and exhibits ("Free at Last: The 
Abolition of Slavery in America") . The CWI 
cosponsors the commemoration of the 
anniversary of the Gett) sburg Address, with 
speakers such as Justice Sandra Day O'Connor 
and Colin Powell. It oversees the annual 
$100,000 Lincoln Prizes, supported by Richard 
Gilder and Lewis Lehrman and awarded for the 
best books, Web site, CD-ROM, or D\T) on the 
history of the Civil War era. Oxford University 
Press publishes the CWI lectures, four of which 
have been selections of the History Book Club 
and three of the Book-of-the-Month Club. 
Students assist in creating these books that are 
used in Civil War classes at colleges and 
universities all over the United States. The CWI 
offers scholarships to high school juniors and 
high school teachers for its summer program. 

THE GETTYSBURG REVIEW 

The Gettysburg Review, published by Gettysburg 
College and edited by English Professor Peter 
Stitt, is a quarterly journal with a strong national 
following. Among its advisory and contributing 
editors are author and huinorist Garrison 
Keillor; poets Richard Wilbur, Donald Hall and 



Rita Dove; and novelist Ann Beattie. The 
Geltyslmrg Review has received many 
distinguished awards, inchiding regular 
reprinting of some of its materials in Harper's 
magazine and in the anthologies Best American 
Fiction, Best American Poetry, and Best American 
Essays. In 1993, Stitt was selected as the first 
winner of the prestigious Nora Magid Award 
from the international organization PEN 
(Poets, Essayists, and Novelists). Students serve 
the journal in a number of ways through 
internships, work-study, and volunteerism. 

OFF-CAMPUS STUDY 

If you are thinking about making off-campus 
studies a part of your education, you will be 
joining almost 300 of your peers who study off 
campus each year (46% of the class of 200 1 ) . 
Gettysburg College considers off-campus study 
to be a vital part of its academic programs. 

Students study off campus for many different 
reasons. Wliether you want to learn a new 
language, improve your skills in a language you 
have been studying, make your resume stand 
out from the crowd, or to add a special facet to 
your degree, you will find that off-campus 
studies gives you these advantages — and many 
more. 

Office of Off-Campus Studies 

The Office of Off-Campus Studies, located in 
the College Union Building, is the main source 
of information abotU off-campus program 
opportimities. The office houses an extensive 
Resoiuxe Library, where students can find 
informational brochures on various programs. 
The director of off-campus studies and the rest 
of the office staff can assist students in making a 
personalized off-campus study plan. 

Students work with their academic advisors to 
preappro\e the academic program prior to 
departure from Gettysburg. Financial Aid 
recipients will also find that the Office of 
Financial Aid is knowledgeable about off- 
campus studies and is willing to advise students 
abotU financial questions. 

Finally, all students participate in a mandatory 
Pre-Departure OrientaUon, where they receive 
literature to help prepare them for their 
overseas experience. 



Off-Campus Programs 

Gettysburg College offers Study Abroad 
Programs all over the world, as well as Domestic 
Programs within the United States. Some 
programs are Integrated Programs, where 
students study with students from the host 
country. Others are Group Programs, which are 
specially designed for Gettysbiug students. ^\11 
programs offer students the opportunity to take 
a variety of courses, which can be used toward 
the Gettysburg degree. Some programs offer 
Field Experience or Internships. 

Gettysburg College Affiliated Programs: Gett\'sburg 
currently sponsors more than 20 Affiliated 
Programs, chosen by the College to meet the 
special needs of its students. Most of these 
programs are sponsored by an academic 
department, and in some cases, the programs 
are actually led by a Gettysbiug College faculty 
member. Students participating in Affiliated 
Programs earn credit toward their major, minor, 
or Liberal Arts Core requirements. Students are 
billed Gettysburg's regular comprehensive fee, 
so families can continue with their regular 
pa)'ment schedule. Gettysburg pays for tuition, 
room, full board, and in some cases airfare for 
the off-campus program. In addition, students 
can continue to use financial aid that they 
receive to pay for the off-campus program. This 
means that federal aid, state aid, and Gettysburg 
institutional grants and loans continue to be 
given, just as if you were on campus. 

Gettysburg College Suggested Programs: There are 
over 150 Suggested Programs available, chosen 
to offer Gettysburg students the most diverse 
program sites possible. These programs differ 
from Affiliated Programs in that students earn 
credit only, and pay all program costs directly to 
the sponsoring program. Gettysburg students 
can continue to use federal financial aid to pay 
for the Suggested Program. Gettvsburg 
institutional grants and loans cannot be used, 
however. Once the student retiuns to 
Gettysburg College, these grants and loans will 
be reinstated. 

Gettysburg College Summer Programs 

Gettysbiug offers a number of summer off- 
campus programs for students who prefer a 
short- term experience. Affiliated study-abroad 
programs include month-long programs in 
Zimbabwe and Indonesia, and a domestic 



► 



cMivironmental studies program in Maine. Other 
;\ffiliated Programs include opportunities in 
Greece. Mexico, and Spain. 

Off-Campus Studies Policies 

C.ett)sburg College is pleased to offer the 
Ei.senhower/Hilton Scholarship for Study 
Abroad in the amount of $10,000. This 
scholarship is awarded to one outstanding 
Gettysburg junior or senior each year. 

Students can study off campus during their 
junior year or in the first semester of senior year. 
There are also some special programs for first- 
semester sophomores. 

Students with special needs are encouraged to 
discuss their off-campus studies plans with the 
director of off-campus studies. Many programs 
can accommodate students with special learning 
needs or physical needs. 

.\11 students must have a minimum 2.0 
ciumilative grade point average and be in good 
disciplinary standing in order to apply for off- 
campus studies. Accepted students must 
maintain their good standing in order to 
participate. Permission to study off campus 
will be rescinded for any student placed on 
probation for an academic or social reason 
jjrior to departing for off-campus studies. 

Gettysburg College Affiliated Programs 

(ieltysburg iu Argcul/iia: This academic year or 
semester program allows students to enroll 
directly in Argentine uni\ersities in Buenos 
.\ires or Mendoza. Students who have 
completed Spanish 202 are eligible to apply. 
All students live in a homestay where they take 
their meals. 

Gettysburg in Australia: This academic year or 
semester program allows students to enroll 
directly in one of four Australian imiversities: 
James Cook University, the University of 
Melbourne, the University of Queensland, and 
the University of Wollongong. Students usually 
live in shared rooms in residence halls. 

Gettysburg in Denmark through Denmark s 
International Studies Program: This fall or spring 
semester program in Copenhagen offers 
students the opportunity to take courses in 
their major (most majors available), or in a 
wide variety of Liberal Arts Core and elective 
subjects that focus on Scandinavian and 
European issues. All courses are taught in 
English. Students live in a homestay and take 
their meals with their host family. 



Gettysburg in England: Advanced Studies: This 
semester program is based in Bath, England, 
and offers students the opportunity to take 
courses that use England "as the classroom." 
One-week academic trips to Oxford and 
Stratford-upon-Avon and shorter visits to 
important historic sites complement the 
curriculum. All students live in apartments 
in Bath with other program participants. 

Gettysburg in England: London and Lancaster 
University: This fall semester or academic year 
interdisciplinary studies program begins with 
a fom-week seminar in London taught by a 
Gettysburg facult) member. (Students may 
choose to attend a seminar in Lancaster instead 
of the London option.) After the seminar, all 
students enroll at Lancaster University, where 
they study subjects of their choice for the fall 
term or academic year. Lancaster University is a 
top-ranked Bridsh University, and many faculty 
members are recognized internationally in their 
fields. Students attending the London seminar 
are housed in shared rooms in a student hotel 
in central London. At Lancaster, students live in 
single-study bedrooms in residence halls. 

Gettysburg Student Teaching Program in London, 
England: This fall or spring program is available 
for students with a minor in Education 
(elementary or secondary). It includes a half- 
semester of classes at Gettysbiug College and 
student teaching in a Gettysburg-area school, 
followed by a half-semester (7 weeks) of student 
teaching in London, England. A variety of 
schools are used for placement in London: 
private schools, public schools, city schools, 
and suburban schools. Students live in shared 
apartments in London city center, and prepare 
their own meals. 

Gettysburg in Aix-en-Provence, Erance: This 
semester program at Le Centre d'Aix is 
designed for students who wish to complete 
the Gett)sbiug College requirement in 
language; it also serves students who wish to 
pursue a minor in French. The Institute of 
American Universities (L\U) sponsors the 
program, which is located in Aix-en-Provence 
near the Mediterranean coast. All students live 
in a homestay that is arranged by lAU. In the 
intermediate program (fall only), students fulfill 
the French 201-202 language requirement. In 
the advanced program (fall or spring), students 
take classes towards their French minor. 



Gettysburg in Avignon, France: This semester or 
academic year program at Le Centre d'Avignon 
is designed to meet the needs of French majors. 
The Institute of American Universities (lAU) 
sponsors this program located in Avignon. All 
students live in a homestay that is arranged by 
LAU. Students take five courses — one required 
language course and four elective courses. All 
courses are conducted in French. 

Gettysburg in Cologne, Germany: This fall semester 
group program in Cologne offers the 
opportunity for students from any major to 
improve their German language abilities and to 
take a variet)' of humanities and social science 
courses in English. All students live in a 
homestay and take meals with their family. 
Students take up to three courses in German 
language, literature, and culture, and up to 
three courses in English from the areas of 
political science, history, and art history. 

Gettysburg in Heidelberg, Germany: This academic 
year or semester program, sponsored by 
Heidelberg College, allows students to enroll 
directly in Heidelberg University. Students who 
have completed German 202 are eligible to 
apply. All students live in a dormitory or 
apartment with German students. 

Gettysburg in Greece: Th\fi academic year or 
semester program through College Year in 
Athens offers students in any major the 
opportimit)' to take courses in humanities and 
social sciences focusing on Greece and the East 
Mediterranean world. Students live in shared 
rooms in apartments in the Kolonaki 
neighborhood. Students choose either the 
Ancient Greek Civilization track or the East 
Mediterranean Area Studies track. Both tracks 
offer courses in the humanities and social 
sciences, as well as modern Greek language at 
all levels. 

Getlysbuig in Hungary: This fall or spring 
semester program offers juniors and seniors 
majoring in Mathematics or Computer Science 
the opportunity to take courses in their major 
taught by renowned Himgarian scholars in 
Budapest. Students live in shared rooms in 
apartments or in a homestay with a Hungarian 
family. 

Gettysburg in Italy through Syracuse University: This 
fall semester program is specifically designed to 
give students in studio art and art history a 
li\ing classroom — historic, beautiful Florence. 



Students primarily take coiuses in the arts, but 
other coiuses in the humanities and social 
sciences are available as well. Students live in a 
homestay and take most meals with their host 
family. All students take Italian language courses 
and three or four other courses in the arts, 
humanities or social sciences. 

Gettysburg in Italy through Duke University: This 
academic year or semester program at the 
Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies 
(ICCS) in Rome, sponsored by Duke University, 
is designed for Latin or Greek majors, and other 
students interested in classical antiquit)'. 
Students live in the ICCS Center in shared 
rooms and take their meals there. Students take 
courses in Roman Archaeology/History, Latin 
Language and Literature, Art History, Greek 
Language and Italian Language. 

Gettysburg in Japan: This semester or academic 
year program at Kansai Gaidai Universit)' offers 
students in all majors the opportunity to take 
Japanese language and a variety of other courses 
taught in English. Kansai Gaidai University is 
located between Osaka and Kyoto. Students can 
choose to live in a homestay or in a residence 
hall. .\11 students take one or two Japanese 
language coiuses and two or three additional 
courses in English. Japanese language is taught 
at all levels, including beginning courses for 
studepts with no prior language study. 

Gettysburg in Mexico thnnigh Augsburg College: 
Students can choose between Augsburg's fall 
semester program. Crossing Borders: Gender 
and Social Change in Mesoamerica, and their 
spring program. Gender & the Environment: 
Latin American Perspectives, both based in 
Cuernavaca, Mexico. Students live in shared 
rooms in a house where they take their meals. 
Students also spend three weeks living with a 
local family in C^iernavaca or in a nearby village. 
Students in both the fall and spring semester 
take a set four-course program, which includes 
intensive Spanish language studv'. 

Gettysburg in Cuernavaca, Mexico (Intermediate 
Program): This fall semester program in 
Cuernavaca is specifically designed for students 
who have completed Spanish 101-102 (or 
103-104) and enables them to complete 
intermediate level Spanish (201-202) in one 
semester. A Gettysburg College professor of 
Spanish accompanies the group and teaches two 
of the courses. All students live in a homestay 
where thev lake their meals. All students take a 



set four-course program, which includes two 
Spanish Language classes, literature, and 
Mexican civilization. Offered dining odd- 
numbered years. 

Gettysburg in Guadalajara, Mexico: This academic- 
year or semester program in Guadalajara offers 
students who have completed Spanish 301 the 
opportunity to take a variety of humanities and 
social science courses taught in Spanish at the 
Foreign Student Study Center of the University 
of Guadalajara. All students live in a homestay 
where they take their meals. 

Gettysburg in Spain (Advanced Program): This 
academic year or semester program in Seville 
offers students who have completed Spanish 301 
the chance to take a variety of himianities and 
social science courses taught in Spanish. The 
lUS Center, where the program is based, is 
located in the city center. All students live in a 
homestay where they take their meals. Courses 
are available in language, literature, 
conversation, grammar, history, civilization, 
economics, politics, and other humanities and 
social sciences. 

Gettysburg in Spain (Intermediate Program): This 
fall semester program is specifically designed for 
students who have completed Spanish 101-102 
(or 103-104) and enables them to complete 
intermediate level Spanish (201-202) in one 
semester. A Gettvsbiug College professor of 
Spanish accompanies the group and teaches two 
of the courses. Also located at the lUS Center in 
Seville, this program is popular with Gettysburg 
students. All students live in a homestay where 
they take their meals. All students take a set 
four-course program, which includes two 
Spanish language classes, literature, and 
Spanish civilization. Offered during even- 
numbered years. 

Gettysburg in Washington, D.C. through Lutheran 
College Washington Consortium: Students earn a 
full semester of academic credit by participating 
in an internship in Washington (four davs per 
week), two academic courses, communitv' 
service projects, and program excursions in 
virtually any field of study. Students live in fully 
furnished condominiums located across the 
Potomac River from Washington — a two-minute 
ride on the metro system into the city center. 
Internships are available in virtually any field. A 
varietv' of interdisciplinary courses are offered, 
from which students choose nvo. 



Gettyslnirgin Washington, D.C. through American 
University: Students earn a full semester of 
academic credit by participating in an 
internship in Washington, (two days per week) 
and two academic courses in virtually any field 
of study. All students live in a double room on 
the Tenley campus of American Universitv', and 
take their meals at the Tenley cafeteria. All 
students take a seminar associated with their 
program (2 coiuse units), and an internship 
(1 course unit). Most students write a research 
paper associated \^ith their internship (1 course 
unit). Some students opt to take a night course 
at American Universit)- in lieu of the research 
paper (1 course unit). 

Gettysburg at the United Nations through Drew 
University: This program offers students the 
opportunity to learn about the UN by being 
there. Students spend Tuesdays and Thursdays 
in New York attending presentations. In 
addition, students take two elective courses at 
the Drew campus in Madison, New Jersey, and 
have the option of doing an internship as well. 
All students live in Drew Universitv' residence 
halls, and take meals on the Drew campus. 
Students take two required courses (PolSci 170: 
The United Nations System and the 
International Commimit}', and PolSci 172: 
Research Seminar on the United Nations), plus 
two electives from Drew's regular course 
offerings. 

Gettysburg at the Marine Biological Laboratory in 
Woods Hole Massachusetts: This Semester in 
Environmental Science program at the Marine 
Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, 
Massachusetts emphasizes inquiry-based 
learning through student participation in 
laboratory and research projects. Woods Hole is 
located on Cape Cod, near Falmouth. All 
students live at the MBL in shared rooms. 
Students take their meals at the MBL restaurant. 
All students take a Terrestrial Core Lectine and 
Lab (1 course unit), an Aquatic Core Lecture 
and Lab (1 course unit), an elective course (.75 
course unit), a Science Writers Seminar (.25 
course unit), and an independent research 
project (1 course unit). 

Gettysburg at Duke Marine Laboratoty: This fall or 
spring semester program allows students to 
study and conduct research at the Marine 
Laboratory, which is a campus of Duke 
University (near Beaufort) that focuses on the 



marine sciences, coastal environmental 
management, and marine bio-medicine. 
Students can also participate in the spring 
semester program, which spends one half of the 
semester at the Marine Laboratory and the 
other half at the Bermuda Biological Station for 
Research in Ferry Reach, Bermuda. Students 
live in shared rooms in a residence hall at the 
Marine Laboratory, and take their meals at the 
dining hall. 

Gettysburg College Suggested Programs 

Gettysburg College students have also 
participated in many programs in Austria, 
Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, 
Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, 
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, E,g\pt, Ghana," 
Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, 
Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, Morocco, Namibia, 
Nepal, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Poland, 
Scotland, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, 
Tanzania, Thailand, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wales, 
and Zimbabwe. 

Other Off-Campus Opportunities 

Consorlium Exchange Program: This program is 
enriched by the College's membership in the 
Central Pennsylvania Consortiimi (CPC), 
consisting of Dickinson, Franklin and Marshall, 
and Gettysburg Colleges. The Consortiimi 
provides opportunities for exchanges by 
students and faculty, and for off-campus study. 
Students may take a single course or enroll at a 
Consortium College for a semester, or a full 
year. A course taken at any Consortium College 
is considered as in-residence credit. Interested 
students should consult the registrar. 

Lutheran Theological Seminary Exchange: 
Gettysburg College students are eligible to take 
up to four courses at the Lutheran Theological 
Seminary, also located in Gettysburg. The 
Seminary offers coursework in biblical studies, 
historical theological studies, and studies in 
ministry. Interested students should consult 
the registrar. 

Wilson College Exchange: Gettysburg College offers 
an exchange opportunity' with Wilson College, an 
area college for women, with course offerings that 
supplement Gettysburg's offerings in communi- 
cations, women's studies, dance, and other 
creative arts. Students may take a single course 
or enroll as a guest student for a semester or a 
full year. 



SPECIAL INTEREST PROGRAMS 

Students may petidon the Academic Standing 
Committee for permission to take courses at 
another college, universit}' or study site that 
offers a program in a special interest area not 
fully developed at Gett^'sbiug College. Examples 
of special interest areas are urban studies, Asian 
studies, studio arts, and African American 
studies. Interested students should consult the 
Office of the Registrar. 

DUAL-DEGREE PROGRAMS 

For all of our Dual-Degree programs, once 
Gett)'sburg students apply for and are accepted 
to an affiliated universitv', they become students 
of that universit)'. Students who qualif}' for 
financial aid at Gettvsburg College are not 
guaranteed a similar financial aid package at 
our affiliated universities. Financial aid at the 
affiliated university must be applied for directly 
through that university. All other services will 
also be provided by that university. 

Engineering 

This program is offered jointly with Columbia 
University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 
(RPI), and Washington University in St. Louis. 
Students spend either three or four years at 
Gettysburg College, followed by two years at 
one of these institutions. Upon successful 
completion of the program, the student is 
awarded the bachelor of arts degree from 
Gettysburg and the bachelor of science degree 
in an engineering discipline from one of the 
three affiliated universities. American students 
who qualify for financial aid at Gettysburg 
College will usually be eligible for similar 
aid at the engineering affiliate universities. 
International students who qualify' for aid at 
Gettysburg are not guaranteed financial aid, 
although it is sometimes available. 

Candidates for this program have an ad\iser in 
the physics department. Normally, a student 
will be recommended to Columbia, RPI, or 
Washington University during the fall semester 
of the junior year. Students must have a 
minimum of a 3.0 grade point average in 
order to be recommended, except for students 
interested in electrical engineering, who are 
required to have a 3.3 a\'erage for 
recommendation. 



The specific courses required lor admission by 
each affiliated institution vary and students 
should schedule courses in close cooperation 
with the Engineering Adviser at Gettysburg. All 
dual-degree engineering students must take 
Physics 111, 112; Mathematics 111, 112; 
Chemistry HI, 112; and Computer Science 104. 
All dual-degree engineering students must 
complete the Gettysburg College distribution 
requirements while at Gettysbiug. 

Nursing 

The College has a five-year program luider 
which students spend three years at Gett\sburg 
and two at Johns Hopkins Universit)' School of 
Nursing in Baltimore. At the end of the fourth 
vear of study, students complete requirements 
for a B.A. degree from Gettysburg College; at 
the end of the fifth year, students receive a 
B.S.N, degree from Johns Hopkins Universit)'. 
Students interested in this program should 
contact the Coordinator of Advising for Medicine 
and the Allied Health Professions. 

Optometry 

Pennsylvania College of Optometry (PCO) and 
the State University of New York (SUNY) 
College of Optometry offer admission into the 
program leading to the Doctor of Optometry to 
students from Gettvsburg at the end of the 
junior year, provided that all prerequisites are 
met. At the conclusion of the first year at PCO 
or SUNY, students receive the baccalaureate 
degree from Gettysburg College and, after seven 
years of imdergraduate and professional study, 
the Doctor of Optometry from the Pennsylvania 
College of Optometry or the State University of 
New York College of Optometry. Students who 
qualify for early admission to one of these 
programs will be recommended by the Medicine 
and Allied Health Professions Committee at 
Gett)'sburg College and will be required to 
interview at the Pennsylvania College of 
Optometry or the State University of New York 
College of Optometry during the spring term of 
the jimior year. 

Forestry and Environmental Studies 

In addition to its own Department of 
Enviroimiental Studies, the College offers a 
dual-degree program with Duke University 
leading to graduate study in natural resources 
and the environment. Students earn a bachelor's 
and master's degree in five years, spending 



three years at Gettysburg College and two years 
at Duke University's School of the Environment. 
Students must fulfill all distribution 
requirements by the end of the jimior year. 
The first year's work at Duke will complete the 
undergraduate degree requirements and the 
B.A. will be awarded by Gettysburg College at 
the end of the first year at Duke. Duke will 
award the professional degree of master of 
forestry or master of environmental 
management to qualified candidates at the 
end of the second year. 

Candidates for the program should indicate to 
the Admissions Office that they wish to apply for 
the forestry and environmental studies 
curriculum and plan their three-year course 
schedule with their advisor. During the first 
semester of the junior year at Gettysburg 
College, the student must notify the 
Environmental Studies chairperson and file with 
the Registrar a petition for off-campus study 
during the senior year. All applicants are urged 
to take the verbal and quantitative aptitude tests 
of the Graduate Record Examination in 
October or December of their junior year. The 
student should apply to Duke's School of the 
Environment and upon acceptance send the 
Environmental Studies department a written 
request for permission to substitute the Duke 
courses for the student's remaining 
requirements. 

The major program emphases at Duke are 

1 ) ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry; 

2) resource ecology; 3) water and air resources; 
and 4) resource economics and policy. 
Programs, however, can be tailored with other 
individual emphases. An imdergraduate major 
in one of the natural or social sciences, 
management, or preengineering is good 
preparation for the programs at Duke, but 
students with other undergraduate 
concentrations will be considered for admission. 
All students contemplating this cooperadve 
program should take at least one year of courses 
in each of the following: biology, mathematics 
(including calculus), economics, statistics, and 
computer .science. In addition, organic chemistry 
is a prerequisite for the ecotoxicology program 
and ecology fcjr the resource ecology program. 
Please note that this is a competitive program 
and students are expected to have good 
quantitadve analysis and writing skills. 



Students begin the program at Duke in late 
August and must complete a total of 48 units, 
including a master's degree project, which 
generally takes four semesters. 

Some students may prefer to complete the 
bachelor's degree before undertaking graduate 
study at Duke. The master's degree requirements 
for these students are the same as those for 
students entering after the junior year. All credit 
reductions are determined individually and 
consider both the student's educational 
background and objectives. 

PREPROFESSIONAL STUDIES 

Prelaw Preparation 

Students planning a career in law should 
develop the abilit)' to think logically, analyze 
critically, and to express verbal and written ideas 
clearly. In addition, the prospective law student 
needs a wide range of critical imderstanding of 
human institutions. These qualities are not 
found exclusively in any one field of study. They 
can be developed in a broad variety of academic 
majors. It should be noted that a strong academic 
record is required for admission to law school. 

Students are encoiuaged to contact the College 
Prelaw advisor, Professor Kenneth Mott, and to 
visit the Internship and Prelaw Center located 
on the second floor of Penn Hall. The Center 
maintains a library of resources, including LSAT 
and prep course materials, compiuerized 
programs, videos, and law school catalogues. 
Further, the College maintains a Prelaw Web 
Page with much halpful information and links 
to additional resources. A brochure that 
describes prelaw preparation at Gettysburg 
College is also available in the Center and in the 
Office of Admissions. Students interested in 
planning a career in law are encoiuaged to 
obtain a copy of this brochure and to take 
advantage of the materials and advising process. 

Preparation for Health Professions 

The Gettysburg College curriculiun provides 
the opportunit)', within a liberal arts framework, 
for students to complete the requirements for 
admission to professional schools of medicine, 
dentistry, and veterinary medicine, as well as 
several allied health schools. Students 
considering a career in one of these fields are 
advised to schedule their courses carefully, not 
only to meet the admission requirements for the 



professional schools, but also to provide for 
other career options in the event that their 
original choices are altered. The following 
courses will meet the minimal entrance 
requirements for most medical, dental, or 
veterinary schools: Biology 111 (or 101), 112; 
Chemistry 107, 108; Chemistry 203, 204; Physics 
103, 104 (or 111, 112). Most schools require or 
strongly recommend coiuses in mathematics 
(calculus, statisucs, and/or compiUer science) 
and English (composition and literature), but 
few specify course sequences. Since completion 
of these courses will also give the student 
minimum preparation for taking the national 
admissions examinations for entrance to medical, 
dental, or veterinary school, it is essendal to 
have completed or be enrolled in these courses 
by the spring of the year when the tests are 
taken. While most students who seek 
recommendation for admission to health 
professions schools major in biology, chemistry, 
or biochemistry and molecular biology, the 
requirements can be met by majors in most 
other subjects with careful planning of a 
student's program. Students are encouraged to 
choose solid electives in the humanities and 
social sciences and to plan their programs in 
considtation with their major advisers or a 
member of the Medicine and .\llied Health 
Profe.ssions Committee. 

Recommendations for admission to health 
profession schools are made by the Medicine 
and Allied Health Professions Committee. For 
students planning to enter medical school 
immediately after graduation from college, this 
occurs in the spring of the junior year. Students 
seeking admission to these professional schools 
must also take one of the following national 
admissions examinations: MCAT (medical), 
DAT (dental), \TVL\T or GRE (veterinary) or 
OAT (optometry). The Medicine and the Allied 
Health Professions is composed of five facult)' 
members with the Coordinator of Advising for 
Medicine and the Allied Health professions 
acting as chairperson. Admission to medical 
school is very cc^mpetitive and is based on 
several criteria: cumulative grade point average, 
scores on standardized tests, demonstrated 
leadership skills, evidence of a willingness to 
help others, work cm- volunteer experience in a 
medical setting, the letter of recommendation 
from the committee, and an interview at the 
medical school. 



If a student chooses not to attend medical 
school immediate!)' after college or is not 
accepted to medical school on first try, it is not 
uncommon to apply successfully a few years 
after graduadon. These intervening years must, 
however, be spent in meaningful activity — ^work 
in a hospital, additional course work, or the 
Peace Corps, for example — in order to retain or 
improve one's competidve standing. 

MCP Hahnemann University's Graduate School 
of Physical Therapy offers early acceptance to 
students from Gett)'sburg College who meet the 
criteria for admission into the doctoral degree 
program. Students may major in any 
department, although a major in biolog)' or 
health and exercise sciences is most common. 
Regardless of major, eight science courses in 
three different departments (biology, chemistry 
and physics) , two courses in psycholog)', one 
course in stadstics and five courses in the 
hiunanities and social sciences are required. 
Also required are a miniminn ciunulative grade 
point average, a minimum score on the 
Graduate Record Exam, and significant work or 
volunteer experience in physical therapy. 
Students who are eligible for early admission to 
the program will be recommended by the Pre- 
Health Professions Committee at Gett)'sburg 
College and are required to interNiew at MCP 
Hahnemann Universit)' prior to acceptance. 

Gett)'sburg College also has Cooperative 
Programs in Nursing with the Johns Hopkins 
Universit)' and in Optometry with Penns)'lvania 
College of Optomeuy and the Slate Universit)' 
of New York College of Optometry. 

The Medicine and Allied Health Professions 
Committee holds periodic meedngs to explain 
requirements for admission to health 
professions schools, to bring representatives of 
these schools to campus to talk to students, and 
to explore issues of interest to the medical 
professions. In the office of the Coordinator of 
Advising for Medicine and the Allied Health 
Professions is a collecdon of materials about the 
health professions. It includes information 
about admissions requirements, guidebooks on 
preparing for national admissions examinadons, 
catalogues from many health professions 



schools, and reference materials on fields such 
as medicine, dentistry, veterinary science, 
optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, physical therapy, 
public health, and health care administradon. 

Teacher Education Programs 

Gett)sbiug College has education programs in 
secondary school subjects, elementary 
education, music education, and health and 
physical education. All are competency based 
and have received accreditadon from the 
Pennsylvania Department of Education. (See 
Education i/«rf«//ic Courses of Studies listings.) 
The education department also maintains a 
Teacher Placement Bureau to assist seniors and 
graduates in seciuing positions and to aid 
school officials in locating qualified teachers. 

Employment prospects in teaching continue to 
be good, and the projected annual demand for 
hiring of all teachers is expected to rise. 
According to the National Center for Educadon 
Statistics, the number of secondary school 
teachers is projected to increase at a greater rate 
than the number of elementary teachers. 
Between 1997 and 2007, an increase of 5% is 
projected at the elementary level, while an 
increase of 14% is projected at the secondary 
level, a rise from 1.2 million to 1.4 million 
teachers. Of the repordng Class of 2000 
cerdfied Gett)'sbiu"g College graduates who 
sought teaching positions in elementary 
educadon, 100% were teaching or in educadon- 
related occupadons during the following 
academic year. Of the reporting certified 
secondary education graduates, 90% were so 
employed. The reported average salary for those 
cerdfied through the program at Gett)'sburg 
College was $29,000. 

Praxis scores for Gettysburg College's teacher 
education program completers for the 
1999-2000 academic year were as follows: 

Basic skills: 100% pass rate. 

Principles of Learning and Teaching: 97% pass rate. 

Sulked Matter Specialty Areas: 97% pass rate. 

Gettysburg College was ranked in the first 
quartile of all teacher preparation programs in 
Pennsvlvania. 



Academic Regulations 



REGISTRATION 



Students must be registered officially for a course in order to earn academic credit. The reffstrar 
announces the time and place of formal registration. By formally co7npleting registration, the 
student pledges to abide by College regulations. ♦ Students may also enroll in a course for credit 
during the first twelve days after the beginning of the semester. Students may not enroll in a course afier 
the twelve-day enrollment period. 



Many departments establish limits to class 
enrollments in particular courses to insure the 
greatest opportimity for students to interact 
with their instructors and other students. As a 
result, students cannot be assured of enrollment 
in all of their first choice courses within a given 
semester. 

The College may withdraw a student from classes 
and withhold transcripts and diplomas for 
failiue to pay college charges. The College may 
denv fiUme enrollments for a student with a 
delinquent accoimt. 

THE GRADING SYSTEM 

Courses are normally graded A through F, with 
these grades having the following significance: 
A (excellent); B (good); C (fair); D (poor); and 
F (failing) . Instructors may modif)' their letter 
grades with plus and minus signs. 

In successfully completing a course under this 
grading system, a student earns a number of 
quality points according to the follovving scale. 



A+ 


4.33 


C 


2 


A 


4 


C- 


1.67 


A- 


3.67 


D+ 


1.33 


B+ 


3.33 


D 


I 


B 


3 


D- 


0.67 


B- 


2.67 


F 





C+ 


2.33 







A student's accumulative average is computed 
by siunming his or her qualit)' points and 
dividing by the niunber of course units taken. 
The average is rounded to the second decimal 
place. 

The College reserves the right to make changes 
and adjustments in the grading system even 
after a student enrolls. 

Ttie College offers a satisfactory /unsatisfactory grading 
option. This option is intended to encourage 
students to be adventurous intellectually in 



courses with subject matter or approaches 
substantially different from their prior academic 
experience or attainment. An S signifies 
satisfactory work, and is given if a student 
performs at the C- level or higher; a U signifies 
unsatisfactory work, and is given for work below 
the C- level. Courses graded S/U do not affect a 
student's qualit\' point average, but 
a course completed with an S grade will count 
toward the total number of courses needed for 
graduation. A student may elect to take a total 
of six courses on an S/U basis during his or her 
four years at Gettysburg College; however, no 
more than two S/U courses may be taken in 
any one year. This grading option may not be 
selected for Liberal Aits Core requirements for 
graduation, or for courses taken in a student's 
major field. Exceptions may be made with 
regard to the major in cases where a department 
specifies that a particular course is available 
under the S/U grading system only, and in cases 
where the student declares the major after 
taking the course. A student must choose the 
S/U grading option during the first tvvelve class 
days of the semester. 

The basic skill courses in health and exercise 
sciences (all of which are graded S/U) shall not 
count in determining the maximum number of 
S/U courses a student may take. Students who 
enroll in Education 476: Student Teaching may 
take an additional course under the S/U option 
during the senior year, provided that their total 
number of S/U courses does not exceed six. 

Wlien a student registers for and completes a course 
luhich he or she has already taken at Gettystmrg 
College, both the credit and the grade previously earned 
are canceled, but they are not removed from the 
permanent record. The credit and grade earned in 
repeating the course are counted toward the 
student's requirements. 

A grade ofinc (Incomplete) is issued through the 
Academic Advising Office when emergency 
situations, such as illness, prevent a sttident 
from completing the course requirements on 
time. The missing work must be completed by 



n 

> 



the end of the add/drop deadline of the 
semester following the one in which the 
incomplete was incurred. 

A student who withdraws officially from a course 
after the twelve-day add/drop period, but within 
the first eleven weeks of the term, receives a W 
(witlidrew) grade. If a student withdraws from a 
course during the last five weeks of the semester, 
he or she will receive an F (failure) in the 
course. A student who withdraws officially for 
medical reasons receives a W regardless of the 
time of withdrawal. The W grade is not used in 
computing averages. 

ACADEMIC LEVEL 

A student's academic level or class year is 
determined on the basis of the number of units 
completed for the degree according to the 
following listing: 



Class Year 


Unit Range 


First Year 


0-5 


Sophomore 


6-14 


Junior 


15-24 


Senior 


25-35 


TRANSFER CREDIT 





After enrolling at Gettysburg College, students 
may use a maximum ol three course credits 
toward the degree for work taken at other 
colleges if such courses have first been approved 
by the registrar. Course credit, but not the 
grade, transfers to Gettysburg College if the 
grade earned is a C- or better. This transfer 
option is not available to those who receive three 
or more transfer course credits at the time of 
admission or readmission to the College. 

This course credit limitation does not apply to 
Central Pennsylvania Consortium courses or 
off-campus study programs approved by the 
Academic Standing Committee. 

EXEMPTION FROM DEGREE REQUIREMENTS 

The College may recognize work on the college- 
level completed elsewhere by a student. This 
recognition may take the form of exemption 
from degree requirements and may carry 
academic credit. Students should present their 
requests for exemption to the registrar. They 
should be prepared to demonstrate their 
competence on the basis of their academic 
record. Advanced Placement Examination 
results of the College Board, or examinations 
administered by the department concerned. 



Decisions on exemption and credit rest with 
the department and the registrar. 

Students may satisfy the foreign language 
requirement in a language not regularly offered 
at Gett\sburg College by demonstrating 
achievement at the intermediate-level through 
transfer credit, by examination, through 
independent study with a Gettysburg College 
facidty member, or through an approved 
exchange program with the Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium. International student.s who have 
learned English as a second language may satisfy 
the requirement with their primary language. 

ACADEMIC STANDING 

Students are expected to maintain an academic 
record that will enable them to complete the 
requirements for graduation in the normal 
eight semesters. To be in good academic 
standing a student must have at least a 2.00 
accumulative average, a 2.00 average for the 
semester, a 2.00 average in the major field of 
study by the end of the junior year and during 
the senior year, and be making appropriate 
progress in acquiring the credits and 
completing the various requirements for 
graduation. Students who do not meet these 
standards will be given a warning, placed on 
academic probation, placed on suspension alert, 
or be suspended or permanently dismissed 
from the College. 

The student who falls below the following 
minimum standard is considered to be making 
unsatisfactory progress and is either placed on 
suspension alert, suspended, or permanently 
dismissed. For first-year students — 1.50 GPA and 
six courses completed; for sophomores — 1.80 
GPA and fifteen courses completed; for 
juniors — 1.90 GPA and twenty-five courses 
completed. First-year students may be 
suspended after one semester if their GPA is 1.0 
or below. 

In addition to these minimum standards, a 
student on probation must show significant 
improvement during the following semester in 
order to remain at the College. Normally, a 
student may not remain at the College with 
three consecutive semester averages below 2.00. 

Students receiving some forms of financial aid 
must maintain minimum progress toward 
achieving a degree in order to remain eligible 
for such aid. (See the Financial Aid section of 
this catalogue for a more complete discussion of 
appropriate progress.) 



Students on academic probation or siispenson 
alert are permitted to participate in extra- 
curricular activities at the College. Students in 
academic difficulty, however, are reminded that 
their first priorit)' is the academic program and 
that they must therefore give careful considera- 
tion to time commitments and responsibilities 
associated with extracurricular activities. 
Students on academic probation or suspension 
alert are urged to consult with their faculty 
advisors and the deans of Academic Advising 
about curricular and extracurricular choices. 

RESIDENCE REQUIREMENTS AND 
SCHEDULE LIMITATIONS 

The normal program consists of nine courses 
per year, with five courses in one semester and 
four in the other. (Thus, a student will complete 
graduation requirements in four years of full- 
time academic work in the September-through- 
May academic year.) The last full year of 
academic work must be in residence at 
Gettysburg College or in an approved College 
program. Unless given approval, students may 
not complete requirements as part-time 
students during their last semester of residence. 

Students proposing to complete graduation 
reqiurements in less than four full years must 
ha\ e their programs approved by the Academic 
.Standing Committee through the Office of the 
Registrar. Such approval should be sought at 
least a year before the proposed completion of 
requirements. 

A full-time student for academic purposes is one 
carrying a minimum of three courses dining a 
semester. No student who is a candidate for a 
degree may take fewer courses than this without 
permission of the Academic Standing 
Committee. 

Students may not enroll in the eqiuvalent of six 
or more full unit courses per semester without 
tiie approN'al of the Academic Standing Committee. 
In granting approval to take six courses, the 
Committee requires evidence that the student is 
in good academic standing and will be able to 
perform at an above average academic level 
during the semester of heavy enrollment. For 
the piupose of determining an extra course 
load, 1 .25 unit courses coimt only as a full 
course. 



A reqiured course in health and exercise 
sciences, generally taken during the first year, is 
in addition to the full course load. This course 
does not coimt toward the 35-course graduation 
requirement. 

Majors and minors in music and majors in 
health and exercise sciences must take quarter 
courses, in addition to the normal course load. 
Other students may take quarter courses in 
applied music, with the approval of the music 
department at an additional charge. 

A student may audit informally any College 
comse with the permis.sion of the instructor. No 
charge will be made for such an audit and no 
record of auditing will appear on the student's 
transcript. 

The College offers a limited opportimity for 
students to register for and complete a course of 
study during the summer. Primarily these are 
individualized study or internship courses and 
are arranged through academic departments. 

TRANSCRIPTS 

The College supports students in their 
candidacy for graduate or professional school 
admission or in their search for appropriate 
emplo)Tnent by providing a responsive transcript 
service. Requests for transcripts must include 
the student's written signature and should be 
directed to the Office of the Registrar. This 
office prepares transcripts twice a week. There 
is no charge for this service unless special 
handling is required. The College reserves the 
right to deny a student's request for a transcript 
when there is a debt or obligation owed to the 
College or when there is an unresolved 
disciplinary or honor code action pending 
against the student. 

WITHDRAWAL, LEAVE OF ABSENCE, AND 
READMISSION 

Students may withdraw from the College for 
medical or personal reasons if they anticipate an 
absence of more than one semester. Students 
who withdraw voluntarily should arrange for an 
exit interview with a member of the Office of 
Academic Advising prior to leaving the College. 



► 



Students who wish to take a semester off for 
medical or personal reasons may request a one- 
semester Leave of Absence. A Leave of Absence 
for personal reasons must be approved by the 
Academic Standing Committee. Students shotild 
contact the Office of Academic Advising for 
information and applicaUon forms. 

A student whose physical or mental health is too 
impaired to complete all courses diuing a 
semester may seek a medical withdrawal from 
some courses and finish the semester with less 
than a regular full load, may take a full 
withdrawal from the College, or may be granted 
a Leave of Absence. The director of Academic 
Advising oversees these requests, and students 
should confer with a dean in the Office of 
Academic Advising in developing them. 
Students whose requests for medical withdrawal 
or leave are approved will be granted grades of 
"W" for courses from which they are 
withdrawing. 

All requests for medical withdrawal or leave 
require the recommendation of the College's 
Health or Counseling care providers. In 
addition, before a student who has been 
granted a partial or full medical withdrawal or 
leave returns to full-time study, the College's 
health care providers must be satisfied, through 
communication with the student's attending 
physician, psychiatrist, or therapist, that the 
student is ready to resume a full academic 
program by the designated time for return. If, 
based on medical considerations, there is reason 
to limit a student's course load or physical 
activity, a recommendation for such should be 
noted in the communications to the College's 
health care providers from the student's 
attending physician, psychiatrist, or 
psychologist. A personal interview with a 
member of the College's health care providers 
may also be required. 

Students who have been granted a Leave of 
Absence should notify the Office of Academic 
Advising of their desire to return by November 
1 for the spring semester and by June 1 for the 
fall semester. 



Conditions for applying for readmission after 
withdrawal are set out in the letter sent to 
students establishing their withdrawal. 
Statements of these conditions, as well as forms 
for those seeking readmission, are available 
from the Office of Academic Advising. 
Normally, application and all supporting 
materials should be submitted to the Office of 
Academic Advising for review by the Academic 
Standing Committee by November 1 for the 
spring semester and by June 1 for the fall 
semester. 

Required Withdrawal for Academic or 
Disciplinary Reasons 

Students who are suspended for academic 
reasons normally are not eligible to return until 
one academic year has elapsed. Students who 
are suspended for disciplinary reasons are 
eligible to apply for readmission at the end of 
the time period specified in the suspension. 
The conditions for appl)ing for readmission 
after suspension are set out in the letter sent to 
the student establishing the required 
suspension. Statements of these conditions, as 
well as forms for those seeking readmission, are 
available from the Office of Academic Advising. 
Applications should ordinarily be submitted by 
April 15 for the fall semester or by November 15 
for the spring semester. Students who have been 
suspended from the College for academic 
reasons for a second time are not eligible for 
readmission. 

Financial Aid Upon Readmission 

Students who have withdrawn, have been 
suspended, or have taken a Leave of Absence 
and who desire Financial Aid upon their return 
must complete all financial aid applications by 
the normal financial aid deadlines. 

Academic Status Upon Return or Readmission 

Students who withdraw or take a Leave of 
Absence will return to the College with the same 
academic standing status as when they left — 
except those who have been suspended for 
academic reasons, who will return on academic 
probation. 



Academic Achievement 



GRADUATION HONORS AND COMMENCEMENT 



T 



he College awards thefolbiving honors to members of the graduating class. These senior honors 
are intended for students urith four years of residence at Gettysburg College; grade point average 
computations are based on four years' performance. 



• Valedictorian — to the senior witli tlie highest 
accumulative average. 

• Salutatorian — to the senior with the second 
highest accumulative average. 

• Summa Cum Laude — to those seniors who 
have an accumulative average of 3.75 or higher. 

• Magna Cum Latide — to those seniors who 
have an accumulative average of 3.50 through 
3.74. 

• CiuTi Latide — to those seniors who have an 
accumulative average of 3.30 through 3.49. 

The Academic Standing Committee may grant 
the above honors to students with transfer 
credit if they have satisfied the conditions of the 
honor during at least two years in residence at 
Gettysburg College and have presented excellent 
transfer grades. To arrive at a decision, the 
Committee will factor in all grades earned at 
other institutions and during off-campus study 
programs. 

In addition to the above, departments may 
award Departmental Honors for graduating 
seniors based upon their academic performance 
in a major field of study. Departmental Honors 
are awarded to transfer students on the same 
terms as to other students, as computation for 
this award is not necessarily based on four years 
in residence at Gettysburg College. 

Pardcipation in the May Commencement 
exercises shall be limited to those students who 
have completed all graduation requirements by 
that Commencement ceremony. 

DEANS' LISTS 

The names of those students who attain an 
average of 3.600 or higher for the semester are 
placed on the Deans' Honor List in recognition 
of their academic achievements. Also, those 
students who attain an average from 3.30 to 3.59 
are placed on the Deans' Commendation List. 
To be eligible for these honors, students must 
take a full course load of at least four courses. 



with no more than one coinse taken under the 
S/U grading option during that semester 
(except for students taking the Education Term 
or participating in the Lutheran College 
Washington Semester program, who may take 
two units S/U). First-year students who attain an 
average of 3.00 to 3.29 are placed on a First-Year 
Recognition List for commendable academic 
performance in their first or second semester. 

PHI BETA KAPPA 

Phi Beta Kappa, fotmded in 1776, is the oldest 
Greek-letter society in America and exists to 
promote liberal learning, to recognize academic 
excellence, and to support and encourage 
scholars in their work. The Gettysburg College 
chapter was chartered in 1923 and is today one 
of 255 Phi Beta Kappa chapters in American 
colleges and universities, twenty of which are in 
Pennsylvania. The Gettysburg College chapter 
elects to membership about five to ten percent 
of the senior class who have distinguished 
academic records and exhibit high moral 
character and intellectual curiosity. Election to 
Phi Beta Kappa is perhaps the most widely 
recognized academic distinction in American 
higher education. 

ALPHA LAMBDA DELTA 

Alpha Lambda Delta is a national society that 
honors academic excellence during a student's 
first year in college. It has 214 chapters 
throughotit the nation. The purposes of Alpha 
Lambda Delta are to encourage superior 
academic achievement among students in their 
first year in college, to promote intelligent li\ing 
and a continued high standard of learning, and 
to assist women and men in recognizing and 
developing meaningful goals for their roles in 
society. Alpha Lambda Delta membership is 
open to Gettysburg College students who attain 
a grade point average of 3.50 or higher during 
their first year. 



► 



OTHER ACADEMIC HONORARY SOCIETIES 

The College promotes excellence in the 
academic program by supporting the following 
honorary societies for students with outstanding 
academic records in a particular major or area 
of study. 

Alpha Kappa Delta: International sociology 
honor society, open to majors who have taken at 
least four courses in the department and have a 
GPA of 3.0 or better in the major. 

Alpha Psi Omega: Honorary society in theater. 

Delta Phi Alpha: National honorary society that 
recognizes excellence in the study of German, 
provides incentives to higher scholarship, and 
promotes the study of the German language, 
literature, and civilization. 

Eta Sigma Phi: Classics honorary society for 
students who have taken at least two courses in 
the classic department with a B or better 
average and who are enrolled in an additional 
classics course. 

Omecron Delta Epsilon: Honorary society for 
majors in economics with proven intellectual 
curiosit)' and integrity, enthusiasm for the 
discipline, and with a minimimi of four courses 
in economics with an average of at least 3.0 in 
the major and overall. 

Phi Alpha Theta: Honorary societ)' that 
recognizes academic achievement in history and 
that actively carries on dialogue about history 
related issues outside the classroom. 

Phi Sigma lota: Romance Languages honorary 
society, for juniors and senior majors in French 
and/or Spanish with at least a B average in the 
major and overall. 

Pi Lambda Sigma: National honorary societ)' for 
majors in management, economics, and 
political science with at least five courses in their 
major with a GPA of 3. 1 or better. 



Pi Sigma Alpha: Nu Psi chapter of the nadonal 
political science honor society for junior and 
senior majors in political science. To qualify for 
membership, a student must meet the following 
criteria: a 3.0 grade point average overall, a 
3.2 grade point average in the major, 
completion of f oiu^ courses in the major, and 
rank in the top third of his or her class. Student 
officers administer the organization and plan 
programs as well as social events. 

Psi Chi: Honorary society in psycholog)' that 
serves to advance the science of psycholog)'; for 
students who have completed a minimum of 
three coiuses and are enrolled in their fourth 
and who have achieved an average of at least 
3.0 in the major and overall. 

Sigma Alpha lota: International societx' for 
women in unisic, advocating and encouraging 
excellence in scholarship, advancement of the 
ideals and aims of the Alma Mater, and adhering 
to the highest standards of citizenship and 
democracy. 



Courses of Study 



Each year the registrar's office issues a hsting of 
courses to be taught during the fall and spring 
semesters and the times they will be taught. 
Students should consult this announcement of 
coiuses to obtain the most current information 
about course offerings, as the College does not 
offer every course listed in the following pages 
each year. 

(lourses numbered 100-199 are usually at a 
beginning level, bitermediate courses are 
numbered 200-299. Courses numbered 300-399 
are at an upperclass level. Courses nimibered 
400 and above are advanced seminars, 
internships, and individualized study. 

Courses with tvvo numbers, e.g., ;\rt 111,112, . 
span two semesters. For courses separated by a 
h) phen, the first numbered course must be 
taken as a prerequisite for the second. Wliere 
the two numbers are separated by a comma, 
either of the semesters of the course may be 
taken independently of the other. 

LIBERAL ARTS CORE REQUIREMENTS 

Following is a listing of the courses that satisfy 
each of the Liberal Arts Core requirements. For 
more information, refer to the department 
introductions and course listings on the 
following pages. 

Requirements and Courses That Fulfill 
the Requirements 

The Arts 

African American Studies 247; English 205; 
IDS 214, 267; Music 101-112, 141,212,213, 
214, or, with departmental permission, four 
semesters of applied music instruction with a 
capstone research project or paper. Theatre 
Arts, all courses, except 214, 328, 329; Visual Arts, 
all courses. 

Humanities 



Japanese Studies 238, 247; Latin American 
Studies 140, 220-229, 261; Philosophy, all 
courses except Phil 103 and 211; Religion, all 
courses; Theau-e Arts 214, 328, 329; Women's 
Studies 216, 217, 219, 220, 221, 251. 

Natural Sciences 



All 100-level courses in Astronomy, Biology, 
Chemistry, Environmental Studies, and Physics. 

Social Sciences 



African American Studies 130, 217, 224, 230, 
233, 331; Civil War Era Studies 205; Classics, all 
100- & 200-level courses; all French, German, 
Japanese, and Spanish literature and civilization 
courses. English, all courses, except Eng 101, 201, 
203, 205, 209, 300-309; History, all courses; IDS 
103, 104, 161, 211, 223, 229, 239, 241, 243, 244, 
246, 247, 249, 260, 272; Italian 222, 240; 



African American Studies 245, 265, 266; 
.Anthropology, all courses, except 300-level 
methods course; Economics 103, 104, 211-215; 
Japanese Studies 150; Latin American Studies 
262, 267; Political Science, all courses, except 
Pol 215; Psychology, all 100- & 200-level courses, 
except Psych 205; Sociology, all courses at the 
100- or 200-level; Spanish 303, 351; Women's 
Studies 222, 226. 

Foreign Language 

French 202; German 202, 204; Greek 202; 
Italian 202; Japanese 202; Latin 202; Spanish 
202, 204. 

Quantitative Reasoning 

Biology 260; Computer Science 103, 104; 
Economics 241; HES 332, 342; Mathematics, all 
courses; Philosophy 211; Political Science 215; 
Psychology 205; Sociology 303. 

Writing Proficiency 
English 101. 

Non-Western Culture 

African American Studies 130, 230, 233, 331; 
Anthropology, 103, 220, 228, 232, 234-237, 301; 
Economics 212, 213, 250, 253; English 355; 
History 104, 221-224, 271, 272, 346, 373; IDS 
229, 239, 268; Japanese Studies 150, 238, 247; 
Music 102; Political Science 270, 271, 362, 363; 
Religion 241, 244, 248, 249, 251, 252, 254, 256, 
257, 340, 352; Visual .\its 227, 228; Women's 
Studies 219, 226. 

Health & Exercise Sciences 

HES 107 and any HES quarter course. 



FIRST-YEAR SEMINARS 



First-Year Seminars are an array of specially 
designed courses offered only to first-year 
students. Participation in these seminars is not 
required, nor is enrollment in them guaranteed. 
All seminars have small enrollment, focus on a 
special or narrow topic, emphasize active and 
collaborative learning, and are usually conducted 
in a residential college setting. They may fulfill a 
general education requirement; serve as an 
alternative introduction to the methods and 
problems of a discipline and count toward a 
major; or be an interdisciplinary elective. While 
the focus of each seminar is different, all 
seminars require students to analyze and discuss 
course content. Among the skills taught are 
writing, speaking, lesearch methods, and 
quantitative reasoning. 

Instructors from a wide variety of disciplines 
teach First-Year Seminars in sections of no more 
than 16 students each. Most First-Year Seminars 
are offered in the fall semester. 

AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES 

Drhiimh Barnes, Coordinator 

Overview 

African American Studies is the systematic study 
of African life — both diasporan and continental. 
As a structured discipline, African American 
Studies focuses on the myriad expressions of 
African cultures, incorporating several 
fimdamental paradigms and methodological 
approaches that inform its inqtiiry into the 
history and contemporary dimensions of African 
traditions. 

The objective of the African American Studies 
Program is to contribute to the intellectual 
depth and breadth of a well-rounded liberal arts 
education. It endeavors to provide a solid 
grounding in alternative philosophical traditions 
— an essential orientation in an increasingly 
globalized world. The African American Studies 
Program seeks to familiarize students with 
alternative epistemological approaches, theories, 
and paradigms that better conceptualize, explain, 
and incorporate the contemporary interests and 
concerns of the majorit) of the world's peoples 
and their societies. African Ainerican Studies 
provides a more profoimd understanding of the 
social realides, experiences, and continuing 
contributions to human civilization of the 
peoples of African descent and heritage. 



The African American Studies Program 
emphasizes the social sciences and humanities, 
and may include a range of courses, as well as 
opportunities for independent and off-campus 

study in Africa. 

Requirements and Recommendations 
Special Major in African American Studies 

Students intending to pursue a special major in 
African American Studies must submit a 
proposal for their individual plan of study to 
African American Studies and the Committee 
on Interdisciplinary Studies. The proposed 
program nuist be an integrated plan of study 
that incorporates course work from a minimimi 
of two departments or fields. A special major 
must include a total of ten to twelve courses, no 
fewer than eight of which must be above the 
lOO-level; three or more courses at the 300-level 
or above; and a 400-level individualized study 
course, which is normally taken dining the 
senior year. Students should consult with Prof 
Gray in the f ust or second year of studies. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

AAS 130, 217, 224, 230, 233, and 331 fulfill the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in humanities. 
AAS 247 satisfies the Liberal ,\i ts Core 
requirement in the arts. AAS 245, 265, and 266 
fulfill the liberal arts requirement in social 
sciences. AAS 130, 230, 233, and 331 fulfill the 
non-Western culture requirement. 

African American Studies Minor 

Students wishing to minor in the program are 
required to complete six courses: AAS 130, 
AAS 331, an AAS Individualized Study course, 
and three other core-affiliated courses. Students 
wishing to minor in African American Studies 
should consult with Ms. Barnes. 

CORE COURSES 

130 Introduction to African American Studies 

Consideration of African Americans within the 
broader context of the African diaspora. 
Students are introduced to a broad range of 
themes in their historical context, from the 
African origin of world civilization to the 
formation of African American societies and 
cultures. Other themes include the enslavement 
of Africans, rise and fall of slavocracy, Civil 
Rights and Black Power strviggles, and the 
emergence of African Centered scholarship and 
praxis. 
Ms. Barnes, Mr. Chiteji, Mr. Gray, Mr Hancock 



2 1 7 Slavery and the Literary Imagination Study 
of various forms of discoiuse on American 
chattel slavery — emancipatory narratives written 
by ex-slaves; slave narratives recorded by WTA 
writers; socio-historical essays; neo-slave 
narrative written by contemporary novelists; 
poetry, ballads, spirituals and folklore. Students 
examine the experiences of the middle passage, 
chattel slavery, and emancipation, as described 
by African 7\iTierican writers. 
Ms. Barnes 

224 Religions of African Americans Examination 
of the religious traditions of black Americans 
from "slave religion" to the present. Course 
focuses on the religious beliefs of African 
Americans and the ways those beliefs ha\'e been 
used to develop sUategies to achieve freedom 
and justice. Subjects covered include the 
influence of African religion, African American 
religious nationalism, Pentecostalism, spirituals 
and gospel music, and the Civil Rights 
movement. Offered in alternate years. 
Stajf 

230 introduction to Africa Study of the various 
regions and cultures of Africa, with emphasis on 
the historical and cultural forces that have shaped 
modern Africa. Course examines African kinship 
systems, African religious and philosophical 
beliefs, political traditions, agricultural production 
and trade, and the effects of powerful external 
forces on African societies. 
Staff 

233 Southern African: History, Conflict, and 
Change Introduction to a dynamic, yet conflict- 
ridden part of the African continent. Course 
focuses on characteristics of the precolonial 
societies and the nature of their early contact 
with the European settlers in the seventeenth 
century, the triumph of the white immigrants 
over indigenous Africans, the emergence of 
South Africa as a regional economic power, and 
the social contradictions that have come to 
characterize what is now called the Republic of 
South Africa. A subject of special attention will 
be the internal and external opposition to racial 
oppression. 
Mr. Chiteji 

245 Slavery in the Southern United States 

Study of slavery in the U.S. South, both as a 
sociocultural and an economic institution. 
Focus is on the origins of slavery and racism, 
mechanisms of enslavement, African American 
responses to slave status, unique burdens of the 



female slaves, and institutional structures of the 
slave communit)'. Course examines several 
major controversies involving historical 
interpretation and plantation realit\', as well as 
economic cost and benefits of the emancipation 
to the African Americans. 
Mr. Chiteji 

247 African American Traditional Music Study 
of the history of African American musical 
traditions. Course begins with a brief survey of 
African antecedents and covers both spirituals 
and secular music of the slavery period, work 
songs, ballads, blues, ragtime and jazz, gospel 
music, rhythm and blues, and beginnings of 
rock 'n roll. Primary focus is on musical 
elements of these traditions, their meaning in a 
cultural context, the ways in which this music 
differs from white music and reflects an 
Afrocentric consciousness, and the influence 
this music has had on American music. 
Previous musical knowledge is not required. 
Mr Winans 

250-260 Topics in African American Studies 

Rigorous, detailed examination of the 
philosophical and intellectual traditions that 
shape a common social heritage shared by 
Africans and African Americans. Course assumes 
a cultural perspective toward human organization 
to understand the social dimensions of the 
historical and contemporary ordering and 
governance of African life by systems of 
religious, economic, and educational thought. 
Staff 

265 African American Social Movements Study 
of political movements that have developed 
within African American communities of the 
U.S., and, in some instances, spread throughout 
the African diaspora. Students examine such 
movements from the colonial era through the 
tvventieth century in an effort to trace both 
change and continuities in thought and 
methods of action. 
Mr Chiteji 

267 Race, Gender, and the Lav/ Study of the 
manner in which African Americans, other 
people of color, and women in the United States 
have historically worked, individually and 
through various representative organizations, to 
gain rights and protections under the law. U.S. 
Supreme Court decisions in the areas of consti- 
tiuional law, civil rights law, and criminal law are 
examined as well as feminist legal theory and 
critical race theory. Despite substantial gains 



since the civil rights movement, the law is not a 
static entity; the freedoms that Americans cur- 
rently enjoy are continually threatened by new 
law arising from judicial decision or statute. 
A/,v. Reid 

ni Making of the African Diaspora in the 
Americas Study of the making of the African 
Diaspora during the centuries of the slave trade 
and slavery and the experiences of men and 
women in the African Diaspora. 
Mr. Chiteji 

331 African and African American Intellectual 
History Exploration of thought and action over 
millennia, and how the same have shaped 
.\frican people. Course considers noteworthy 
thought systems, documents, thinkers and 
theories, practitioners and products; examines 
such ancient contributions as The Book of 
Ptahhotep; and identifies sources of Greek 
philosophy, contributions to Jewish-Christian- 
Islamic philosophies, and medieval sources. 
Students also examine the contribiuions of such 
figures as Douglass, Delany, DuBois, Garvey, 
Cesaire, Diop, Wright, Malcolm, Baldwin, King, 
Fannie Lou Hamer, Morrison, West, Tupac 
Shakur, Lauryn Hill, and others. No prerequisite. 
Mr. Gray 

401 African American Studies Seminar 

Topics vary each year. 

A/5. Barnes, Mr Chiteji, Mr. Gray, Mr Hancock 

independent Study Indi\idual tutorial, research 
project, or internship. Requires permission of 
an instructor who will supervise the project, 
histructor can supply a copy of a statement of 
departmental policy regarding grading and 
major credit for different t)'pes of projects. 
Either semester. 
Staff 

Cross-Listed Courses 

(See appropriate departmental listings for 
descriptions of the following courses.) 

Eng 235 Survery of African American Literature 
Eng 349 Contemporary African American 

Women Writers 
Eng 353 Discourses of Resistance 
Hist 238 African American History: A Survey 
Hist 27 1 African History and Society to 

the 1800s 
Hist 272 African History and Society from 

the 1800s 
Hist 346 Slavery, Rebellion, and Emancipation 

in the Atlantic World 



Rel 225 Religion in the Civil Rights Movement 
Rel 256 Introduction to African Religion 

Affiliated Courses 
Econ 250 Economic Development 
Econ 253 Introduction to Political Economy 

and the African Diaspora 
Hist 236 Urbanism in American History 
IDS 235 Introduction to African Literature 
Mus 1 02 World Music Survey 
Mus 1 10 Survey of Jazz 
Pol Sci 363 Politics of the Development Aieas 

BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 

Kazuo Hiraizumi and Joseph Grzyboivski, Coordinators 

Biochemistry and molecular biology is an 
interdisciplinary program that studies the biolog)' 
and chemisuy of the structures and chemical 
reactions within cells by using contemporary 
methods of biochemical analysis, recombinant 
DNA technology, and molecular biology. 

Students may earn a B.S. degree in biochemistry 
and molecular biology by compledng the 
following courses: 

Biology 1 1 1 Introductory Biology 
Biology 1 12 Form and Function in Living 

Organisms 
Biology 2 1 1 Genetics 
Biology 212 Cell Biology 
Biology 351 Molecular Genetics 
Chemistry 107 Chemical Structure and 

Bonding 
Chemistry 1 08 Chemical Reacdvity 
Chemistry 203 Organic Chemistry 
Chemistry 204 Organic Chemistry 
Chemistry 305 Physical Chemistry 
Chemistry 317 Instrimiental Analysis 
Chemistry 333 Biochemistry 
Chemistry (or Biology) 334 Biochemistry 
Mathematics 1 1 1 Calculus 1 
Mathematics 1 1 2 Calculus II 
Physics 1 1 1 Mechanics and Heat 
Physics 1 12 Waxes, Electricity, and Magnetism 
Biology 460 or Chemistry 460 Individualized 

Study/ Research 

The program is directed by a Biochemistry and 
Molecular Biology Committee (BMBC), consisting 
of biolog) and chemistry facult) members. 
Individualized Study projects (Biolog)' 460, 
Biology 461, Chemistry 460, or Chemistry 465) 
may be directed by any member of the BMBC. 
Otherwise, the project requires the approval of 
the BMBC. 



BIOLOGY 



Professors CavnUere, Commilo, Hendtix, Mikesell, and 

Sorensen 
Associate Professors Deksalle, Etheridge, Fong, 

Hiraizumi {Chairpeismt), James, and 

J. Winkelmann 
Assistant Professor Urcuyo 
Laboratory Instructors Castk, Hulsether, Price, Reese, 

H. Winkelmann, and Zeman 

Overview 

Courses in the department are designed to 
pro\'ide a foundation in basic biological 
concepts and principles, and the background 
necessary for graduate study in biology, forestry, 
medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, 
optometry, and other professional fields. Most 
courses in the department include laboratory 
work. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The biolog)' department offers both a Bachelor 
of Alts (B.A.) and a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) 
degree for the major. 

B.A. Requirements: A. minimum of eight biolog)' 
courses, including Biology 111, 112, 211, and 
212, are required of all majors. Internships are 
excluded. Beyond these four, no specific biolog}' 
courses are required. Every program must 
include at least one course from each of two 
areas: plant biology (Biology 200, 202, 204, 217, 
or 218) and animal biolog>' (Biology 220, 223, 
224, 225, 227, or 340). No single course may 
satisfy more than one area. Biology 111 (or 101) 
and 1 12 are prerequisites for all upper-level 
biology courses. Enrollment in Biology 1 12 
requires a grade of C or better in Biology 101 or 
Biology III. Continuation in the biology major 
requires a grade of C or better in Biology 112. 

Chemistry 107 and 108 are required of all 
majors. It is strongly suggested, but not 
mandatory, that Chemistry 107 and 108 be 
taken in the first year. Physics 103 and 104 (or 
Physics III and 112), and Math 111 (or Math 
105 and 106) are also required. 

B.S. Requirements: In addition to the coiuses 
noted above, the B.S. degree requires 
Individualized Study (Biolog)' 460 or 461) and 
Chemistry 203 and 204. 

A minor in biology includes Biologv' 1 1 1 (or 
101), 112, and any other four courses in the 
department (provided that all prerequisites are 
met) that would count toward the major. 



All courses taken to satisfy the requirements for 
the B.A. or B.S. degree or for the minor must be 
taken using the A-F grading system. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The Liberal Aits Core requirement in the 
natural sciences may be satisfied by Biology 101 
(or Ill),Biolog\'102 (or 112), or Biology 103. 

Special Facilities 

Two greenhouses, herbarium, environmental 
chambers, animal quarters, aquarium room, 
electron microscopy laboratory housing both 
scanning and transmission electron microscopes, 
research laboratories, and computing facility. 

Special Programs 

Dual-degree programs in forestry and 
environmental studies with Duke University, 
nursing with the Johns Hopkins University, and 
optometry with Pennsylvania College of 
Optometry. Cooperative programs in marine 
biology with Duke University and the Bermuda 
Biological Station for Research. 

101 Molecules, Cells, and Genes Introduction to 
cell biology, bioenergetics, gene expression, and 
patterns of inheritance with a focus on 
important topical issues. Laboratory emphasizes 
the experimental nature of biological 
investigation. Designed (along with Biolog)' 102 
or 103) for completion of the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the natural sciences. Students 
not majoring in biolog)' but who are interested 
in the health professions may, with a grade of C 
or better in Biology 101, enroll in Biology 112. 
Three class hours and laboratory. 

102 Contemporary Topics in Biology: The 
Biological Basis of Disease Designed for 
nonscience majors. Course covers selected 
biological topics related to human diseases and 
focuses on contemporary problems and their 
possible solutions. Three class hours and 
laboratorv Prereqxiisile: ^\o\o^ 101. 

Staff 

103 Contemporary Topics in Biology: Evolution 
of Life Designed for nonscience majors, 
(bourse covers selected biological topics related 
to the evolution of life and human evolution. 
Three class hours and laboratory. Prerequisite: 
Biology 101. Credit cannot be received for both 
this course and Biolog)' 111. 



A 



1 1 1 Introductory Biology: Introduction to 
Ecology and Evolution Designed to introduce 
students to general biological principles, with a 
focus on ecology and evolution. Topics include 
adaptation, nutrient cycling and energy flow, 
populadon growth and species interactions, 
Mendelian and population genedcs, speciation, 
and the history of life. Laboratory emphasizes 
the experimental nature of biological 
investigation. Designed for science majors with a 
iiigh school backgroimd in biolog)', chemistry, 
and mathematics. Three class hours and 
laboratory, plus one hour discusssion. 
Staff 

\ 12 Form and Function in Living Organisms 

Designed for science majors. Functional design 
of plants and animals is emphasized. Aspects of 
evolution, phylogeny, and ecology are also 
covered. Three class hours and laboratory. 
Prerequisite: Biology 111 (or 101 ) . 

200 Physiology of Plant Adaptations Major 
structural systems, physiological processes, and 
adaptations of plants to their environment. 
Topics include growth regulatory substances, 
photoperiodic responses, water balance, 
nutrition, plant defense mechanisms, and the 
responses of plants to environmental changes. 
Three hours lectiue. 
Mr. Cavaliere 

202 Structural Plant Development Anatomical 
approach to the study of higher plant structiues. 
The origin and differentiation of tissues and 
organs, environmental aspects of development, 
and plant anomalies are studied. Six hours in 
class-laboratory work. 
Mr. Mikesell 

204 Biology of Flowering Plants Idendfication, 
classification, structural diversity, ecology', and 
evolutionary relationships of the angiosperms. 
Course includes field work for collection and 
identification of local flora. Three class hours 
and laboratory-field work. Alternate years. 
Ms. Deksalle 

205 Ecology Principles of ecology, with emphasis 
on three levels of the biological hierarch}' — 
organisms, populadons, and communities — that 
are needed to understand the factors that 
determine the abundance and distribution of 
any species. Course includes a number of field 
trips. Three class hours and laboratory-field 
work. Credit cannot be received for both this 



cour.se and Environmental Studies 211. Students 
can substitute Environmental Studies 211 for 
Biology 205. 
Ms. Deksalle 

21 1 Genetics Overview of principles of genetics. 
Topics include chemical nature of genes, 
Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance, 
gene regulation, genetic engineering, molecular 
evolution, and population genetics. Three 
class hours and laboratory. Prerequisite: Chemistry 
107, 108. 

Mr. Hiraizumi 

212 Ceil Biology Structure and function of 
eukaryotic cells. Protein structure, enzyme 
function, membrane structure and transport, 
protein sorting, energy tran.sduction by 
mitochondria and chloroplasts, chromosome 
structure, cell division and cell-cycle control, 
cell communication, cell motilitv', and the 
behavior of selected differentiated cells. Three 
class hours and laboratory. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 

107, 108,andBiolog)'211. 
Mr. Sorensen 

2 1 5 Electron Microscopy Introducdon to basic 
theory and practice of transmission and 
scanning electron microscopy, techniques of 
tissue preparation, and inuoduction to 
interpretation of animal and plant 
ultrastructure. Each student is required to 
complete an independent project. Six hours 
in class-laboratory work. Prerequisite: Permission 
of instructor. 
Ah: Cavaliere and Mr Hendrix 

217 An Evolutionary Survey of the Plant 
Kingdom Synopsis of embryo-producing plants, 
primarily liverworts, mosses, fern allies, ferns, 
and seed plants. Emphasis is on comparative 
morpholog)' of vegetative and reproducdve 
characters, unique features, and evolutionary 
trends in plants. Six hours in class-laboratory 
work. 

Mr Mikesell 

218 Biology of Algae and Fungi Study of algae 
(phvcology) and fungi (mycologv')in aquatic and 
terrestrial ecosystems with emphasis on their 
role in primary production and decomposidon. 
Topics include identification, morphology, 
reproduction, ecologv', and phylogeny of these 
organisms. Culuire techniques and principles of 
plant pathology and medical mycolog)' are also 
considered. Six hours in class-laboratory work. 
Mr Cavaliere 



223 Parasitology Introduction to the general 
principles of parasitism, with emphasis on the 
epidemiology, taxonomy, morpholog)', and 
physiology of the major groups of protozoan, 
helminth, and arthropod parasites of humans 
and other animals. Three class hours and 
laboratory. 

iMr. Hendiix 

224 Vertebrate Zoology Introduction to 
systemalics, distribution, reproduction, and 
population dynamics of vertebrates. Field and 
laboratory emphasis on natmal history, 
collection, and identification. Optional trip to 
North Carolina. Six hours in class, laboratory, 
and field work. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

225 Animal Behavior Study of animal behavior 
through readings, discussions, and field and 
laboratory observations. A wide range of 
phenomena are considered, from simple reflex 
responses to complex social organizations. Role 
of behavioral adaptations in the biology of 
animal species is emphasized. Three class hours 
and laboratory. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

in Invertebrate Zoology Biolog)' of the major 
metazoan invertebrate groups, with emphasis on 
adaptive morpholog)- and physiolog)' and on 
evolution. Six hours in class-laboratory work. 
Mr. Fong 

230 Microbiology Biology of viruses and bacteria, 
with emphasis on morphology, metabolism, 
taxonomy, reproduction, and ecology. 
Laboratory includes isolation, culture, 
environmental influences, identification, and 
biochemical characterization of bacteria and 
their viruses. Three class hotus and laboratory. 
Mr. Hendrix 

260 Biostatistics Designed for students in 
biologv' who plan to engage in individualized 
study and/or research. Topics include the 
nature of biological data and the statistical 
procedures to analyze them. Special attention 
given to experimental design and hvpothesis 
testing. Three class hours and one hour 
discussion. Credit cannot be received for both 
this course and Mathematics 107, Psychology 
205, or Economics 241. 
Mr. Hiraizumi 



306 Marine Ecology .\iialysis of the ecologv' of 
maiine systems. The open ocean, estuaries, salt 
marshes, beaches, mud and sand flats, seagrass 
beds, rocky shores, coral reefs, and deep sea are 
examined. Problems of pollution, beach 
erosion, and the management of declining 
fisheries is also presented. Quandtative field 
work in a variety of coastal habitats is conducted 
on a required field trip to Duke Universitv' 
Marine Laboratory and the Outer Banks barrier 
island chain. Three class hours and laboratory- 
field work. Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 
211 or Biolog) 205. Alternate years. Course is 
cross-listed as Environmental Studies 306. 

Mr. Commito 

307 Limnology Study of the physical, chemical, 
and biological characteristics of inland waters. 
Topics include nutrient cycling, biological 
interactions, and effects of human activities. 
Course includes individual research projects 
and a number of field trips. Six hours in cla.ss, 
laboratory, and field work. Prerequisite: 
Environmental Studies 211 or Biologv' 205 or 
consent of instructor. 

Mr. Fong 

3 1 4 Evolution Studv of the transformation and 
diversification of populations through time. 
Topics include history of life, adaptation, 
selection and population genetics, speciation 
and extincdon, evolutionary innovadons, and 
patterns of diversity. Three class hours and 
laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 211. Alternate 
years. 
Ah. Delesalle 

320 Developmental Biology Survey of the 
phenomena and principles of animal 
development. Major attention is given to 
embryonic development in multicellular 
animals. Vertebrates are emphasized in the study 
of organ development. Three class hours and 
laboratory. Alternate years. Prerequisite: Biolog)' 
211,212 
Mr Sorensen 

332 Immunobiology Introducdon to die vertebrate 
immune system at the molecular, cellular, and 
organismal levels. Antibody structure, antigen- 
antibody interaction, the genedcs of antibody 
diversity, the immune response, and the bases 
of self/non-self discrimination are emphasized. 
Three class hours. Prerequisites: Biologv' 21 1, 212. 
Alternate years. 
Mr. Sore7isen 



F 
< 



334 Biochemistry Detailed examination of 
primary and secondary metabolic pathways in 
microbes, plants, and animals. Application to 
metabolic disorders, infections, and medical 
advances in the treatment of the above 
conditions are incorporated into course. 
Laboratory work includes an independent 
research project. Prerequisite: Biolog}' 212. 
Coinse is cross-listed as Chemistry 334. 
Ms. Holland 

340 Comparative Animal Physiology 

Regulation of basic physiological processes in 
animals. Unifying principles are studied using a 
comparative approach. Lecture and laboratory 
are combined in two three-hour sessions. 
Prerequisite: Biology 212. 
Ms. Etheridge 

35 1 Molecular Genetics Study of the basic 
mechanisms of information storage and 
retrieval from DNA and RNA. Topics include 
genome organization and the regulation of 
gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; 
DNA replication and repair; molecular genetics 
of cancer and human-inherited disorders; and 
recombinant DNA technology; Three cla,ss hours 
and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biolog)' 211,212. 
Mr James 

453 Individualized Study: Tutorial Independent 
investigation of a topic of .special interest, 
directed by a faculty member familiar with the 
general field of study. May be used as preparation 
for enrollment in Biology 460. Prerequisite: 
Approval of directing faculty member. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Study: Research Independent 
investigation of a topic of special interest, 
normally including both literature and 
laboratory research. Directed by a faculty 
member familiar with the general field of study. 
Results of investigation are presented to the 
department. Open to jimiors and seniors. A 
grade of B- or higher must be earned to receive 
a B.S. degree. A single Individualized Study may 
be used toward one of the eight coiuses 
required for the B.A. degree. Prerequisite: 
Approval of both the directing faculty member 
and department. 

473 Individualized Study: Internship 

Independent internship experience imder the 
direct supervision of professional personnel in a 
variety of biology-related areas. Internship may 
be arranged by the department or the student. 



Must combine practical work experience with 
an academic dimension. Library research paper 
on a subject related to the experience is required. 
Prerequisite: Approval of both supervisor and 
department. Contact internship office for 
application and fiuther assistance. 
Mr Cavaliere 

CHEMISTRY 

Professors Grzylmvski (Chaiipersori), Jame.son, and 

Parker 
Associate Professor Holland 
Assistant Professors Wedlock, D. MacFarland, 

and McCann 
Laboratory Instructors Gregory, Jones, and 

K, MacFarland 

Overview 

Each coiuse offered by the department pro\ides 
an opportunity for a concentrated study of the 
various principles of contemporary chemical 
knowledge. From the introductory to the 
advanced courses, application is made of basic 
theories and methods of chemical investigation. 
Courses offered by the department utilize 
lectures, discussions, library work, on-line 
compiuer literature searching, computer-assisted 
instructional programs, videotapes/films, and 
laboratory investigations in order to emphasize 
the concepts that underlie the topics covered. 
Each course, as well as the major itself, is 
designed for the curious and interested student. 

The chemistry major is approved by the 
American Chemical Society, as is an additional 
major in chemistry/biochemistry. Paths taken 
by majors after graduation are varied; many 
enter graduate work in chemistry or 
biochemistry. Graduates also enter medical and 
dental schools, industrial and government 
research laboratories, secondary school teaching, 
and numerous other fields. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The eight basic courses required for the 
Bachelor of Arts degree are Chemistry 107, 108, 
203, 204, 221, 305, 306, and 317. Students who 
complete these eight basic courses along with 
Chemistry 373, Research (Chemistry 460 or 
465), and one addidonal chemistry course may 
choose to receive a Bachelor of Science degree. 
An interdisciplinary major is offered in 
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; the 
complete description is listed under that title. 
Physics 111 and 112 and Mathematics through 
21 1 are required of all chemistry majors. 



Additional courses in mathematics (212), 
biolog)', and physics may be recommended tor 
those contemplating graduate study in certain 
areas. Jimior and senior majors are expected to 
join with staff members in a seminar series that 
is designed to provide an opportunity for 
discussion of student initiated research and 
current developments in chemistry. 

Approved safet\ goggles must be worn at all 
times in all laboratories. Prescription glasses 
may be worn under safety goggles. 

For the prospective secondary school teacher, 
the department cooperates in offering Education 
304, Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Chemistry. Introductory biology is. 
required for certification. 

Indi\idualized study and independent laboratory 
work are available in connection with some 
courses. During the junior or senior year, majors 
may elect Chemistry 460, a research course in 
which a student can utilize his or her knowledge 
and creativity intensively. Svmimer research, 
Chemistry 465, is encouraged strongly and is 
elected by many majors. 

The optional minor shall consist of Chemistry 
107 and 108, plus four other chemistry courses 
at the 200 level or above. Individualized Study 
courses may not be counted toward the optional 
minor. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The following combinations of chemistry 
courses may be used to satisfy the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in the natiual sciences: either 
101, 107, or 111, followed by 102, 108, or 112. 
(Course credit will not be given for more than 
two introductory chemistry courses. Chemistry 
101-102 and 111-112 are inactive.) 

Special Facilities and Programs 

Breidenbaugh Hall, which houses chemistry and 
biochemistry classrooms and laboratories, was 
renovated in 1985. The department's major 
instriunentation includes a Fourier Transform 
NMR Spectrometer, a Foinier Transform 
Infrared Spectrometer, a diode array UV-visible 
Spectrometer, a Gas Chromatograph-Mass 
Spectrometer, a Waters HPLC with diode array 
detector, a high speed centrifuge, and an 
automatic polarimeter. Chemistry majors 
receive significant hands-on experience with all 
major instrumentation beginning in the 
sophomore year. The department's library is at 
the disposal of all students. Numerous lectures 
and seminars are sponsored by the department 



and the chemistry club. Sceptical Chymists. 
These involve resoiuce persons from 
luiiversities, indusUies, government agencies, and 
professional schools, and are designed to 
complement the ciuricular activities of the 
department. An annual highlight is a three-day 
visit by an outstanding scholar in the field of 
chemistry. The program is supported by The 
Musselman Endowment for Visiting Scientists. 
Many qualified upperclass students — chemistry 
majors and others — gain valuable experience 
from serving as laboratory assistants and tutors. 

1 07 Chemical Structure and Bonding Study of 
fimdamental chemical principles, including 
stoichiometric relationships, properties of 
matter, and theories of bonding with a strong 
emphasis on atomic and molecular structure. 
Laboratory experiments are designed to offer a 
hands-on familiarity with the principles 
discussed in the lectures. Three lecture hours 
and one laboratory. 

Staff 

1 08 Chemical Reactivity Principles covered in 
ChemisUy 107 iue applied to broader topics such 
as kinetics, equilibrium, electrochemistry, and 
thermochiiamics, witli an emphasis on 
interdisciplinary topics. Laboratory work is 
designed to illustrate and complement materials 
discussed in class. Prerequisite: Chemistry 107 or 
111. Three lecture hours and one laboratory. 
Staff 

203 Organic Chemistry Study of the fundamental 
concepts of the chemisUy of carbon compounds, 
with emphasis on molecular structure, reaction 
mechanisms, stereochemistry, and the application 
of spectroscopy to problems of identification. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 108 or 112. Three lecture 
hours, one lab discussion hour, and one 
laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. MacFarland 

204 Organic Chemistry Study of the various classes 
of organic compoimds, including substitutions 
in the aromatic nucleus, cyclic compounds, 
and natural products such as amino acids, 
carbohydrates and peptides. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 203. Three lecture hours, one lab 
discussion hoiu; and one laboratory afternoon. 
Mr. Jameson 

22 1 Chemical Applications of Spectroscopy 

Study of the theories and applications of 
infrared, IH and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, 
and mass spectroscopy are discussed in 
relation to the importance of these 
spectroscopic methods in the analysis of 



► 



t liemical systems. Scope and limitations of each 
i\pe of spectroscopy are covered. Course work 
includes lectures, discussions, student oral 
presentations, and laboratory sessions. Lab 
periods involve use of spectrometers in the 
identification of organic compounds. Lectine 
work is supplemented by videotapes and 
( omputer-assisted instructional programs. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 203. 
Mr. Grzyhowski 

305 Physical Chemistry Study of the principles of 
statistical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics 
as applied to the states of matter, chemical 
reactions and equilibria, and electrochemistry, 
using lectures, readings, problems, discussions, 
and laboratory exercises. Computers are used as 
a tool for solving problems and for the reduction 
of experimental data. Prerequisites: Chemistry 
108, Physics 112, mathematics through calculus 
(usually Math 21 1). Three lecture hours, one 
discussion hoiu', and one laboratory afternoon . 
Mr Wedlock 

306 Physical Chemistry Introduction to theories 
of quantum mechanics, spectroscopy, and 
molecular reaction dynamics and their 
application to chemical systems through the use 
of problems, lectures, readings, discussions, and 
laboratory investigations Prerequisite: Chemistry 
305. Three lecture hours, one discussion hour, 
and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr Wedlock 

317 Instrumental Analysis Study of chemical 
analysis by use of modern instruments. Topics 
include complex equilibria, electroanalytical 
methods, quantitative spectroscopy, 
chromatography, and Fourier uansform 
methods. Analytical techniques will be studied 
from both a chemical and an instrumental point 
of view. The laboratory stresses quantitadve 
analytical procedures and includes an 
independent project. Prerequisite: Chemistry 108. 
Three lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon. 
Mr Grzybozvski 

333 Biochemistry Detailed study of the structure 
and function of macromolecules as they pertain 
to living organisms. Emphasis on bioenergetics, 
metabolic pathways, and current topics. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 204. Three lecture hours 
and one laboratory afternoon. 

Ms. McCcinn 

334 Biochemistry Detailed examination of 
primary and secondary metabolic pathways in 
microbes, plants, and animals. Application to 



metabolic disorders, infecdons, and medical 
advances are incorporated into course. 
Laboratory work includes an independent 
research project. Prerequisite: Chemistry 333 or 
permission of instructor. Three lecture hours 
and one laboratory afternoon. Course is cross- 
listed as Biolog)' 334. 
Ms. McCaiin 

353 Advanced Organic Chemistry Study of 
synthetic, mechanistic, and theoretical concepts 
in organic chemistry. Particular emphasis is on 
the study of methods used to determine organic 
reaction mechanisms, stereospecific reactions, 
pericyclic reactions, and the design of multistep 
syntheses of complex molecules. Prerequisites: 
Chemistry 204 and 221. Three lecture hours. 
Mr Jameson 

373 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Study of 
valence bond, crystal field, and molecular orbital 
theories; boron chemistry; organometallic 
compounds; structural, kinetic, and mechanistic 
smdiesof coordinadon compounds. Group dieory 
and symmetry arc applied to various systems. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 305. Three lecture hours. 
Mr. Parker 

390 Advanced Laboratory Techniques in 
Chemistry Designed to combine and expand 
upon the laboratory skills learned in the 
fundamental courses of the first two years. 
Numerous projects are piusued in organic and 
inorganic chemistry, utilizing a combination of 
library skills (e.g., on-line computer searching), 
advanced laboratory skills (e.g. inert atmosphere 
techniques, modern separation methods, and 
advanced spectroscopic characterizations), and 
scientific writing skills. Course prepares students 
for independent research in the senior year. 
Preiequisite: Chemistry 221. 
Mr MacFarland 

460 Individualized Study Research Independent 
investigation in an area of miuual interest to the 
student and faculty director. Project normally 
includes both a literature and a laboratory 
study. An oral report to staff and students and a 
final written thesis are required. A student 
wishing to enroll in this course should consult 
with the faculty director at least two weeks 
before the end of the semester preceding the 
semester in which this course is to be taken. 
Prerequisites: Chemistry 390 and/or permission 
of faculty director and approval by department. 
Open to jimior and senior chemistry majors. 
Offered both semesters. 
Staff 



465 Individualized Study Research (Summer) 

Funded ten-week independent investigation in 
an area of mutual interest to the student and 
research director. Project normally includes 
both a literatiue and a laboratory study. Oral 
reports to staff and students and a final written 
thesis are required. Students wishing to enroll 
should consult with a chemistry department 
faculty member early in the spring semester. 
Prerequisites: Chemistry 390 and/or permission 
of research director and approval by 
department. 
Staff 

CIVIL WAR ERA STUDIES 

Matt Gallman, Director 

Overview 

Supported by a grant from the Henry R. Luce 
Foundation, Civil War Era Studies is devoted to 
the establishment and administration of 
interdisciplinary academic programs on the 
Civil War Era. The Office of Civil War Era 
Studies administers two programs: The Civil War 
Era Studies Minor and The Gettysburg Semester. 

The Civil War Era Studies Minor is an 

interdisciplinary program concentrating on 
mid-nineteenth century America and on the 
period's enduring importance for modern 
America. 

Minor Requirements: Six courses are required, 
including Civil War Era Studies 205 and 400. 
The remaining four courses may be selected 
from the CWES cross-listed elective courses. 
The foiu" elective courses are subject to the 
following restrictions: The electives must be in 
at least t\\'o different departments. (IDS courses 
and electives with a CWES designation will be 
treated as separate departments.) No more than 
two elective courses can be from the student's 
major field of study; and no more than two 
electives may be taken at the 100 level. Students 
are allowed to fill one elective requirement with 
either an internship or an independent study 
coiuse, subject to the normal College 
requirements. 

The Gettysburg Semester is a semester-long 
immersion in Civil War Era Studies for visiting 
students from other campuses. Each fall 
participants in The Gettysburg Semester attend 
a two-course seminar taught by Professor 
Gallman, take Gettysbmg College courses on 
the Civil War Era taught by faculty from various 



disciplines, attend numerous historic field trips 
and battlefield toius, and have the opportimity 
to work on independent projects or internships. 

Details on both Civil War Era Studies programs 
are available on the Gettysburg College Web site 
by selecting "Civil War" from Quick Links on the 
home page. 

Liberals Arts Core Requirements 

Civil War Era Studies 20.'j satisfies the Liberal 
Arts Core requirement in the himianities. 

CWES Minor Core Courses 
CWES 205 Introduction to the Civil War Era 
CWES 400 Special Topics in the Civil War Era 

CWES Cross-Listed Courses Elective Courses 

(See appropriate departmental listings for 
descriptions of the following courses.) 

FYS 183 First-Year Seminar: Gettysburg 
English 205 Introduction to Creative Writing: 

CWTS Section 
English 217 Slavery and the Literary 

Imagination 
English 359 .\merican Literature of the 

Civil War Era 
History 245 Gender and the American Civil War 
History 345 Civil War 
History 410 Senior Research Seminar: 

Abraham Lincoln 
IDS 216 Visions of Reconstruction 
IDS 217 The American Civil War on Film 
Philosophy 105 Contemporary Moral Issues: 

Nineteenth Century Counterpoints 
Philosophy 340 American Philosophy 

205 Introduction to the Civil War Era 

IiUerdisciplinary introduction to the Civil War 
Era (roughly 1840-1880) in American history. 
Course focuses on the causes of the Civil War, 
the war years themselves, both at home and on 
the battlefield, and Reconstruction. Also 
introduces students to a range of disciplinary 
approaches to the Civil War Era. History majors 
ran count either CWliS 205 or History 345 as a 
major course. 
Mr Gallman 

274 Practicum in Archaeological Analysis 

Practical learning experience in archaeological 
data analysis and research. Working with the 
staff of the Gett)'sburg National Military Park, 
students carry out labwork, including artifact 
processing and classification, data entry and 
research. Exact mix of actixities varies from 
semester to semester. Prerequisite: Consent of 



iiisti'uctor and previous course work in 
archaeolog)', history or Civil War Era Studies. 
One-half a edit course; may be repeated with cotisent of 
instructor. Same as ANTH 274. 
Ms. Hendon 

347 Women in Public: Gender and Cultural 
Transformation in the United States, 1840-1900 

A seminar on American women's historv from 
before Seneca Falls until the early twentieth 
century, with an emphasis on the entrance of 
women into the public arena. Theoretical focus 
is on the range of ways in which women 
challenged popular notions of gendered 
spheres. Designed for students from all majors 
with some background in women's studies or 
women's history. 
Mr Gallman 

400 Special Topics in the Civil War Era Topical 
.seminar on an aspect of the Civil War Era, with 
links drawn between the Civil War Era and 
modern America. Specific focus shifts from year 
to year. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor, 
with preference given to minors in Civil War Era 
Studies. 
Mr Gallman 

CLASSICS 

Professors Cahoon and Snively 

Associate Professor Zabroiuski (Chairperson) 

Visiting Assistant Professor Lake 

Overview 

Courses offered are designed to acquaint the 
student with the language, literature, history, 
and civilization of Greece and Rome — societies 
that present a microcosm of human experience. 
Learning how the founders of Western 
civilization dealt with such conflicts as the 
aspirations of youth and the compromises of 
middle age, the claims of community and 
individual rights, the ecstasy of love, and the 
despair of loss can help us imderstand our own 
thoughts and emotions as we confront these age- 
old problems and pressures. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The department offers majors in Greek, Latin, 
and Classical Studies. 

Latin Major: 

Seven courses in Latin beyond Latin 102 (including 
Latin 312), and Classics 121, 122, 252, 400. 



Greek Major: 

Seven courses in Greek beyond Greek 102, and 
Classics 121, 122,251,400. 

Classical Studies Major: 

Eleven courses (including Greek or Latin 
through at least the 202-level), and Classics 121, 
122, and 400. 

In both Greek and Latin language courses, 201 
and 202, or their equivalents, are prerequisites 
for all higher language courses. 

A minor in Classical Studies consists of six 
courses in the department, including a minimum 
of two language courses. 

A minor in Ladn consists of six courses in Latin 
above 102 or five courses in Latin above 102 and 
Classics 122 or Classics 252. 

A minor in Greek consists of six courses in 
Greek above 102 or five courses in Greek above 
102 and Classics 121 or Classics 251. 

Liberals Arts Core Requirements 

Greek 202 or Latin 202 satisfy the foreign 
language Liberal Arts Core requirement. All 
100- and 200-level classical studies courses count 
toward the Liberal Arts Core requirement in 
humanities. 

Classical Studies 251 and 252 may be counted 
toward a major in history; Classical Studies 230 
may be counted toward a major in religion; and 
Classical Studies 264, 266, and 270 may be 
counted toward a major in theatre arts. 

For prospecdve secondary school teachers the 
department cooperates in offering Education 
304, Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum 
of Secondary Ladn. 

Special Programs 

Through a cooperative arrangement under the 
auspices of die Central Pennsylvania Consordum, 
Gettysburg College shares membership in the 
Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in 
Rome, whose program has been approved as a 
Gettysburg College affiliated program. The 
department encourages majors to spend a 
semester at the Center in Rome. (For details, 
see Off-Campus Study.) 

College Year in Athens, Inc. has also been 
approved as a Gettysburg College affiliated 
program. Students interested in ancient, 
Byzantine, or modern Greece and the 



Mediterranean are encouraged to spend a 
semester or a year at College Year. (For details, 
see Off-Campus Study. ) 

Through the Central Pennsylvania Consortium, 
Gettysbiug College shares membership in the 
American School of Classical Studies in Athens. 
Students are eligible to apply for its summer 
sessions. 

GREEK 

101, 102 Elementary Greek Introduction to the 
alphabet, inflections, and syntax of Attic Greek. 
Mr. Znbwu'ski 

20 1 , 202 Intermediate Greek Designed to 
increase the student's skill in reading texts. 
Selections from Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato,- 
and other authors are read, with an emphasis on 
grammar. Prerequisites: Greek 101, 102, or their 
equivalent. 
Mr. Zabrowski 

203 Plato The Apology and Crilo, with selections 
from other dialogues. 

Mr. Zabroivski 

204 New Testament Greek Introduction to Koine 
Greek. Selections from the New Testament are 
read with attention to language and content. 
Not offered every year. 

Air. Zabrowski 

30 1 Homer Selections from the Iliad and Odyssey, 
with examination of syntax and st\'le. Not offered 
every year. 

Ms. Cahoon, Ms. Sniiiely 

302 Greek Historians Readings in the text of 
Herodotus or Thucydides. Not offered every year. 

303 Greek Comedy An introduction to Greek 
comedic drama. Selected comedies of 
Aristophanes are read with attention to 
style and metrics. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

304 Greek Tragedy Selected plays of Aeschylus, 
Sophocles, and Euripides. Various plays are 
also read in English. Oral reports required. 
Not offered every year. 

Staff 

306 Greek Oratory Selected orations of 
Demosthenes and Lysias. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 



LATIN 

101, 102 Elementary Latin Introduction to Latin 

grammar and syntax. 

Ms. Cahoon, Ms. Suively 

201, 202 Intermediate Latin Designed to 
increase skill in reading texts. Selections from 
Latin prose and poetry are read, with continuing 
grammatical review and analysis. Prerequisite: 
Two years of secondary school Latin or Latin 
101, 102. 
Ms. Cahoon, Ms. Snively 

203 Roman Prose Selections from Roman prose 
writers and intensive review of grammar. 
Prerequisite: Three or four years of secondary 
school Latin or Ladn 201, 202. 

Ms. .Snively 

204 Roman Poetry Readings in such authors as 
Catullus, Virgil, Horace, and Ovid. Prerequisite: 
Three or four years of secondary school Latin or 
Latin 201, 202. 

Ms. Cahoon 

303 Cicero Selected essays of Cicero, with 
supplemental reading from letters and oradons. 
Supplemental reading in English. Not offered 
every year. 
Staff 

306 St. Augustine Selections from Confessions, 
with attention to the differences between Late 
Latin and Classical Latin. Not offered every year. 
Ms. Cahoon 

308 Roman Satire Selections from Horace, Martial, 
and Juvenal, with attention to the changes in 
language and style from the Classical to the Post 
Classical period. Not offered every year. 

Ms. Snively 

309 Roman Historians Selections from Livy and 
Tacitus, with attention to their peculiarities of 
language and style. Not offered every year. 
Ms. Snively 

3 1 1 Lucretius Extensive reading in On the Nature 
Of Things, with attention to Lucretius' metrical 
forms, science, and philosophy. Not offered 
every year. 

Ms. Cahoon 

312 Prose Composition Designed to increase the 
student's ability to translate from English to 
Latin; includes a thorough grammar review. Not 
offered every year. 

Mr. Zxibrowski 



A 



401 Vergil Study of Vergil's Aeneid, with emphasis 
on syntax, metrics, rhetoric, and interpretation. 
Not offered every year. 
Ms. Cahoon 

Individualized Study 

Staff 

CLASSICAL STUDIES 

121 Survey of Greek Civilization Survey of 
primar)' texts in literature, history, and philosophy 
from archaic Greece through classical Athens, 
with emphasis on concepts that influenced 
Western thought. 

Ms. Cahoon 

122 Survey of Roman Civilization Survey of 
history, literature, art, architecture, etc. of Rome 
from its founding to the Council of Nicea, with 
emphasis on the material culture of an empire 
encompassing the whole Mediterranean world. 
Ms. Snively 

125 Introduction to Classical Archaeology 

Examination of the goals and methods of 
( lassical archaeology through a survey of Greek 
and Roman sites, from the Bronze Age through 
the Late Antique period. Coiuse includes 
discussion of techniques such as survey and 
issues such as the antiquities market. Not 
offered every year. 
Ms. Snively 

230 Classical Mythology Survey of classical 
invtholog}', with attention to the process of 
myth-making and the development of religion. 
Ms. Snively, Mr. Zabrowski 

25 1 Greek History Survey of Hellenic civilization 
From the Bronze Age to the Hellenistic period. 
Papers required. Alternate years. Offered 2002-03. 
Mr. Zabrozuski 

252 Roman History History of the Republic and 
Empire. Papers required. Alternate years. 
Offered 2003-04. 

Ms. Snively 

262 Ancient Epic Study of Homer, ApoUonius of 
Rliodes, Vergil, and Oxad. Offered 2002-03. 
Ms. Cahoon 

264 Ancient Tragedy Study of Aeschylus, 
Sophocles, Euripides, and Seneca. Class 
culminates in a public performance of a tragic 
play. Offered 2003-04. 
Ms. Cahoon 



266 Ancient Comedy Study of Aristophanes, 
Plautus, and Terence. Class culminates in a 
public performance of a comic play. Offered 
2004-05. 
Ms. Cahoon 

270 Ancient Drama (Half Unit Course) Study, 

direction, and performance of an ancient Greek 
or Roman play. Course includes the study of 
several other plays by the same author (for 
context and background) and of recent pertinent 
secondary material. Students interpret, cast, 
direct, choreograph, and rehearse the play. 
Final performance is presented to the entire 
campus communit). Offered 2002-03. 
Ms. Cahoon 

281 Ancient Greek Political Theory and Practice 

Using Plato's Republic and Laws and .\ristotle's 
Politics as primary sources, course investigates 
the nature of ancient Greek political theory and 
the notion of the Ideal State, whether conceived 
of as dmocratic, monarchical, or democratic. 
Greek cit)'-state constitutions are examined, as 
preserved in the writings of Aristotle, Xenophon, 
and the Oxyrhyncus Historian. Not offered 
every year. 
Mr. Zabrowski 

400 Senior Seminar Content determined each 
year in consultation with the staff. Required of 
all majors. 
Staff 

Individualized Study 

Staff 

COMPUTER SCIENCE 

Professors Fink (Chairperson) and Lei n bach 
Associate Professor Tosten 
Assistant Professors Neller and Presser 
Adjunct Instructor Leslie 

Overview 

The computer science curriculum, offered by 
the Department of Computer Science, enables a 
student to study systematic approaches to 
problem sohing within the environment of 
hardware. In the course of this study, the 
student develops the practice of clear thinking 
and logical reasoning, while learning to analyze 
information processing tools and systems in 
areas of application. Within this study there is 
an emphasis on the human values associated 
with computing in the modern world. 



The available courses cover a wide area of 
computer science. In addition, upper-division 
students may, in collaboration with faculty 
members, be involved in on-going research 
projects or study topics not covered by the 
regular course offerings. 

The major is designed to give students a broad 
understanding of both the theoretical and 
application areas of the discipline. As such, it 
provides a firm foundation for those intending 
to do graduate work or to pursue a career in 
computer science. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requiremenls: Requirements for a major in 
computer science are nine courses in computer 
science at the level of Computer Science 104 or 
above. One of these courses may be selected 
from a list of approved courses in other 
departments — Mathematics 351 and 366, Physics 
240, Psychology 315 or 316. The nine courses 
must include Computer Science 104, 105, 216, 
221, 301, and 340. Computer Science 340 is 
taken dining the senior year. 

In addition to the above courses in Computer 
Science, the student must take Mathematics 111 
(or its equivalent) and Mathematics 208. It is 
recommended that Mathematics 1 1 1 be taken 
during the first year and that Mathematics 208 
be taken no later than the second year. 

Students intending to pursue graduate study 
in computer science are advised to take 
Mathematics 112 (Calculus II), Mathematics 211 
(Multivariable Calculus), Mathematics 212 
(Linear Algebra), Mathematics 351 
(Mathematical Probability), Mathematics 352 
(Mathematical Statistics), and Physics 240 
(Electronics) and include both Computer 
Science 301 and 31 1 in their choice of courses. 

Department honors in computer science require 
participation in the cocurricular activities of the 
department, an overall grade point average of at 
least 3.0, and a computer science grade point 
average of at least 3.5. 

Minor Requiremenls: A minor in computer 
science consists of six courses numbered 104 or 
above. 

Grade Requirements: All courses taken to satisfy 
the requirements for the major or minor must 
be taken using the A-F grading system. To 
advance to a course with prerequisites, a 



minimiuu grade of C- is required for each 
prerequisite course. Any course which is a 
prerequisite for another course may not be 
taken or repeated after the subsequent higher- 
nimibered coiuse is passed. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Computer Science 103 and 104 fulfill the 
Liberal Aits Core requirement in quantitative 
reasoning. 

Facilities 

Information Resources maintain a campus-wide 
computing network. Through this network, 
students can access several programming 
languages and applications packages. In addition, 
the Department of Computer Science has a 
laboratory featuring Sun UltraSPARC 
workstations that are used for introductory 
computer science courses and upper-level 
electives such as operating systems and graphics. 
These machines are connected to a .SUN Blade 
dual-processor UltraSPARC server that is used as 
a local file server and as a connection to the 
department's specialized parallel processing 
hardware. 

103 introduction to Computing Liberal arts 
introduction to the discipline of computer 
science and the use of computers in a variet)' 
of fields. Topics include a historical survey of 
technolog)' and the use of computers, computer 
application, software svstems design, progiamming 
with scripts, computer hardware and logical 
design, and several implications of computing. 
Course is laboratory-oriented and includes 
several hands-on laboratory projects. 

Staff 

104 Computer Science I Introduction to 
computer science, with an emphasis on problem 
solving, methodology, and algorithms. Further 
topics include computer organizadon, data 
structures, and software engineering. Student 
projects using the Java programming language 
are an essential part of this course. Prerequisite: 
Computer Science 103 or equivalent. 

SMI 

105 Computer Science II The second course in 
the introductory sequence for computer science 
majors and students interested in the principles 
of programming. Special attention is given to 
object-oriented program design methods, 
algorithms, and elementary data structiues. 
Prequisite: Computer Science 104. 

Staff 



216 Data Structures Introduction to major data 
structures and some of their applications. Topics 
include linear lists, sets, queues, stacks, linked 
lists, string processing, trees, graphs, arrays, 
tables, files, and dynamic memory management. 
Prerequisite: Comptiter Science 105. 
Staff 

22 1 Computer Organization and Assembly 
Language Programming Programming at the 
machine level, with emphasis on the logical 
connection of the basic components of the 
computer and systems programs. Topics include 
machine and assembly language programming, 
basic computer operations, hardware 
organization, systems software, and compilers. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 105. 
Staff 

301 Theory of Computation Study of the basic 
theoretical principles of the computational 
model. Topics include finite automata, regular 
expressions, context-free grammars, Turing 
Machines, Church's Thesis, Godel ntimbering, 
the halting problem, unsolvability, computational 
complexit)', and program verification. 
Prerequisites: Mathematics 208, Computer 
Science 104. Alternate years. Offered 2002-03. 
Staff 

3 1 1 Design and Analysis of Algorithms Survey 
of basic principles and techniques for the 
development of good algorithms. Emphasis is 
placed on individual development of algorithms 
and an analysis of the restilts in terms of 
usefulness, efficiency, and organization. Topics 
include design techniques, worst case and average 
case analysis, searching, sorting, branch and 
botmd, spanning trees, reachability, combinatorial 
methods, and NP-hard problems. Prerequisites: 
Mathematics 208, Computer Science 216. 
Alternate years. Offered 2003-04. 
Staff 

322 Introduction to Computer Networks 

Introduction to principles used to analyze and 
build a network of computers. Coiuse covers 
concepts and issues relating to low-level 
commtmications and protocols of computer 
networking. Students stvidy formal methods for 
integrating commtmication events into normal 
process cycles of the computer, then concentrate 
on a study of practices for defining and specifying 
a formal commtmications protocol. Throughout 



the course, students apply principles that they 
study to existing networks within the department. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 216. Alternate 
years. Offered 2002-03. 

324 Principles of Operating Systems Study of 
fundamental concepts of operating systems. 
Topics include sequential processes, concurrent 
processes, processor management, memory 
management, .scheduling algorithms, and 
computer secmity. Projects include writing of a 
program to simulate major components of an 
operating system. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. Alternate years. Offered 2003-04. 
Staff 

327 Parallel and Distributed Processing 

Introduction to techniques u.sed to implement 
parallel proces.sing concepts in computer 
environments. Course investigates SIMD (Single 
Insuiiction Multiple Data stream) environments 
and MIMD (Multiple Instructions Multiple Data 
stream) environments. Final topic is an 
investigation of computing in a distributed 
workstation environment. Students work with 
actual implementations of each of these 
environments and explore their advantages and 
appi opriate uses. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. Alternate years. Offered 2003-04. 

SHf 

335 Software Engineering Introduction to 
principles used to analyze and specif)' software 
systems. Course covers concepts and issues 
relating to initial stages of the software life cycle. 
Course examines formal methods for analyzing 
and investigating environments requiring 
automation, then studies languages and CASE 
(Compuler-Aided SofUvare Engineering) tools. 
Throughout the course students apply principles 
that they study to situations outside the 
department. Prerequisite: Computer Science 216 
and senior status or permission of the 
department. 
Staff 

340 Advanced Systems Design Formal approach 
to techniques of software design and development. 
Integral part of course is the involvement of 
students, working as a team, in the development 
of a large software project. Implementation of 
the software project is in a high-level language 
that supports modularity and procedural and 



data abstraction. Topics include formal model 
of structured programming, modular 
decomposition, information hiding, formal 
program specification techniques, software 
testing techniques, documentation, and user 
interfaces. Prerequisites: Computer Science 216, 
one Computer Science course at the 300 level, 
and senior status or permission of department. 
Staff 

34 1 A Survey of Programming Languages Study 
of fundamental concepts in the design of 
programming languages. Concepts include 
variables, expressions typing, scope, procedures, 
data tvpes, exception handling, and concurrency. 
Pardcular programming languages are used as 
examples of different ways for implementing 
these concepts. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. Alternate years. Offered 2003-04. 
Staff 

360 Principles of Database Systems Study of 
fundamental concepts of database systems. 
Topics include physical organization of 
databases, indexing techniques, and query 
processing. Particular models studied include 
the Entity-Relationship, Relational, Network, 
and Hierarchical Models. Class projects stress 
design and implementation of a database. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 216. Alternate 
years. Offered 2002-03. 
Staff 

37 1 Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Study 
of the process by which machines mimic human 
beha\'ior. Topics include search heuristics, 
knowledge representation, logic, natural language 
processing, rule-based systems, and robotics. 
Appropriate programming languages are used 
to implement projects. Prerequisite: Computer 
Science 216. Alternate years. Offered 2002-03. 

373 Computer Graphics Study of methods and 
issues sturounding the construction of 
graphical images on the computer. Topics 
include vsindowing systems and u.ser inpiU, two- 
dimensional graphics packages, curve drawing 
techniques, modeling in three dimensions, use 
of lighting and shading lechnicjues, and the 
process of rendering images. Student work 
consists both of using existing packages to create 
images and of implementing algorithms used in 



graphical systems. Prereqtiisite: Compiuer Science 

216. Alternate years. Offered 2002-03. 

Staff 

374 Compilers Introducdon to techniques used 
to translate high level computer languages into 
machine code. Coinse discusses and evaluates 
current implementation techniques, including 
the applicable theory. Topics include lexical 
scanning, parsing, code generation, and 
optimizadon. Students complete a major project 
involving the compilation of a particular 
computer language. Prerequisite: Computer 
Science 216. Alternate years. Offered 2003-04. 
Staff 

391, 392 Selected Topics 

Staff 

450 Individualized Study: Tutorial Study 
through individualized reading and projects of 
an advanced area of computer science by well- 
qualified students under the supervision of a 
faculty member. Possible areas of study are 
software engineering, compiler design, expert 
systems, parallel architecture, image processing, 
or topics in the current literature that are of 
mutual interest to the student and the supervising 
facidt)' member. Prerequisites: C^omputer Science 
216 and permission of department. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Study: Research Intensive 
study of a selected topic in computer science or 
a related area. Research project is completed in 
collaboration with a faculty member. Prerequisites: 
Computer Science 216 and permission of 
department. 
Staff 

EAST ASIAN STUDIES 

Fritz Gaenslen, Coordinator 

Gettysburg College students have the 
opportunity to pursue an interdepartmental 
minor in East Asian Studies, which is designed 
to provide a coherent understanding and basic 
competence in the major Asian civilizations of 
Japan and China. The minor may be pursued 
with a view to broadening the scope of any 
major, to acquiring a comparative perspective 
within any of the humanistic and social science 
disciplines, or as a basis for future graduate 
work or a career related to East Asia. 



For ihe minor, students take one core course 
(History 221 East Asian History to 1800, or 
History 222 East Asian History 1800 to the 
Present), plus three courses in one's country of 
specialization (either Japan or China). These 
courses must come from three different 
disciplines, with at least one course from the 
humanities and one from the social sciences. 

Among courses suitable for the Japan 

speciaHzation are: 
Japanese ISO Contemporar) Japanese Culture 

and .Society 
Japanese 247 Extraordinary Fiction in Japan 
History 224 Modern Japan 
Music 1 1 2 The Two Musics of Japan 
Political Science 271 Government and Politics 

in Japan 
Religion 249 The Rehgions of Japan 

Gettysbiug College also maintains a cooperative 
arrangement with Kansai Gaidai Universit)' in 
Osaka, Japan. Kansai Gaidai offers a full range 
of courses appropriate for the Japan 
specialization. 

.Among courses suitable for the China 
specialization are: 

History 223 Modern China 

Political Science 270 Government and Politics 
in China 

Religion 248 The Religions of China 

Students specializing in Japan must take Basic 
Japanese 101 and 102 (or their equivalent). 
Students specializing in China must take two 
semesters (or their equivalent) of basic-level 
Chinese. (Note: Because Chinese language is not yet 
offered at Gettysburg College, litis requirement must be 
fulfilled elsewhere.) 

In addition to the above requirements, students 
must complete one course that offers a 
comparative perspective within East .\sia. This 
may be either a course, beyond the core, that is 
explicitly comparative or a course on the East 
Asian country not in one's area of 
specialization. 

A final requirement is one elective, which is any 
course with a substantial East Asian focus. This 
ma\- include additional language study (Japanese 
201), Women in Buddhism (Religion 252), World 
Philosophy (Philosophy 240), Cro.ss-Cultural 
Perspectives on Gender and Sex Roles 
(Anthropology 228), and Asian Management 
Systems (Management 423). 



ECONOMICS 



Professors Fender, Gondwe, and Railing 
Associate Professors Fletcher (Chairperson) 

and K. Niiro 
Assistant Professors Brusentsev, Kaiser, Stillwaggon, 

and Weise 

Overview 

A knowledge of economics has become 
increasingly important for effective participation 
in a complex societ). The department's courses 
present this knowledge in both historical and 
contemporary contexts, with a focus on developing 
the relevant economic theory and identifying, 
understanding, analyzing, and solving social 
problems. Economists attempt to explain how 
societies organize and make decisions for using 
scarce resources to produce and distribute 
goods and ser\Tices domestically and inter- 
nadonally. Economists examine both macro- 
and microeconomic problems and consider the 
implications of alternative solutions for efficiency, 
fairness, and growth. Courses in the department 
stress the critical thinking skills of a liberally 
educated person: gathering of pertinent 
information; analysis; synthesis; and ability to 
perceive, create, and choose among alternatives. 
The department also stresses effective oral and 
WTitten communicadon of the insights achieved 
through study of the discipline. In addition to 
courses in economics, the department offers 
courses in introductory statistics. 

The department's courses are designed to meet 
the College's liberal arts objectives, while also 
serving students who intend to (1) pursue 
graduate study in economics; (2) enter graduate 
professional schools in management 
administration, law, and related areas; (3) 
piusue careers in business, non-profit private 
organizations, or government. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Economics majors must fulfill the following 
requirements: All core courses, comprising 
Economics 103, 104, 241, 243, 245, 249, and 
either Economics 350 or Management 153. 
Additionally, the followng sequence of advanced 
courses must be completed: one course from 
those courses numbered 250-299; two courses 
from those numbered 301-399; one senior 
seminar (401-403); and one other course chosen 
fiom those numbered 201 or above. A student 
may take Mathemadcs 351-352 in lieu of 
Economics 241; both semesters of the 



mathematics sequence must be completed for 
mathematical statistics to substitute for the 
departmental statistics requirement. Much, 
though not all, of the material covered in such 
applied statistics courses as Mathematics 107, 
Psycholog)' 205, and Biolog)' 260 duplicates that 
in Economics 241; therefore, credit will not be 
given for more than one of these courses. 
Research methodology basic to economics is 
covered in Economics 241 and 350. Students 
taking an applied statistics course outside the 
economics department before deciding to 
become economics majors may be required to 
demonstrate, via examination, proficiency in the 
content of Economics 241 or may be required to 
take Economics 350. 

Mathematical modeling and statistical testing 
are extensively used as tools in economic 
analysis, and majors in economics are required 
to demonstrate achievement in mathematics. 
This requirement can be satisfied by Mathematics 
105-106 or Mathematics 111. The department 
strongly encourages students who have an 
interest in majoring or minoring in economics 
to complete this mathematics requirement 
during the first year, as some 200-level courses 
have a math prerequisite. The department also 
strongly advises students planning to pursue 
graduate study in economics to take Mathematics 
111-112, Mathematics 211-212, and Economics 
350-352. Regardless of plans upon graduation, 
all students will find more options open to them 
if they are familiar with the use of computers in 
the manipulation of economic information. We 
urge economics majors to take a course or 
coiuses on the use of computers, in addition to 
the departmental courses that require computer 
work. 

The department offers a minor in economics, 
which a student can complete by taking Economics 
103, 104; two courses from among Economics 
241, 243, 245, 249, and 350 and two courses 
from among those numbered 201 or above, one 
of which must be from among those numbered 
250 and above. Additionally, a student minoring 
in economics must demonstrate the same 
achievement in mathematics as required of 
majors, and mixst achieve a grade point average 
of 2.0 or higher in courses counted toward the 
minor. 



Economics 103, 104 are prerequisites for all 
upper-level courses in the department. Under 
special circumstances, a student may petition 
the instructor of a course for a waiver of course 
prerequisites. 

The departmental brochure. Economics 
Department Handbook, contains additional 
information about the department and the 
economic major and minor. Copies are available 
in the department office, Glatfelter 111, and 
from department faculty members. 

Honors, Internships, Special Programs 

The Department of Economics values intensive 
and independent work by its students, as well as 
their interaction with peers and faculty 
members on collaborative economics projects. 
To encourage and recognize high qualit)' work, 
the department offers departmental honors to 
students who (1) satisfactorily complete the 
Honors Research Seminar (Economics 420); 
(2) earn a departmental grade point average 
of 3.2 or above; (3) complete a senior thesis ; 
and (4) present the thesis to the faculty of the 
department, who will make the final decision 
on the grandng of the honors degree. Students 
not eligible for departmental honors are 
encouraged nonetheless to pursue individual 
projects. 

Course credit for internships involving the 
application of economics may be available to 
qualified students who provide an acceptable 
application at least one month prior to the 
beginning of the internship. Persons desiring 
more information should contact Dr. Fletcher. 
Gettysburg College also recognizes the 
Washington Economic Policy Semester at 
American University, a program that involves 
both classroom study and an internship in 
Washington, D.C. (For more information, see 
Washington Semester in this catalog.) Interested 
students should contact Dr. Railing in the spring 
semester of dieir sophomore } ear. Several 
foreign study programs are especially interesting 
for economics students; information is available 
from the department and from the off-campus 
studies office. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Economics 103 and 104 fulfill the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in the social sciences. 
Economics 212, 213, 250, and 253 satisfy the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in non-Western 
Culture. 



103, 104 Principles of Microeconomics, Principles 
of Macroeconomics Courses provide general 
understanding of economic systems and economic 
analysis, with emphasis on the operation of the 
U.S. economy. Topics in 103 include the price 
^ system, theory of consumer behavior, theory 
of production, theory of the firm, income 
distribution, welfare economics, and the micro 
aspects of international trade. Topics in 104 
include national income accoimting, employment, 
inflation, monetary and fiscal policies, aggregate 
demand and supply analysis, economic growth, 
the monetary aspect of internadonal economics, 
and comparative economic systems. 
Staff 

200 Personal Finance Course considers how 
individuals might react to financial constraints 
in order to provide for their own material 
security, then develops insight into the important 
social issues of a mixed economy. Topics include 
the meaning of financial security, both 
individually and collectively, the development of 
financial goals and the use of personal budgets 
to achieve goals, the proper use of credit, the 
nature and use of insurance for protecUon and 
saving, housing, income earning assets, and 
estate planning. Current social issues are also 
considered. Prmquisites: ^.conomics 103, 104. 
Mr. Railing 

211-218 Regional Economic History, Growth, and 
Development Seminars Intensive e.\aminauon of 
one region, using the framework of economic 
analysis and political economy to consider 
economic history, growth, and development. 
Economic theory provides the primary paradigm 
within which these regions are studied, but 
consideration is also given to historical events 
that conditioned the economic outcomes. Each 
course reviews the pertinent theory and focuses 
on application of that theory to specific historical 
events. Among the regions to be studied, one in 
each course, are Africa, the Caribbean, Japan, 
Russia and Canada/U.S. Prerequisites: Economics 
103, 104. 
Ms. Fender, Mr Gondzoe, Mr Niiro, Ms. StiUwaggon 

241 Introductory Economics and Business 
Statistics Topics include nomenclature of 
dcsc riptive statistics; probabilities using the 
normal, binomial, and Poisson distributions; 
Chi-square; sampling; estimation of parameters; 
hypothesis testing; linear regression; and 
correlation. Prerequisites: Economics 103,104, 
and one of the following: Mathematics 105-106, 



1 1 1, or the equivalent or permission of the 
economics department. A student may not 
receive credit for bodi this course and Mathematics 
107, Psycholog)' 205, or Biology 260. 
Ms. Fender, Ms. Fletcher, Mr Niiro 

243 Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory 

Examination of classical, neoclassical, 
Keynesian, monetarist, new classical, and post- 
Keynesian economics, with particular focus on 
various theories and policies that relate to the 
determination of national (aggregate) income 
and price level, the determination and role of 
interest rates, and the part played by monetary 
and fiscal authorities in stabilizing the economy. 
Offered both semesters. Prerequisites: Economics 
103, 104 and Mathematics 105-106 or 1 1 1 or its 
equivalent, or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Gondwe, Mr Weise 

245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theory Course 
uses the methodological tools of economics to 
examine consumer and producer behavior and 
economic behavior, both individual and 
collective, under different input and output 
market structures. Also analyzes implications of 
such behavior for general equilibrium and 
economic welfare. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 
104 and Mathematics 105-106 or 111, or the 
equivalent, or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Fender, Ms. Fletcher 

249 History of Economic Thought and Analysis 

Study of the development of economic ideas 
and policies in relation to the evolution of 
economics as a discipline from its roots in 
philosophical discourse to its modern form. 
Schools of economic thought from Physiocrats 
to neoclassical economics are examined. 
Emphasis is placed on the ideas of major 
contributors to economic thought from Plato to 
Keynes. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 
Mr. Gondwe 

250 Economic Development Examinafion of 
economic anci noneconomic factors accoimting 
for economic growth and development in less 
developed areas of the world. Various theories 
of economic giowth iuid development are analyzed 
and major policy issues discussed. Primary focus 
is on the study of the development experience in 
the Third World and the roles of international 
trade, aid, multinational corporations, as well as 
the World Bank and the International Monetary 
Fund, in the formation and application of Third 
World strategies for economic development. 



Prerequisites: Economics, 103, 104. Recommended: 
Economics 243, 245. Satisfies distiibution 
requirement in non-Western culture. 
Mr. Gondwe, Ms. Stillwaggon 

251 International Economics Introduction to 
tiie history and development of international 
commerce and its relation to the rise of the 
capitalist system. Fundamentals of international 
trade and finance are also elaborated, and these 
tools are applied to such issues as international 
business cycles, global competition and technical 
change, balance of payments and trade deficits, 
and the international debt crisis. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104. Recommended: Economics 
243, 245. 

Ms. Stillwaggon 

252 Gender Issues in Economics Application of 
niicroeconomic theory to gender issues in our 
economy. Course explores demographic issues 
such as fertility and divorce, considers the effect 
of the tax structure and other public policies on 
gender differences in labor force participation 
over time, and examines economic paradigms 
for explaining gender discrimination in our 
society. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 
Recommended: Economics 245. 

Ms. Fletcher 

253 Introduction to Political Economy and the 
African Diaspora Examination of the origins and 
development of capitalism and the contribiuion 
of Third World peoples and minorities in the 
U.S. to the process and continued growth of 
capitalist development. Primary focus is on the 
contributions of Africa and people of African 
descent. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 
Recommended: Economics 243, 245. 

Mr. Gondwe 

167 Finance Emphasis on financial planning, 
investment analysis, asset management, and 
sources and costs of capital. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104, 241, and Management 153. 
Recommended, Economics 243, 245. 
Ms. Brusenlsev 

301 Labor Economics Theoretical and empirical 
study of the functioning of labor markets, with 
emphasis on wage and employment 
determination. Topics include time allocation, 
wage differences, discrimination, investment in 
education, mobility and migration, impact of 
legislation, unions and labor relations, and 
imperfect markets. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 
104, and 245. Recommended: Economics 241. 
Ms. Fletcher 



303 Money and Financial Intermediaries Course 
examines role of money, credit, and financial 
institiuions in the determination of price 
and income levels. Coverage includes the 
commercial banking system, the Federal 
Reserve System, monetary theory, and the art 
of monetary policy. Emphasis is placed upon 
evaluation of current theory and practice in the 
American economy in the context of increased 
internationalization of financial acdvity. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104, 243. 
Mr Weise 

305 Public Finance Introduction to principles, 
techniques, and effects of government 
obtaining and spending funds and managing 
government debt. Nature, growth, and amount 
of expenditures of all levels of government in 
the U.S. are considered, along with numerous 
types of taxes employed by various levels of 
government to finance their activities. Domestic 
and international implications of government 
debt are also considered. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104, 245. 
Mr. Railing 

309 International Finance and Open Economy 
Macroeconomics Study of international financial 
markets and their interactions with the 
macroeconomy. Topics include balance of 
payments accounting and foreign exchange 
markets. A theoretical model of the 
macroeconomy that incorporates international 
trade and foreign exchange markets is used to 
address a number of policy issues, such as the 
operation of fixed exchange rate systems, 
exchange rate crises, the evolution of the 
international monetary system, economic 
integration, and problems in the global capital 
market. Prereciuisites: Economics 103, 104, 243. 
Mr Weise 

341 Environmental Economics Investigation of 
the relationship between the economy and the 
environment, leading to a demation of biophysical 
conditions for a sustainable economy. Mainsueam 
theories and policies, including those based on 
externalities and social costs, property rights, 
cost-benefit analysis, and discounting, are 
studied in the light of these conditions. Problems 
and prospects of both market controls and 
government regulation are considered. Special 
topics include population, appropriate technolog)', 
accounting for pollution and resource depletion 
in GDP statistics, and sustainable development. 
Prerequisites: Econom.ics 103, 104, and either 
Economics 245 or Environmental Studies 212. 
Ms. Kaiser 



> 



342 Industrial Organization and Public Policy 

Application of microeconomic theory to tiie 
structure of industry. Course considers 
traditional, as well as recent and interdisciplinary 
theories of firm and industry beha\'ior, with 
particular focus on oligopoly and game theory. 
Course also re\iews the economic history of U.S. 
antitrust and regulatory policies and examines 
the effect of greater global interdependence. 
Students evaluate alternative policies for static 
economic efficiency, technological change, and 
equity. Prerequisite: Economics 245 or permission 
of instructor. 
,^5. Fender 

348 The Economics of Spatial Environmental 
Analysis Application of advanced economic 
analysis to environmental problems. New 
media, technology, and data have rapidly 
enhanced the economist's abilities to study 
problems in the enxironment and offer policy 
recommendations. Topics include national 
and global resource use, resource valuation, 
environmental justice, and economic and 
environmental policy through the frameworks 
of integrated resource policy and spatial 
analysis. Economic problems posed by 
imperfect information, uncertainty, and 
secondary data sources are considered. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103 and 104 and either 
Economics 245 or Environmental Studies 212, 
or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Kaiser 

350 Quantitative Methods in Economics 

Advanced statistical theory and the use of 
computers in data analysis. Topics include some 
applications of mathematics to economics, 
hypothesis testing and model specification, 
multiple regression and the determination of 
model acceptability'. Prerequisites: Economics 241, 
243, 245. 
Ms. Fletcher, Mr. Niiro 

351 Application of Mathematics to Economics 
and Business hitroduction to the application of 
calculus and matrix algebra to economics and 
business. Numerous illustrations of mathematically 
formulated economic models are used to 
integrate mathematical methods with economic 
and business analysis. Prerequisites: Economics 
243, 245, 350 and Mathematics 111 or 105-106, 
or Mathematics 104 and permission of instructor. 
Mr Niiro 

352 Econometrics Study of the application of 
mathematical economic theory and statistical 
procedures to economic data. Coverage includes 



the development of appropriate techniques for 
measuring economic relationships specified by 
economic models and testing of economic 
theorems. Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 
and 350, plus one other 300-level course. 
Ah. Niiro 

401 Seminar: Advanced Topics in History of 
Economic Thought and Alternative Paradigms of 
Economic Analysis Investigation of different 
perspectives in economics. Close readings of 
classic primary texts are used to examine issues 
in the history of economics and alternative 
approaches to understanding the contemporary 
economv'. Topics include competition, endogenous 
growth, technical change, effective demand, 
money and credit, and economic policy. 
Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 249, plus 
at least one 300-level course. 

402 Seminar: Advanced Topics in Theoretical and 
Applied Macro- and Monetary Economics 

Examination of advanced topics in 
macroeconomics and monetary theory and 
applications. Particular focus rotates, and 
includes such topics as the new neoclassical 
theory, rational expectations and post-Keynesian 
theory, monetary issues in international trade 
and economic development, econometric studies 
of money, regulation, and banking safety. 
Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 249, plus 
at least one 300-level course. Recommended: 303 
as one of the two 300-level courses. 
•*>■/«// 

403 Seminar: Advanced Topics in Theoretical and 
Applied Microeconomics Examination of special 
topics in advanced microeconomic theory and 
applications. Particular focus varies, and includes 
such topics as new household economics, 
industrial organization and public policy, game 
theory, information costs-structure-behavior, 
production and cost fimctions, welfare economics, 
and micro aspects of international trade. 
Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 249, plus 
at least one 300-level course. 

Staff 

420 Honors Research Seminar Seminar for 
students writing the senior thesis. Each 
participant completes an original research 
project imder the supervision of a faculty thesis 
adviser. Students discuss course readings, review 
research methods, and present and discuss their 
findings. Prerequisite: By department invitation 
only. 



460 Individualized Study Topics ot an advanced 
nature for well qualified students. Individual 
reading and research, under the supervision of 
a facult\' member. A student wishing to pursue 
independent study must present a proposal at 
least one month before the end of the semester 
preceding the semester in which the independent 
study is to be undertaken. Prerequisites: 
Permission of supervising faculty member and 
deparunent chairperson. Offered both semesters. 

EDUCATION 

Professor Brough (Chairperson) 

Associate Professors Hofman and Pool 

Assistant Professor Butin 

Director of Field Expeiicnc^s and Adjunct Professor Aliller 

Adjunct Professors Foreman, Myers, and Schafer 

Overview 

The purposes of the teacher education programs 
are to give students a thorough background in 
educational philosophy and theoretical concepts 
of instruction, and to provide an opportunity for 
student teaching and other field experiences. 

Other departments work cooperatively with the 
education department in the preparation of 
teachers in secondary education, elementary 
educadon, music education, and health and 
physical education. All education programs in 
secondary school subjects, elementary education, 
music education, and health and physical 
education are competency based and have 
received accreditation from the Pennsylvania 
Department of Education. The liberal arts are 
central to the College's teacher education 
programs. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Students planning to teach must complete a 
major in an academic department of their 
choice and fiilfill all the requirements for the 
bachelor of arts degree or the bachelor of 
science degree. Upon compledng a program in 
teacher education, students are eligible for a 
Pennsylvania Certificate, Instructional I, 
enabling them to teach in the public schools of 
the Commonwealth and other states with similar 
requirements. Students who pursue teacher 
certification are required to demonstrate 
competence in oral and written communication 
skills and computer literacy prior to certification. 
A minimum of forty hours of observation and 
participation in schools is required during the 
sophomore and junior years prior to acceptance 
into the Education Semester. Students who are 



seeking an Instructional I Certificate must have 
successfully completed the Praxis Series of the 
Nadonal Teachers" Exams (NTE) PPST reading, 
writing, mathemadcs, and listening; principles of 
learning and teaching, grades K-6 or grades 
7-12; and specialty area (elementary educadon 
or the subject area for which candidates are 
seeking certification) . 

Students interested in preparing to teach 
academic subjects in the secondary schools must 
complete one of the following approved 
programs for secondary certificadon: biology, 
chemistry, physics, general science, mathematics, 
English, German, Latin, French, Spanish, 
citizenship education, social sciences, health and 
physical education (K-12), or music (K-12). 
Early planning beginning in the first year is 
essential for all of these programs. For secondary 
education, the Education Semester consists of 
Education 304 and 476 (Student Teaching, 
worth 2 courses) . Only these courses may be 
taken during the Secondary Education Semester 

The elementary education program is distinctive 
in giving students the opportunity to 
concentrate on liberal arts studies and complete 
an academic major, thus qualifying for the 
bachelor of arts degree. Sttidents interested in 
this program should consult with the education 
department no later than the fall semester of the 
first year. For elementary education, the 
Education Semester consists of Education 334 
and 476 (Student Teaching, worth 2 courses). 
Education 334 includes an intensive school- 
based reading internship. Only these courses 
may be taken during the Elementary Education 
Semester. 

Students, in consultation with their major 
department, will select either the fall or spring 
semester of the senior year as the Education 
Semester. A Ninth Semester Option offers die 
Education Semester the fall semester following 
graduation. This option, which includes only the 
Education Semester, is pro\ided at cost to these 
recent Gettysburg College graduates who have 
been accepted into the program. (Cost for 2001: 
$2,300, plus room, board, and certification fees.) 
Student teaching experiences are completed at a 
school district in proximity to the College, or the 
student may elect to apply to student teach 
abroad, in an urban setting, or in other 
alternative sites. 

The admission of a student to the Education 
Semester depends upon the student's academic 
achievement, passing scores in Praxis Basic Skills 



tests, demonstrated competence in communi- 
cation skills, and a recommendation from the 
major department. Gtiidelines for evaluating a 
student's academic achievement are a minimum 
accumulative grade point average of 3.0 and a 
grade point average of 2.8 in the major. The 
successful applicant must have earned a C grade 
or higher in all education courses and in general 
psycholog)' and developmental psychology. The 
student is also evaluated on such professional 
Uaits as responsibility, integrity, enthusiasm, 
ethical behavior, timeliness, and communication 
skills. Applications for the Education Semester 
may be obtained in the Department of 
Education office and must be completed and 
submitted for approval by the Teacher 
Education Committee by October 15 of the 
academic year prior to student teaching. 

Students interested in teaching in states other 
than Pennsylvania will find that a number of 
states certify teachers who have completed 
baccalaureate programs in education at colleges 
approved by its own state department of 
education. Numerous states require specific 
scores on portions of the Praxis Exams. See the 
department for details. 

A student seeking teacher certification may also 
choose to minor in education. The minor in 
secondary education consists of six courses: 
Education 201, 209, 303, 304, and 476 (worth 
two courses). A minor in elementary education 
consists of six courses. Education 201, 209, and 
476 are required for the minor. The student 
then designates three of the following five 
courses to complete the minor: Education 180, 
306, 331, 370, or 334. Completion of all eight 
courses is required for teacher certification in 
elementary education. A student who elects to 
student teach during the Ninth Semester Option 
is not eligible for a minor in education, but will 
have a concentration in education. 

180 Methods and Concepts of Mathematics 
Instruction The teaching of mathematics, based 
on recent research efforts that focus on such 
topics as early number, geometry, rational 
number, multiplication and division concepts; 
development of estimation strategies and 
processes; influence of gender/minority-related 
variables on mathematics performance; impact 
of calculators and compiUers; and children's 
development of mathematics concepts. Spring 
semester only. Prerequisite: Education 20 1 or 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Hoftnan 



20 1 Educational Psychology Study of psychological 
principles and theories of development, cognition 
and learning, motivation, classroom management, 
instructional planning, assessment, and 
reflective inquiry. Repeated spring semester. 
Prerequisite: C or better in Psychology' 101. 
Ms. Pool 

209 Social Foundations of Education Study of 
professional aspects of teaching, historical and 
philosophical development of American 
education, and the relationship of schools to 
society. Current issues affecting .schools, svich as 
organization, reform, and naUonal legislation, 
are examined. Repeated spring semester. 
Mr. Butin 

303 Educational Purposes, Methods and 
Educational Media: Secondary Emphasis is placed 
on implemeiUiiig methods, techniques, media, 
and technolog)' into the teaching-learning 
process. Covirse includes an examination of 
curriculum considerations, unit development, 
reading in the content areas, accommodating 
special needs, assessment, classroom manage- 
ment, and development of a professional 
portfolio. Prerequisite: Educalion 201. 
Recommended: the subject methods comse. 
Repeated spring semester. 

Ms. Brough, Ms. Hojman, Ms. Pool 

304 Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Subject Secondary subjects, including 
biologv, chemistry, physics, English, French, 
Spanish, Gerinan, Latin, mathematics, health 
and physical education, and social studies. Course 
is taught by a staff member of the appropriate 
academic department who has students in the 
Education Semester. Prerequisites: Con.sent of 
the major department and acceptance into the 
Education Semester. Repeated spring semester. 
Staff 

306 Educational Purposes, Methods, and 
Instructional Media in Social Studies, Art, and 
Music Application of principles of learning and 
human development to teaching social studies 
in the elementary school. Inclixded is the 
correlation of art and music with the teaching 
of the social sciences. A major portion of the 
course is devoted to the development and 
implementation of a social studies imit. 
Prerequisites: Education 201 and either 180 or 
370, or permission of instructor. Offered both 
semesters. 
A'/.v. Hofman 



331 Developmental Reading Instruction and the 
Language Arts Introduction to theory, problems, 
and approaches to developmental reading 
instruction and the language arts. Current 
trends relating to acquisition of language and 
reading and writing skills are studied. Yoiuig 
adult and children's literature are explored in 
relation to the learning process. Designed for 
teachers of all grade levels. Prerequisite: C or 
better in Education 201. Fall semester only. 
Ms. Broug/i 

334 Corrective Reading Study of the analysis and 
correction of reading difficulties. Survey of 
diagnostic and motivational means and materials 
is covered. Coiuse includes a reading internship 
in the public schools under the guidance of a • 
reading teacher. Elementary education students 
enroll in this course during the Education 
Semester. Prerequisites: Education 201, 209, 331, 
and acceptance into the Education Semester. 
Repeated spring semester. 
Ms. Brough 

370 Elementary School Science: Purposes, 
Methods, and Instructional Media Coiuse 
emphasizes science education process skills and 
the inquiry-based approach; child development 
and its relation to learning science concepts; 
examination of science programs; multidisciplinary 
science; evaluation techniques; individualization 
(including issues related to gender, culture and 
special needs) , and insUuctional media designed 
for the prospective teacher. Prerequisite: C or 
better in Educadon 180 and 201, or permission 
of instructor. Fall semester only. 
Ms. Hofman 

41 1 internship in Teaching Composition Under 
the supervision of the instructor of a section of 
English 101, the intern attends classes, prepares 
and teaches selected classes, coimsels students 
on their written work, and gives students' papers 
a First reading and preliminary evaluation. All 
interns meet regularly with a member of the 
English deparunent to discuss methods of teaching 
composition and to analyze the classroom 
experience. Required of all majors in English 
planning to enroll in the secondary education 
program. Students should register for 
Education 41 1 in the semester prior to their 
Education Semester. 
English Department Staff 

461 Individualized Study — Research 

Oflered both semesters. 

471 Individualized Study — Internship 

Offered both semesters. 



476 Student Teaching Student observation, 
participation, and teaching imder supervision 
of an experienced and certified teacher. Group 
and individual conferences are held for 
discussion of principles and problems. Student 
spends the full day for 12 to 15 weeks in the 
classroom. Weekly seminar is required. Course 
carries two course credits. Prerequisites: All 
required education courses and acceptance into 
the Education Semester. Repeated spring semester. 
Mi. Brough, Mr. Butin, Ms. Pool 

ENGLISH 

Professors Berg, Fredrickson, Garnett, Lambert, Myers, 

Stilt, and Wina7is 
Associate Professors Barnes, Larsen Cowan, Johnson 

Flynn, Goldberg(Chairper.son) , Ryan, and Leebron 
Assistant Professors Bivens-Tatum, Fee, and Rhett 
Lecturers Lane and Wliitcomb 
Adjunct Instructors Allien, Anderson, Bloomquist, 

Knight, Lindeman, Phillips, Roth, Saltzman, 

Sellers, Shuckra, Singley, Smith, Spinelli, and 

Young 

Overview 

Courses offered by the English department are 
designed to train students to express their 
thoughts clearly and effectively through spoken 
and written language and to understand, 
interpret, and assimilate the thoughts and 
experiences of the great writers of English and 
American literature. English is excellent 
preparation for careers in business, teaching, 
law, publishing, journalism, and government 
service, and for graduate study leading to 
advanced degrees in literature, writing, the 
ministry, and library science. Majors have also 
enrolled in graduate programs in business, 
urban planning, social work, public 
administration, and others. 

The department offers a major in English and 
American literature, a minor program in each 
field, and a writing minor. 

A well-balanced program for a major in English 
and American literature should include: (1) 
knowledge of the literary history of England 
and America; (2) training in the application of 
the techniques of literary analysis and the 
different critical approaches to literature; (3) 
knowledge of the characteristics and 
development of the major literary forms or 
genres; (4) study in depth of the work of one 
author of significance; and (5) some knowledge 
of the history of the English language and of 
English as a system. 



> 




The Writing Center 

The Writing Center, staffed by several English 
department faculty members and specially 
trained Gettysburg College students, is a 
valuable resource. The Writing Center is open 
six days a week, and there is no charge for this 
service. The Center's staff assists students with 
their wi"iting in the following ways: 

• Discusses an assignment in order to clarify it 
or to plan a method of approach; 

• Helps in organizing a paper or other piece of 
writing, such as a letter of application; 

• Suggests ways to make troublesome parts of a 
|)aper more effective; 

• Shows ways to correct recurring grammatical 
errors. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirnnenis: Requirements for the major 
ill literatiue are twelve coiuses in English and 
American language and literature, in addition 
to the first semester of Literary Foundations of 
Western Culture (IDS 103). To obtain the 
desired distribution of courses, majors elect 
courses from the following categories: 
I. hitroductory Studies in Literature 
(English 120-139). Students may count one 
introductory literature course toward the 
major or a designated first-year seminar. 
II. Historical Surveys (English 230-239). 
Students must take at least four historical 
survey courses, but may not count more 
than five toward the major. 
III. Critical Methods (English 299). Students 
must take this course concurrently with or 
prior to their first 300-level topics course. 
IV. Topics in Literature (English 310-375). 
Students must take at least four topics 
courses. 
V. Seminar (English 401-409). Students must 
take at least one seminar. 
\T. Two additional electives. 

Of the 200- and 300-level courses, at least three 
must focus on a period of literature before 
1 800. Such courses are marked with an asterisk 
(*) in the catalog. 

English 101 and courses in speech may not be 
used to fulfill the department's major 
requirements. One writing course (201, 205, 
')00-307) may count toward the major. 

Minot Recfuirements: Requirements for the minor 
ill literature are six courses. All minors must 
take two Historical Survey courses (English 
230-239) , and at least two Topics in Literature 
courses (English 310-375). No more than one 



Introductory Studies in Literature course 
(English 120-39) or designated first-year 
seminar may count toward the minor. Wridng 
courses, with the excepdon of English lOI, may 
be used to fulfill the department's minor 
requirements. 

Writing Minor Requirements: Requirements for the 
writing minor are six courses. These include 
Introduction to Creative WYidng (English 205) 
and at least four courses from the grouping, 
English 201 and 300-309. Students may also 
take an individualized Study in Writing or one- 
semester internship at the Gettysburg Review. 

The major for students enrolled in the 
elementary education program consists of ten 
courses, in addition to the first term of Literary 
Foundations of Western Culture (IDS 103). 
Working with the chairperson of the English 
department, each elementary education student 
designs a major program that follows as closely 
as possible the department's distribution 
requirement for the luajor. Students planning to 
teach English in secondary schools are required 
to take English 209, either 365 or 366, Speech 
101, IDS 104, and either Theatre Arts 328 or 
329. The department cooperates in offering 
Education 41 1, Internship in Teaching 
Composition. Students planning to do graduate 
work in English should develop proficiency in 
Latin, French, or German. 

English majors may take internships in a variety 
of fields, such as journalism, law, public relations, 
publishing, radio, and television. Theatre arts 
majors may take internships in theatre, radio, 
television, public reladous, and arts administration. 
Students who wish to apply for internships must 
secure from their advisers a statement of the 
department's policy regarding applicaUon 
deadline, form of proposal, requirements, and 
grading. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All courses offered by the department, except 
English 1 01, 201, 203, 205, 207, 299, 300-309, 
and courses in speech fulfill the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in the humanities. English 
205 fulfills the Liberal Arts Core requirement 
in the arts. 

Senior Honors Program 

English majors wlio have shown special promise 
in English will be in\ited to complete a thesis 
during their senior year. Students in this 
program will typically write a thesis during the 
fall semester under the direction of a member 
of the department. Only students selected for 



and successfully completing the program will be 
eligible to receive honors in English. For details 
of the program, consult the English department. 

101 English Composition An introduction to 
academic writing with a stress on expository 
skills, which are developed as students write and 
revise a series of essays. The course should 
increase a student's critical capacities, sensiti\aty 
to language, and awareness that written 
communication is essential to success not just in 
college courses, but after graduation as well. 
Staff 

201 Writing the Essay Intensive course in 
advanced rhetorical techniques, with particular 
emphasis on analysis of evidence, selection of. 
appropriate style, and importance of revision. 

Mr. Ryan 

203 Journalistic Writing Introduction to 
journalistic writing and a conceptual look at the 
news media and their role in a twenty-first- 
century democratic society. Students learn to 
write a strong lead, ask newsworthy questions, 
and articulate themselves precisely. Students talk 
with professionals in the field and learn the 
ethics and traditions of journalism. They are 
also encoiuaged to submit articles to the 
campus newspaper. Prerequisite. Y.nglish 101. 
Mr. Knight 

205 The Writing of Fiction, Poetry, and Drama 

Workshop in the writing of short stories, verse, 
and plays, with an analysis of models. The course 
may be used to fulfill the distribution 
requirement in arts. 
Staff 

209 History of the English Language Historical 
study of the vocabulary, forms, and sounds of 
the language from the Anglo-Saxon or Old 
English period to the twentieth century. 
Language is a cornerstone of culture; a 
knowledge of how language operates serves to 
explain, in part, how we came to be what we are. 
The study of what language is and how it 
changes, and how these changes are grounded 
in parallel cultural changes, is therefore a 
subject of intrinsic value. 
Mr Fee 

2 1 6 images of Women in Literature Examination 
of various ways women have been imagined in 
literature, with consideration of how and why 
images of women and men and of their 
relationships to one another change, and how 
these images affect us. Emphasis is placed on 



developing the critical power to imagine 
ourselves differently. 
A/5. Berg 

217 Slavery and the Literary Imagination Study 
of various forms of discourse on American 
chattel slavery — authentic emancipatory 
narratives written by ex-slaves; slave narratives 
recorded by V\TA writers; socio-historical essays; 
neo-slave narrative written by contemporary 
novelists; poetry, ballads, spirituals, and folklore. 
Ms. Barnes 

*230, =^231, 232 Survey of English Literature 

Historical siuvey of English literature from 
Beoiifulf through the twentieth century, with 
some attention to the social, political, and 
intellectual backgrounds of the periods under 
investigation. Selected works are discussed in 
class to familiarize students with various 
methods of literary analysis; students write 
several short critical papers each semester. 
Staff 

233, 234 Survey of American Literature A 

chronological study of American writing from 
colonial days through the present, with some 
attention to the social, political, and intellectual 
backgrounds. Primary emphasis during the first 
half of the sequence falls on the Puritans and 
American Romantics; the second half surveys 
writers froin the Romantics forward, including 
such figures as Twain, Chopin, James, Williams, 
Stevens, Faulkner, Hughes, as well as selected 
contemporary writers. 
Staff 

235-260 Studies In Literature Intensive study of 
a single writer, group, movement, theme, or 
peiiod. May be counted toward the major. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in literature. 
Open to first-year students. 

235 Survey of African American Literature 

Intensive study of a single writer, group, 
movement, theme, or period. May be counted 
toward the major. Open to first-vear students. 
Barnes 

299 Critical Methods Introduction to advanced 
literary study. Attention is placed on close 
reading, using the library and electronic 
resources and incorporating scholarly 
perspectives. Course also considers a variety of 
theoretical approaches to literature and their 
place within contemporary literary scholarship. 
Course is required of all English majors and must be 
taken prior to or concurrently ivith a student's first 
300-level course. 
Staff 



> 



300 Forms of Fiction Writing Discussion course 
in the writing and reading of alternative forms 
of fiction. ,\iiTi is to enhance luiderstanding and 
implementation of various alternatives to short 
fiction, including short-short fiction, the 
novella, and the novel. Each student completes 
t\vo short-short stories and a fragment of a 
novella or the opening of a novel. All stvles and 
subjects are welcome, and students are 
encouraged to discover and exercise their 
unique writing voices. 

Mr. Leebron 

301 Writing Short Fiction Workshop in the 
reading and writing of short stories. Aim is to 
understand and implement various techniques 
and strategies of short fiction, including 
characterization, character development, 
variance of voice, transport, and resonance. 
Each student is to complete a number of 
exercises and two short stories (with both 
revi-sed), as well as written critiques. Prerequisites: 
English 101 (or equivalent) and English 205, or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. Leebron 

302 Writing of Poetry Study of theory, process, 
craft, and practice of the writing of poetrv. 
Course has a substantial writing component and 
combines workshop methods with lecture, 
analysis of models, and discussion. Close 
attention is paid to rhythm, rhyme, image, 
diction, syntax, open forms, and closed forms. 
Students from all disciplines are welcome. 
Prerequisites: YLngWsh 101 (or equivalent) and 
English 205, or permission of instructor. 

A7.S. Cmuan 

303 Tlie Writing of Screenplays and Stageplays 

Study of theory, process, craft, and practice of 
scriptwriting for film and for the theatre. Coiuse 
has a substantial writing component and 
combines workshop methods with lecture, 
analysis of models, discussion, and viewing of 
plays and films. Students from all disciplines are 
\^e\come. Prerequisites: Y.ngW'nh 101 (or equivalent) 
and English 205, or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Cozoan 

304 Writing the Personal Essay Workshop in the 
personal essay, which explores an idea from an 
individual's point of view, requiring both 
persuasiveness and a distinctive voice. Students 
develop a series of essays and read a wide variety 
of model texts for analysis and inspiration. 
Students serve as peer critics. Prerequisites: 
EnglLsh 101 (or equivalent) and English 205, or 
permission of instructor. 

Ms. Coiuan 



306 Writing the Memoir Workshop in the 
reading and writing of memoir. Students 
develop narratives based on personal 
experience and address the question of how to 
transform memory into compelling writing 
through the analysis of appropriate models and 
discussion of student work. Each student is 
expected to complete various exercises and 
critical responses, as well as a substantial memoir 
project. Prerequisites: ¥.ng\\s\\ 101 (or equivalent) 
and English 205, or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Rhett 

307 The Elements of Editing Workshop in the 
editorial process covering all stages of text 
management, including choosing, (copy) 
editing, proofreading the texts and dealing with 
the authors; ordering a group of texts into a 
coherent whole; layout and design; marketing. 
Prerequisites: English 101 with a grade of B- or 
better (or equivalent) and English 205. 

Mr. Stitt 

309 Topics in Writing Writing workshops that 
are organized according to theme, motif, or 
subgenre or that address the problem of writing 
with a specific audience in mind. 

*3 i 0-*3 1 9 Topics in Medieval and Renaissance 
Literature Studv of a variet\' of authors, themes, 
genres, and movements, ranging from .\nglo- 
Saxon poetry and prose through Shakespeare's 
works. Several sections, each with a different 
subject, are offered every year. 

*3I0A Hamlet Examination of //a>w/<'/'s greatness 
in its background and sources and in the works 
it later inflvienced, as well as in its own intrinsic, 
numinous power as an archetypal quest for the 
understanding that truly liberates. Students read 
a variety of sources, analogues, and derivative 
works; compare several of the more significant 
cinematic interpretations of the play; prepare 
oral reports; and write, as ever-evolving records 
of their own quests, an analytic-research essay. 
Mr Myers 

312 Medieval Drama Explorafion of conflicting 
theories concerning the origin and develop- 
ment of medieval drama. Students examine 
its social roles, discuss issues of text and 
performance, and compare the relative merits 
of "good literature" and "good drama." 
Examples are drawn from a variety of genres 
of drama. Students also view performances of 
several plays on videotape — and stage their ovvii 
production. 
Mr Fee 



3 1 6 Growth of Romance Exaininalion of literary, 
social, and historical factors that led to the 
development of the Medieval Romance and its 
subsequent flowering in the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. Early Celtic and other pre- 
Chrisdan influences that resulted in uniquely 
British romances are explored. Also examined 
are ways in which the romance is a singularly 
appropriate vehicle for ancient tales of journeys, 
quests, trials and tribulations; these put new 
chivalric and adventuresome masks on the 
otherwise familiar face of the Hero. 
Mr. Fee 

*320-'>=329 Topics in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth- 
Century British Literature Study of a variety of 
aiuhors, themes, genres, and movements, 
ranging from Donne and Herbert through 
Johnson, Boswell, and Burke. Several sections, 
each with a different subject, are offered every 
year. Courses offered recently in this category 
include: 

*320 The Early Seventeenth Century in England 

Study of the literature of the early seventeenth 
century (from the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 
to the execiuion of Charles I in 1649) in the 
context of the culture and history of the time. 
Through poetry, drama and prose, and other 
forms of imaginative expression such as art and 
architecture, students learn various aspects of 
the early seventeenth century, including the 
high culture of the court, the vernacular culture 
of urban and rural life, exploration and 
colonization of the new world, the intensity of 
religious beliefs and zeal, love and relationships 
between the sexes, and the violence of political 
conflict. 
Mr: Garnett 

*322 Johnson and His Circle Course focuses on 
literature written betAveen 1660 and 1743, and 
examines dominant literary forms and modes, 
as well as such issues as the education of women 
and marriage, changing social behavior, and 
growing consumerism. Through plays, prose 
wridngs, diaries, and poetry, students sample 
the literary richness of the period. 
Ms. Lambert 

325 A New Species of Writing: The Eighteenth- 
Century Novel In the history of literature the 
novel is a yoimg genre, "invented" in the 
eighteenth-century. They called it "a new species 
of writing" and reveled in the freedom the form 
gave them to explore many facets of the human 



condition. Students read several novels and 
examine the particular intellectual and social 
milieu of the time that produced some of the 
best fiction ever written. 
Ah. Lambert 

330-339 Topics in Nineteenth- and Twentieth- 
Century British Literature Study of a variety 
of authors, themes, genres, and movements, 
ranging from Blake, Wordsworth, and Coleridge 
through Yeats, Eliot, Woolf, and selected 
contemporary writers. Several sections, each 
with a different subject, are offered every year. 
Courses offered recently in this category 
include: 

330 The Tragedy of Romanticism Examination of 
melodramas written for the contemporary stage 
by long forgotten and recently recovered 
writers, many operating under the influence of 
Gothicism; verse dramas that draw upon the 
conventions of the classical and Jacobean 
theaters; translations from leading European 
dramatists; and narratives that muse on the bad 
things that can happen to good, and not so 
good, people. 
Mr Goldberg 

334 Mad Women, Fallen Women Exploradon of 
the \arious ways in which women contribiued to 
the intellectual and political excitement of mid- 
Victorian England. Course looks at novels, 
paintings, and other writings by women to 
determine if women presented different 
perspectives, if these perspectives were skewed, 
and what might have been the causes and 
consequences of their different ways of looking. 
Special attention is given to women's collective 
action in reforming lunacy laws, attitudes 
toward prostitutes and prostitution, and married 
women's property rights. 
Ms. Berg 

340-349 Topics in American Literature Study of a 
variety of authors, diemes, genres, and movements, 
ranging from colonial writers through selected 
contemporary authors. Several .secdons, each 
with a different subject, are offered every year. 
Courses in this category offered in 1997-98. 

340 Hughes, Wright, Baldwin: I, Too, Sing America 

Examination of the literary works of three major 
African American writers who critique and 
explore the complexides of being both Black 
and American before integration. In their 



poetry, prose, and fiction, Hughes, Wright, and 
Baldwin refute denigrating Anglo-American 
stereotypes concerning African Americans, 
revise and elevate the African American's self- 
perception and social perception, and conserve 
Mrican American cultural forms and social 
imperatives. Taken altogether, their rhetorical 
postures represent a broad spectrum of African 
American responses to America's t^ventieth- 
century system of social, economic, and political 
apartheid. 
Ms. Barnes 

344 Contemporary American Poetry Study of 
American poetry written since World War II by 
such poets as Elizabeth Bishop, James Wright, 
Charles Wright, Charles Simic, Rita Dove, and 
Sharon Olds. The class may be visited by one or 
more of the poets. 
Mr. Stitt 

347 Contemporary American Fiction Course 
studies form, content, and diversity in American 
fiction since the 1940s, drawing on a selection of 
novels and short stories by such writers as Updike, 
Nabokov, Carver, Bellow, Pynchon, and others. 
Mr. Fredrickson 

349 Major Contemporary African American 
Women Writers Course examines cultural, social, 
and domestic concerns of African American 
women in the literature of Alice Walker, Toni 
Morrison, Cloria Naylor, Paule Marshall, Terry 
McMillan, and Toni Cade Bambara. 
Ms. Barnes 

350-359 Special Topics in Literature Study 
of a variety of authors, themes, genres, and 
movements. These courses may focus on 
literature that cuts across a variety of historical 
periods or that is from both the United States 
and Great Britain, or from non-Anglo-American, 
English-speaking countries. In addition, some of 
these courses may focus on schools of literary 
criticism and theory. 
Staff 

355 Contemporary Indian Literature in English 

Study of twentieth-century South Asian prose 
and poetry written originally in English, as 
stimulated by the British educational legacy, 
traditional Indian thought, Marxism, 
Independence and feminist movements, post- 
colonial thought, and magical realism. Criticism 
by Indian scholars supplements Western critical 
approaches. 
Ms. Poiuers 



357 The White Man's Burden: Literature of 
Empire Focus on texts of British colonialism and 
English representation of the cultural "other." 
An examination of British imperialism and its 
denigration of non-European cultures is meant 
to reveal the extent to which the English 
projected their fears and desires tipon the 
colonized peoples of the British Empire. 
Mr Bivens-Tatum 

360 Visions and Discontent Intensive 
examination of the poetry and poetic trajectory 
of four of five British and American poets, 
including W. B. Yeats, T. S. Eliot, and Wilfrid 
Owen. 
Mr Garnelt 

362 Chaucer Examination of a selection of 
Chaucer's minor poems and some major works, 
including Canterbury Tales. Particular attention is 
given to the literary, historical, philosophical, 
and other relevant backgrotmds. Gender issues, 
political commentary, and Chaucer's use of 
satire, humor, and irony are studied in detail. 
Mr Fee 

*365, *366 Shakespeare Course seeks to 
communicate an understanding both of 
Shakespeare's relation to the received traditions 
of his time and of his achievement as one of the 
most important figures in Western literature. 
Language, characterization, and structure in 
each of the numerous plays will be carefully 
analyzed. English 365 focuses on the early plays 
through Hamlet and Troilus and Cressida; English 
366, on the later plays. 
Mr Myers 

400 Writing the Novella For seniors and juniors. 
Students read novellas by Voltaire, von Kleist, 
Flaubert, Kafka, and various twentieth-century 
writers. In addition, each student produces 
a minimum of 12,000 words (45 pages) of 
new work that constitutes an entire novella. 
Prerequisite: English 205 and either 300 or 301. 
Mr Leebron 

403 Terrible Beauty: The Literature of Apocalypse 
and Chaos Exploration of why turbulence, 
disorder, and even anarchy have often resulted 
when civilizations pursue their need for order 
and stability and how several literary works have 
puzzled over this. In modern times, writers have 
often drawn upon scientific speculation to help 
resolve the contradictions. Accordingly, the 
course will also examine the importance of 
Quantum Physics, Turbulence Theory, and 
Chaos Theory in shaping literary history. 
Mr. Myers 



404 Forms of Literary Nonfiction Seminar on 
nature writing, memoirs, and travel writing. 
Students learn to identify the qualities of such 
writing, which while based on the actual world is 
nonetheless deemed "creative." What are the 
special advantages of this approach to reality? 
Students write reports and scholarly papers, as 
well as one major piece of creative nonfiction. 
Mr: Fredrickson 

464 Honors Thesis hidividualized study project 
involving the research of a topic and the 
preparation of a major paper under the 
direction of a member of the department. 
Research and writing are done during the fall 
semester of the senior year. Prerequisites: By 
invitation of department only. • 

Individualized Study Individual tutorial, research 
project, or internship imder the supervision of a 
member of the staff. Student must submit a 
wiitten proposal to the department well in 
advance of registration. Prerequisite: A.'Pyh'ovtA of 
department and of directing faculty member. 
Offered each semester. 
Staff 

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 

Professors Commito (Chairperson) and Mikesell 
Associate Professor Delesalle 
Assistant Professors B. Crmuford, T. Crawford, 
and V^ilson 

Overview 

Environmental Studies is an interdisciplinary 
department designed to provide students with 
the expertise necessary to analyze and resolve 
complex issues related to the environment. 
Faculty from eleven departments on campus 
teach courses in the Environmental Studies 
major and minor, making it one of the most 
comprehensive small-college environmental 
programs in the country. Although local 
terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats are 
studied, the program is national and 
international in scope. Students are encouraged 
to take advantage of Gettysburg's proximitv' to 
scientific and policy-making agencies in the 
Pennsylvania state capital and Washington, D.C. 
Environmental Studies students are actively 
involved in a wide variety of activities across the 
country, from working on economic development 
issues with Native Americans in Arizona to 
collecting field data on the ecology of Maine's 
coastal zone. At the global level, students can 



utilize the College's extraordinary travel 
opportvmities to investigate firsthand the 
environmental problems facing Africa, Asia, 
Europe, and Latin America. In the classroom or 
laboratory, on an internship site or service 
learning project, in the comfort of the library or 
under demanding field conditions, students are 
taught to approach environmental issues with 
an open mind, to examine alternatives carefully, 
and to write and speak effectively about their work. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The Liberal Aits Core requirement in the 
natural sciences may be satisfied by two of the 
following: Environmental Studies 121, 124, 126, 
128, and 130. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Environmental Studies offers three levels of 
involvement for students interested in the 
environment. Students who want to learn about 
environmental issues but are not planning a 
major or a minor in the discipline are 
encouraged to take 100-level Environmental 
Studies courses. Students with a stronger interest 
in Environmental Studies may pursue the major 
or minor. 

Major in Environmental Studies 

Environmental Studies at Gettysburg involves 
an interdisciplinary approach that links 
environmental protection, economic development, 
and human rights issues on a global scale. There 
is a strong foundation in the natural and social 
sciences, especially biolog)', chemistiy, economics, 
and political science, with an emphasis on 
quantitative skills. Students engage in a senior 
capstone experience; they are also encouraged 
to pursue off-campus study, internships, and 
research opportunities. 

The Environmental Studies department offers a 
major with two areas of concentration: 

Core Requirements 
Bio 1 1 1 Introductory Biology- 
Bio 1 1 2 Form and Function of Living Organisms 
Econ 1 03 Principles of Microeconomics 
Econ 104 Principles of Macroeconomics 
Econ 341 Environmental Economics 
ES 21 1 Introduction to Environmental 

Science: Principles of Ecologv' 
ES 212 Intermediate Environmental Science: 

Environmental Problems 
Math 1 1 1 Calculus I or Math 105-106 Calculus 

with Precalculus 
Phil 107 Environmental Ethics orRel 264 

Religion and Environmental Ethics 



I 

<4 



Integration Course (choose one) 
ES 240 Energy: Production, Use, and 

Environmental Impact 
ES 310 Physical and Hiunan Geography 
ES 315 Land: Ecology, History, and Culture 
ES 317 Chesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 
ES 333 Environmental Policy 

Senior Capstone Experience (choose one) 
ES 400 Environmental Studies Seminar 
ES 460 Individualized Study: Research 

Area of Concentration 

Students choose one concentration, either 
policy or science. At least two electives must be 
above the 200-level. 

Environmental Policy 

Econ 241 Introductory Economics and 
Business StaUstics or Pol Sci 215 Political 
Science Research Methods or hoik Soc 302 
Sociological Research Methods and Soc 303 
Data Analysis and Statistics 

Econ 245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theory 

ES 333 En\'iionmental Policy 

Pol Sci 101 American Government or 
Pol Sci 103 Introduction to International 
Relations or Pol Sci 104 Introduction to 
Comparative Politics 

Plus three electives from: 
Econ 250 Economic Development 
Econ 251 InternaUonal Economics 
Econ 305 Public Finance 
ES 310 Physical and Hvuuan Geography 
ES 311 Introduction to Geographic 

Information Systems 
ES 312 Environmental Applications of 

Geographic Information Systems 
ES/Soc 3 1 4 Comparative Study of 

En\ironmental Movements 
ES 3 1 5 Land: Ecology, History, and Culture 
ES 317 C^hesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 
Geog 312 Physical and Human Geography of 

Soiuhern Africa 
Pol Sci 252 North-South Dialogue 
Pol Sci 308 State Politics and Policy 
Pol Sci 340 Models and Policy Analysis 
Pol Sci 363 The Politics of Developing Areas 
Soc 203 World Population 
Soc 306 Introduction to Sociological Theory 
Soc 313 Political Sociology 

Environmental Science 
Chem 107 ('hemical Structure and Bonding 
Chem 108 Chemical Reactivity 
Phy 103 Elementary Physics orPhy 111 
Mechanics and Heat 



Phy 104 Elementary Physics or Phy 112 Waves 
and Electricity and Magnetism 

Plus three electives from: 
Bio 200 Physiology of Plant Adaptations 
Bio 260 Biostadstics o/ Math 107 Applied 

Statistics or Phy 325 Advanced Physics 

Laboratory 
Bio 307 Limnolog)' 
Chem 203 Organic Chemistry 
Chem 204 Organic Chemistry 
Chem 317 Instrumental Analysis 
ES 225 Physical Geology 
ES 226 Structural Geology 
ES/Bio 306 Marine Ecolog)' 
ES 310 Physical and Human Geography 
ES 3 i I Introduction to Geographic 

Information Systems 
ES 312 Environmental Applications of 

Geographic Information Systems 
ES 315 Land: Ecolog)', History, and Cultine 
ES 316 Conservation Biology 
ES 317 Chesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 
ES 350 (>)astal Ecolog\' of Maine 
Phy 213 Relativity and Modern Physics 
Phy 3 1 Atomic and Nuclear Physics 
Phy 352 Optics and Laser Physics 

Minor in Environmental Studies 

The minor requires two introductory courses, 
three electives, and a senior capstone 
experience, including: 

ES 21 1 Introduction to Environmental 
Science: Principles of Ecolog)' or Bio 305 
Ecology 

ES 212 Intermediate En\'ironmental Science: 
Environmental Problems 

ES 400 Environmental Studies Seminar 

Plus three electives from: 
Bio 306 Marine Ecology 
Econ 34 1 Environmental Economics 
ES 240 Energ)': Production, Use, and 

Environmental Impact 
ES 310 Physical and Himian Geography 
ES/Soc 314 Comparative Study of 

En\ironmental Movements 
ES 315 Land: Ecolog)', History, and Culture 
ES 316 (lonservation Biology 
ES 317 Chesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 
ES 333 F.nviron mental Policy 
ES 350 Coastal Ecolog)' of Maine 
Phil 107 Environmental Ethics 

Enrichment Courses 

Students are encouraged to take enrichment 
courses to add depth and breadth to their 
Environmental Studies major or minor. These 



courses come from departments across campus 
and relate to the en\ironment in a variety of 
vvav's. In addition to courses listed as electives in 
the major and minor, enrichment courses 
include, but are not limited to: 

Bio 218 Algae and Fungi 

Bio 224 Vertebrate Zoolog)' 

Bio 227 Invertebrate Zoolog)' 

Bio 230 Microbiology 

His 239 Architecture and Society in 

Nineteenth-Century America 
IDS 250 Science, Technology, and Nuclear 

Weapons 
Phil 105 Contemporary Moral Issues 
Phil 340 American Philosophy 
Pol 263 The Politics of Developing Areas 
VAH 217 History of Modern .\rchitecture 
VAH 227, 228 Arts of the First Nations of North 

;\nierica 

Special Programs 

Faculty members teaching Environmental 
Studies are active scholars who involve students 
in their projects as research assistants. Research 
facilities include a new Geographic Information 
Systems (CIS) laboratory, electron microscopes, 
environmental growth chambers, and a fleet of 
15-passenger vans for field trips. 

Many of the Colleges off-campus affiliated 
programs provide excellent opportiuiities to 
study environmental issues in the U.S. and 
abroad. These include the American University 
EnvironiTiental Policy Semester in Washington, 
D.C., which offers internships with governinent 
agencies and private environmental 
organizations, as well as research projects in 
Costa Rica and Kenya. The College is one of a 
select few to maintain cooperative programs in 
marine science with Duke University Marine 
Laboratory and the Bermuda Biological Station. 
Students also study at affiliated environmental 
science and polic)' programs at universities in 
AusUalia, Denmark, England, and New Zealand, 
as well as at the Ecosystems Center in Woods 
Hole, Massachusetts. In addition, the Duke 
University School of the Environment has 
entered into an agreement with the College that 
permits students to start work at Duke on a 
Master of Environmental Management or 
Master of Forestry degree after three years at 
Gettysburg. This cooperative agreement allows 
students to earn the bachelor's and master's 
degrees in just five years. 

All across the nation, public and private schools 
have recognized the importance of environmental 



issues and are adding courses in environmental 
studies to their curricula. Students interested in 
a teaching career who wish to combine training 
in education and environmental studies are 
encouraged to contact the education department. 

121 Environmental issues Introduction to 
national and global environmental issues. Students 
learn the basic concepts of ecolog)', including 
population growth models, species interactions, 
and ecosystem and biosphere processes. 
Building on this scientific base, students use an 
interdisciplinary approach to analyze economic, 
ethical, political, and social aspects of environ- 
mental issues. Topics include human population 
dynamics, air and water pollution, toxic wastes, 
food production, land use, and energy 
utilization. Course does not count toward the 
major or minor in environmental studies. 

1 24 Meteorology Study of the atmosphere and 
atmospheric phenomena, as well as associated 
interacdons with the oceans and the earth's 
surface and its organisms. Topics include 
composition and energy budgets of the 
atmosphere, cloud development and 
precipitation, air pressiue, winds and fronts, 
and atmospheric circulation patterns. 
Destruction of the ozone layer and ultraviolet 
radiation, the greenhouse effect, pollution, and 
global warming are also examined. Cour.se does 
not count toward the major or minor in 
environmental studies. 
Mr. Mikesell 

126 Climatology Study of the localized weather 
of a region. Influencing factors of climate are 
examined, including continental vs. 
oceanic/lake effects, temperature and 
precipitation, the role of cyclones and 
anticyclones, and topographic and organismic 
alterations. A].so analyzed are specific 
climatolocial distinbances, such as 
thunderstorm formation, tornedo development 
and occurrence, hurricane structure and 
movement, el Niiio and the Southern 
Oscillation (ENSO), and la Niiia. Course does 
not count toward the major or minor in 
environmental studies. 
Mr. Mikesell 

128 Oceanography Introduction to our planet's 
oceans, beginning with the history of 
oceanography and focusing on the fundamental 
concepts of chemical, physical, geological, and 
biological oceanography. Important 
environmental problems in marine habitats are 



also explored. Topics include ocean 
exploration, plate tectonics, hydrothermal 
vents, currents, tides, upwelling, waves, 
tsunamis, ocean-climate interactions. El Niiio, 
global nutrient cycles, primary production, 
biodiversit), pollution, overfishing, and the law 
of the sea. Course does not count toward the 
major or minor in environmental studies. 
Staff 

1 30 The Chesapeake Bay Ecosystem Introduction 
to the physical, chemical, and biological 
components of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. 
Emphasis is placed on the history of the Bay, 
primary production dynamics, habitat t\pes, 
and pelagic and bottom-dwelling organisms. 
Himian impacts on the Bay and its watershed 
are discussed, including contemporary issues 
such as crab and oyster fisheries, aquaculture, 
nutrient inputs, toxic chemicals, exotic species 
invasions, and the management goals of the 
Chesapeake Bay Program. Course does not 
coimt toward the major or minor in 
environmental studies. 
Staff 

2 1 1 Introduction to Environmental Science: 
Principles of Ecology Introduction to current 
ideas in theoretical and empirical ecolog). A 
quantitative approach is used to examine 
population dynamics, competition, predator- 
prey interactions, life-history strategies, species 
diversit)' patterns, communit)' structure, energ)' 
flow, biogeochemical cycling, and the biosphere. 
Course provides a foimdation for further work 
in environmental studies. Three class hours and 
laboratory. Credit is not given for both 
Environmental Studies 211 and Biolog)' 205. 
Prerequisite: One year of college science. 

Mr. Commito 

212 Intermediate Environmental Science: 
Environmental Problems Analysis of the major 
environmental problems facing the U.S. and the 
world. Application of modern ecological theory 
to current environmental problems is emphasized. 
Perspectives from the natural sciences, social 
sciences, and humanities are used to investigate 
population growth, agricultiual practices, 
polliuion, energy, natiual resource use, 
endangered species, and land-use patterns in the 
indusuialized and developing nations. Prerequisite: 
Environmental Studies 211 or Biology 205. 

Mr Wilson 

225 Physical Geology Investigation of the earth's 
materials and processes that explain the physical 
structures that make our planet unique. Topics 



include the Earth's position in space, rock and 
mineral t\pes, volcani.sm, glaciation, and seismic 
events influenced by tectonic activity. Formerly 
titled Geomorphology. Alternate years. Offered 
in 1996-97. Prerequisite: One year of college 
science. 
Mr. Mikesell 

226 Structural Geology Investigation of the 
earth's varied topographical regions and the 
processes that produce change. Topics include 
tectonism, orogenesis, crustal deformation, and 
erosional agents such as wave action, wind, 
water, and mass wasting. Alternate years. 
Offered 1997-98. Prerequisite: One )'ear of 
college science. 
Mr. Mikesell 

240 Energy: Production, Use, and Environmental 
Impact Con\enlional and alternative energ)' 
sources are examined with respect to supph', 
price, technology, and environmental impact. 
U.S. consumption patterns are studied and the 
potential of conservation is addressed. Topics 
include nuclear reactors, fossil fuel supply, 
photovoltaics, air pollution, greenhouse effect, 
and energv' efficient architecture. Prerequisite: 
One college .science class. 
Mr. B. Crauford 

310 Physical and Human Geography Studies of 
human activities in its locational context. Topics 
include basic place name geography, weather 
and climate, population trends and 
characteristics, health and himian development, 
culture and language, technology and economic 
development, hiunan ecology, and 
environmental problems. 

Mr. T Crauford 

3 1 1 Introduction to Geographic Information 
Systems Analysis of geographic data and issues 
relevant to their use. Topics include digital 
geographic information technologies, digital 
data sources and database development, 
geodesy and map projections, data models and 
structures, data quality and sources of error, 
spatial analyses, and introduction to basic 
satellite image proce,s,sing. Laboratory uses 
ArcView GIS software to provide hands-on 
experience in the use and analysis of geographic 
data. Prerequisite: One year of college natural 
science, social science, or computer science. 

Mr T. Crauford 

312 Environmental Applications of Geographic 
information Systems Application of geographic 
information systems, spatial data, and spatial 
analytic methods to selected environmental 



problems. Many environmental problems have 
an inherent spatial component that can be 
addressed using spatially referenced data and 
quantitative methods. Topics include how to use 
GIS, spatial data, and spatial anah tic approaches 
to study selected en\ironmental problems, 
including land resources management, land 
conservation, watershed systems, and non-point 
pollution. 
Mr. T. Crawford 

314 Comparative Study of National 
Environmental Movements .\nalysis of national 
and international environmental movements. 
Application of rational choice theory, resource 
mobilization theory, and the emerging emphasis 
on identitv- and culture to the analysis of 
national environmental movements and 
organizations. Comparison of national and 
international environmental movements in 
Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. 
Prerequisite: One Environmental Studies, 
Sociologv', or Anthropologv' 200-level course. 
Staff 

3 1 5 Land: Ecology, History, and Culture 

Exploration of the ecolog)', history, and culture 
of land, the foimdation upon which human and 
natural communities exist, focusing on 
landscape ecologv as a tool for analyzing the 
terrestrial environment at the scale of human 
intervention. Course also looks at land in 
western culture and contemporary issues of 
land management. Prerequisite: Environmental 
Studies 211 or Biolog)' 205. Alternate years. 
Offered 2001-2002. 
Staff 

316 Conservation Biology A discipline 
comprising pure and applied science, which 
focuses on the preservation of biological div ersitv'. 
Focus implicitly recognizes that preserving the 
genetic and ecological features of a species 
requires preservation of that species' niche. 
Topics include food web organization, spatial 
heterogeneit)' and disturbance, consequences of 
small population size and inbreeding, captive 
propagation, demographics of population 
growth, and species reintroduction and 
management. Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 
211 or Biolog)' 205. Alternate years. 

Ms. Delesalle 

317 Chesapeake Bay Environmental Issues 

Analysis of the geologv' and natiual history of 
the Chesapeake Bay region in the context of 
society's exploitadon of a natural system. Course 



traces the settlement of the region, as well as 
how the Bav affected the societv' that developed 
along its shores, and how the Bay was, in turn, 
affected by this growth and development. 
Readings from the scientific, historical, 
sociological, and economics are studied to form 
a coherent portrait of the interplay between 
societ)' and the environment. Prerequisite: 
Environmental Studies 21 1 or Biology 205. 
.Alternate years. Offered 2001-02. 
Staff 

333 Environmental Policy Analysis of the policies 
that guide the use, control, and management of 
natural resources. Students examine the laws, 
bureaucracies, economics, politics, and 
ideologies underlying policy-making processes 
in order to understand how and why certain 
policies emerge, as well as their social and 
ecological effects. Primary focus is on the U.S., 
but the growing international dimension of 
environmental policies and the ambiguous role 
of the U.S. in these efforts are also considered. 
Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 121 and an 
introductory social science course, or 
Environmental Studies 212. 
Mr Wilson 

350 Coastal Ecology of Maine Intensive two-week 
field and laboratory experience to investigate 
marine and terrestrial environments in Maine. 
Students collect and analyze data, using 
quantitative samplitig techniques to test hypodieses 
on the ecology of major habitats. Field sites 
include rocky and soft-sediment shores, open 
beaches, spruce-fir forests, blueberry barrens, 
and peat bogs. Emphasis is on the geological 
phenomena that created North America's 
glaciated landscape. Relationships between 
environment and human activities in this rural 
area with its natural resource-based economy 
are explored. Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 
211 or Biology 205. 
Mr. Commito 

400 Seminar Adv anced study of an important 
national or global environmental issue. 
Interdisciplinary approach is used to analyze the 
problem from a variety of viewpoints in the 
humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. 
Students are responsible for a major term paper 
involving independent research. Topics differ 
each semester. Prerequisite: Senior standing as a 
minor or major in environmental studies or 
permission of insuuctor. 
Staff 



«^ 



> 



460 Individualized Study: Research Independent 
investigation of an environmental topic of 
interest to the student. In conjunction with a 
faculty' member, the student writes a research 
proposal due the tenth week of the spring 
semester of the junior year for a project to be 
conducted in the senior year. Student usually 
defines a research question and collects data to 
test a hypothesis. Such work may be done in the 
laboratory or field or with a compiUer database. 
A substantial paper is written and presented 
orally. Studio, performance, and writing 
projects may also be appropriate indi\ddualized 
study acti\ities. Prerequisite: Senior standing as a 
major or minor in environmental studies and a 
GPA of at least 2.8, or permission of instructor. 

FRENCH AND ITALIAN 

Professors Gregorio, Richardson Viti, and 

Viti (Chairperson) 
Associate Professor Binet 

Assistant Professors Barbera, Bard, and Gaudenzi 
Instructor Benoist 

Overview of French 

I'oreign language study not only teaches students 
much about their native tongue, but also 
introduces them to another peoples language, 
literature, and customs. This awareness of 
cultural and linguistic relativity is one of the 
hallmarks of a liberal arts education. 

Introductory French courses develop students' 
skills in spoken and written French and acquaint 
them widi tlie literature and culture of the French- 
speaking world. Language laboratory work is 
mandatory for all beginning students. With 
emphasis on oral/ aural proficiency, it complements 
classroom instruction in the language. 

Advanced language allows the student to reach 
the higher level of mastery in French required 
in more specialized study and usage. In the 
more advanced literature and civilization courses, 
students study French writing and culture in 
greater depth, thereby gaining considerable 
knowledge of and insight into France's past and 
present achievements in all fields of endeavor. 
Students at all levels of French are encouraged 
to study abroad, either in the College-sponsored 
programs at the Institute for American 
Universities in Aix-en-Provence or at the Centre 
d'Etudes Fran^ aises in Avignon, or in another 
approved program, as an inestimable 
enhancement to their understanding of the 
country, its people, and its language. Wlien 



students choose the College-sponsored course 
of study in Aix or Avignon, both credits and 
grades are transferred and financial aid may be 
applied to participation in the program. 

Students specializing in French will find that 
their major studies, in addition to their 
humanistic value, afford soimd preparation for 
graduate study and for careers in teaching or 
interpreting. A knowledge of French will also be 
invaluable to them in the fields of international 
business and government, as well as social work. 
All courses offered in the department are conducted in 
French. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: The French major 
curriculum, which includes a minimum of ten 
courses at or above the .SOO-level, is made up of 
tiuo sequences: 

1) A group of four required courses, three of 
which— 300 first, then 305 and 310— should 
be taken before further progress in the major 
program unless there is a valid reason for 
exception, (305 or 310 may be taken 
simultaneously with 300) ; and French 400, 
which must be taken in the spring semester 
of the senior year. 

2) A set of six electives chosen from the other 
departmental offerings at the 300 level. 

All French majors are required to spend at least one 
semester studying abroad in a program approved 
by the department. Beginning with the Class of 
2003, the number of courses taken abroad for 
credit toward the major is limited to three. 

Students planning on certification in secondary 
education must include both a history/ 
geography/ civilization course, a phonetics 
course and a linguistic component in their 
program of study. These requirements can be 
met by completing French 351 and Education 
304 or by taking the equivalent courses in a 
program of study abroad. 

Individualized study may be taken only once as 
part of the minimum requirements for the 
major. All majors must take at least one course 
within the department during their senior year. 
These requirements may be waived in special 
cases at the discretion of the department. 

Minm- Requirements: Six courses are required for 
a minor in French. For students who begin in 
the 101-102, 103-104, or 201-202 sequences, 
202 will count toward the minor. In addition, 
students must take 205, 300, and three 
addidonal courses above 205. 



Students who begin in 205 must take, in addition, 
300 and four other courses above 205. 

Students who begin on the 300 level must take 
300 and five additional courses above 300. As 
with the major, courses taken abroad may be 
counted toward a minor, subject to the approval 
of the department chairperson. Beginning with 
the Class of 2003, the number of courses taken 
abroad for credit toward the minor is limited to 
two. 

Students contemplating a minor in French 
should register with the department chairperson 
and be assigned a minor adviser. 

French 305 is a prerequisite for majors and 
minors for all literatme and film courses above 
the 205 level. (Students may take 305 
simultaneously with 300.) 

Students who have completed the language 
requirement and who wish to continue in 
French, but do not contemplate either a major 
or minor, may take 205, 211, 300, or 305. 
Permission of the department chairperson is 
required for entry into all other courses. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Prior to their first registration at the College, 
all students receive preregistration materials, 
which give detailed instructions on language 
placement and fulfillment of the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in foreign language. 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in foreign 
language may be satisfied by successful 
completion of French 202. Achievement 
equivalent to 202 may be demonstrated by an 
advanced placement examination or a 
departmental placement examination. No 
student may continue French unless he/she has taken 
the Departmental Placement Examination. 

All French literatme and civilization courses 
may be used to satisf)' the liberal arts humanities 
requirement, including any approved literature 
or civilization course completed abroad. 

Study Abroad for Majors 

Jimiors and first-semester seniors who have 
completed French 300 or its equivalent may 
study for one or two semesters at the College's 
affiliated program in Avignon, France. Both 
credits and grades from this program will be 
transferred, and Financial Aid may be applied to 
participauon. (See Off Campus Study.) 

Study Abroad for Minors 

Students pursuing a minor in French may study 
for a semester at the College's affiliated 



program in Aix-en-Provence. Both credits and 
grades from this program will be transferred, 
and Financial Aid may be applied to 
participation. (See Off Campus Study.) 

intermediate Program Abroad 

Students may complete the language 
distribution requirement in French by studying 
for a semester in Aix-en-Provence. The 
department's Intermediate Program is offered 
every fall semester and includes tvvo required 
courses in French language, plus three elective 
courses from areas such as political science, 
history, art, psychology, etc., which may satisfy 
liberal arts and/or major/ minor requirements. 
Students are required to live with French 
families. 

Special Facilities 

Technology' classroom in McKnight Hall. 

Special Programs 

See Study Abroad, Institute For American 
Universities Programs in Avignon and Aix-en- 
Proi>ence. 

Other Activities 

The department and the French Teaching 
Assistant sponsor various acdvities and 
organizations, such as the weekly Table fran^aise 
in the Dining Hall, the Cercle Frangais (French 
Club), French films, and lectiues. 

FRENCH 

101-102 French for Beginners Elements of 
speaking, reading, and wiiting French. Language 
laboratory usage is required. Enrollment limited 
to those who have not studied French previously. 
A student may not receive credit for both 101 
and 103; 102 and 104. 
Staff 

103-104 Elementary French Fundamentals of 
speaking, reading, and writing French. Language 
laboratory usage is required. Enrollment limited 
to those who have previously studied French 
and who are enrolled according to achievement 
on the Departmental Placement Examination. A 
student may not receive credit for both 101 and 
103; 102 and 104. 
Staff 

201-202 intermediate French Grammar review 
and practice in oral French in the fall semester, 
with stress on reading and written expression in 
the spring. Contact with French culture is 
maintained throughout. Enrollment limited to 
those who have previously studied French and 
who have completed 101-102 or 103-104, or 
who are enrolled according to achievement on 



n 

> 



the Departmental Placement Examination. 
Successful completion of 201 is a prerequisite 
for entry into 202, unless student is placed there 
according to the placement examination. 

Slaff 

205 Readings in French Literature Two 

objectives: skill in reading French prose for 
( omprehension and reading a significant 
amount of French literature of literary and 
cultural merit. This course differs from French 
201, 202 in that it emphasizes reading for 
comprehension of content. Offered every fall. 
Staff 

2 1 1 French Civilization Introduction to aspects 
of contemporary French societ)' through a study 
of French history. Offered every spring. 

•^'«// 

300 Practice in Communication Oral, aural, and 
written practices of French structures. 
Collaborative writing, group discussions, 
individual composidons, and presentations. 
Recent French films serve as text. Offered every 
semester. 
Staff 

305 Approaches to Literary Analysis Reading 
and analysis, in their entirety, of representative 
selections of prose, poetry, and theatre. Course 
aims to introduce students to interpretive 
strategies, and to make them more aware of and 
competent in the reading of literature. 
Prerequisite: French 202 or equivalent. Required 
of all majors. Course is a prerequisite for all 
literature courses on the 300-level for both 
majors and minors. Offered every year. 
Staff 

310 French Revolutions: Political, Social, and 
Cultural Upheaval Since 1789 Overview of the 
various revolutions in France following the 
Revolution of 1789. Coiuse examines the many 
political changes from the rise of the French 
Republic to the current phenomenon of 
cohabitation, as well as changes that have 
transformed the face of France in the last two 
centuries, on fronts as diverse as architecture, 
the fine arts, demography, and culture. Offered 
every year. 
Staff 

332 French Film: Images, Sounds, Theories Study 
of selected major French films from the New 
Wave movement to recent cinema. Course is an 
intioduction to the study of the techniques, 
theory, and semiotics of film as an art form. It 



includes a reflection on the relationships 
between image production, social landscapes, 
and lifestyles in changing contemporary France. 
Students learn to distinguish between the 
production and reception of cinemadc 
language. Prerequisite: French 305 or equivalent. 
Offered 2004-05. 
Ms. Binet 

333 French Cultures: Visuals and Texts from 
Contemporary France Study of specific 
intersections and influences among selected 
visual arts productions, motion pictures, and 
poetic texts in a changing t^ventieth-century 
France. Students are invited to read between 
shapes and colors, to see and hear poetry, to 
decode film languages and to detect 
correspondences. Definitions of techniques and 
decoding systems pertaining to each artistic 
expression are presented and debated. 
Prerequisite: French 305 or equivalent. Offered 
2002-03. 
Ms. Binet 

335 A Woman's Life: Fact and Fiction About the 
Female Experience Study of the female 
experience through the words of women 
themselves. As Annie Leclerc pointed out in 
Parole defemme, for too long men have coopted 
language and assumed the task of telling women 
who the\' are. Course addresses such a 
presumption and examines, in both fiction and 
nonfiction, firsthand experience from 
childhood through aging. Prerequisite: French 
305 or equivalent. Offered 2002-03. 
Ms. Richardson Viti 

340 Masterpieces of French Literature Reading 
and discussion of masterworks of French poetry, 
prose, and theater in their historical, artistic and 
social contexts. Works by such authors as Villon, 
Montaigne, Moliere, Mme de Lafayette, Voltaire, 
Balzac, Flaubert, Colette and Beckett are read 
in their entiretv'. Prerequisite: French 305 or 
equivalent. Offered 2003-04. 
■*>■'«//■ 

342 Classical Greek Heroes on the French Stage 

Reading and analysis of plays based on Greek 
myths by such authors as Corneille, Racine, 
Cocteau, Anouilh and Sartre. Comparison and 
contrast with the original myth and/or play 
helps elucidate "modern" responses to the 
eternal questions posed by classical Greece and 
its literary masters. Prerequisite: French 305 or 
equivalent. Offered 200.3-04. 
Mr. Viti 



343 He Said, She Said: Gender Perspectives in the 
Contemporary French Novel Study of the 
conflicting male/female perspective in 
representative works by major twentieth-century 
French writers from Colette and Butor to Proust 
and Beauvoir. Prerequisite: French 305 or 
equivalent. Offered 2002-03. 

Ms. Richardson Vili 

344 Moralists and Immoralists in French 
Literature Study of topics in French literature 
over the centuries, examining works of prose 
whose thematics revolve around the question of 
morality. Course presents a survey of novels, 
short fiction, maxims, and fragments that either 
advance or reject the conventional moral 
system. Authors studied include La Bruyere, ha 
Rochefoucauld, Pascal, Mme de Lafayette, de 
Bergerac, Sade, Diderot, Balzac, Flaubert, 
Huysmans, Gide, Duhamel, and Camus. 
Prerequisite: French 305 or equivalent. Offered 
2003-04. 

AIk Gregmio 

350 Advanced Stylistics Intensive practice in the 
refinement of writing skills directed toward a 
sophisticated and idiomatic use of the language. 
Coursework includes composition, translation, 
comparative stylistics, French for use in 
commercial and other correspondence, and 
work in the spoken language. Prerequisite: 
French 300 or equivalent. Offered 2002-03. 
Staff 

35 1 Phonetics and Diction Phonetic theory, 
practice, and transcription. Intensive training 
in pronunciation and diction. Intended for 
majors/minors prior to foreign study. Offered 
2003-04. 

Staff 

352 French Translation Study and practice in 
translating from French to English and from 
English to French. Course develops the ability to 
render idiomatic French into idiomatic English, 
and Ndce-versa. Offered 2003-04. 

400 Seminar Intensive study of a particular 
aspect of French literature, civilization, or 
culture to be determined by the instructor. Past 
offerings include The Ait of Emile Zola, The 
Image of Women in French Literature: A 
Feminist Perspective and The Gaze and Self- 
image in French Film, 1959-89. Course is for 
seniors (in the final semester) to complete 
undergraduate work in French. Prerequisites: 



Limited to seniors, except with permission of 
instructor and approval of department 
chairperson. Offered every spring. 
Staff 

Individualized Study Guided readings or 
research under the supervision of a facult)' 
member. Prerequisites: Permission of instructor 
and approval of department chairperson. 

Staff 

ITALIAN 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Italian 222 and 240 fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in the humanities. 

Study Abroad 

Fall Semester in Florence, Italy. Every fall students 
are invited to participate in the semester study 
abroad program sponsored by Syracuse 
University. Students will take courses in Italian 
language, the arts, humanities, and social 
sciences. (See Off-Campus Study.) 

101, 102 Elementary Italian Fundamentals of 
Italian grammar, composition, pronunciation. 
Emphasis on oral comprehension, verbal 
communication, reading, and writing. 
Classroom interaction stresses aural-oral 
method of language learning. Regular 
laboratory work reinforces grammar and writing 
skills and is required of all students. Course 
includes use of audio-visual materials and 
introduction to important aspects of Italian 
culture. 
Staff 

201, 202 Intermediate Italian Review of Italian 
grammar as well as further development of 
speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills. 
Text includes culturally authentic excerpts from 
Italian newspapers and magazines. Course 
content helps students learn about modern 
Italian civilization and current social problems. 
Regular compositions develop students' writing 
skills; audiovisual materials and required 
listening assignments improve listening and 
speaking abilities. Prerequisite for 201: Italian 102 
or equivalent. Fcrr 202: Italian 201 or equivalent. 
Staff 

111 Introduction to Italian Cinema 

Chronological and stylistic survey of Italy's 
contributions to world cinema. Films selected 
also draw attention to major historical events 
and cultural developments in Italy. Course 
examines neorealism and reactions to it, and 



presents the work of noted aiiteiirs Antonioni, 
Bertolucci, Fellini, Pasolini, and Wertmi'iller. 
Weekly screening of films on video in Italian 
with English subtitles; lectines and discussions 
conducted in English. Not offered every year. 
Staff 

240 Dante's Divine Comedy Study of Dante 
Alighieri's masterpiece, the Divine Comedy, 
which offers a remarkable panorama of the late 
Middle Ages through one man's poetic vision 
of the afterlife. Course explores themes still 
relevant to today's world: indi\idual and civic 
responsibilities, governmental accountability, 
church-state relations, and socioeconomic and 
personal justice. Although the poem is read in 
English, a bilingual edition enables students 
to see famous lines in their original Italian. 
Additional independent study of the original 
is offered for students who know Italian. Not 
taught every year. 
Stciff 

GERMAN 

Associale Professors Armster, McCardle (Chairperson), 
and Ritterson 

Overview 

Learning German is more than learning a 
language. It's also the study of a culture and its 
history. The German program offers a wide 
range of courses so that the student of German 
can become proficient in understanding 
German literature, history, art, and politics in 
the context of modern societ\'. At all levels, we 
encourage the partnership betvveen the study of 
Germany's historical and cultural development, 
and the study of its language. 

Courses are offered at all levels, from beginning 
to advanced, for majors and nonmajors. We 
encourage all of our students to study on our 
semester program in Cologne, Germany. On 
this program, students live with German families, 
participate in weekly excursions, and study 
German language, art, political science, literature, 
and hislfjry under the direction of a U.S. faculty 
member and resident Carman faculty. In addition, 
qualified students may study on the Gettysburg 
College-affiliated, junior-year program at 
Heidelberg University. 

A resident German assistant and various 
cocurricular activities — films, visiting lecturers, 
excursions to cultural centers in Washington 
and Baltimore, German Club — all foster a close 



working relationship between students and 
faculty. German television broadcasts are 
received by a campus-wide satellite system, and in 
addition to library subscriptions to important 
joiunals and newspapers, the department itself 
maintains subscriptions to newspapers, 
magazines, and a collection of source materials 
for use by students and faculty. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

German 202 or equivalent proficiency is 
considered a prerequisite to all higher-numbered 
German courses, unless specified otherwise. 

Major Requirements: A major consists of 
a minimum of ten courses beyond the 
intermediate language level, including 301 (or 
303-304), 305, and 306; 31 1, 312, 400; at least 
two courses from those numbered 325, 328, 331, 
333, 335, or 340; and one course from History 
218, History 218-GC, or German 120. Women's 
Studies/ German 351 (Women in Nazism) also 
counts for major credit with the approval of the 
instructor. Majors preparing to teach German in 
secondary schools must also take Education 304, 
Techniques of Teaching, and Curriculum of 
Secondary German (does not count toward 
German major). No more than three courses 
taken in Cologne may coimt toward the major. 

Majors must spend at least one semester 
studying in an approved program in a German- 
speaking country. Majors who take a study 
abroad program may coimt no more than three 
courses per semester or six courses for the year 
toward the major and must take at least two 
German courses in their senior year. 

Majors who, by the end of the junior year, have 
not demonstrated a satisfactory level of 
competency in the reading, writing, speaking, 
and listening comprehension of German, as 
determined by the department's staff, will be 
assigned such additional work as considered 
necessary and appropriate to the attainment of 
such competency by the end of the senior year. 

Minor Requirements: For students beginning at 
202 or below, the German minor consists of 202 
(or equivalent intermediate course work in 
Cologne), 301 (or equivalent advanced coiuse 
work in Cologne), and four additional courses. 
For students beginning at the 301 level, the 
minor consists of 301 (or equivalent advanced 
course work in Cologne) and five additional 
courses. No more than three courses taken in 
Cologne may coimt toward the minor. 



Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Prior to their first registration at the College, 
all students receive preregislration materials 
that give detailed instructions on language 
placement and fulfillment of the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in foreign language. 

Achievement equivalent to 202 may be 
demonstrated by an achanced placement 
examinaUon or a departmental placement 
examination given dining orientation before 
the initial week of fall semester. 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in foreign 
language may be satisfied by successful 
completion of German 202 or any 300-level 
course. 

All German literature and civilization courses 
satisf)' the Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
humanities. 

With the consent of the history department, 
German 311 or 312 may be coimted toward a 
history major. 

SPECIAL PROGRAMS 

Fall Semester in Cologne, Germany 

E\ery fall semester students are in\ited to 
participate in the semester study abroad 
program cosponsored by the Pennsylvania 
Colleges in Cologne Consortium (PCIC) . This 
program is open to all students, sophomore 
through first-semester senior, regardless of 
major, who have completed a minimum of 
one year of college German or the equivalent. 
Students register for a normal course load (4-5 
courses) . Two courses are German language 
courses: 

203, 204 hitermediate German 

214 Cologne: 2000 Years of History and Culture 

303, 304 Advanced German 

325 German Literature since 1945 

The other courses (taught in English) are from 
the areas of political science, history, art history, 
and literature and may satisfy distribution 
and/or major/minor requirements in those 
areas. These include: 

Art Hist. 2 1 5 German Art from the Middle 
Ages to Today 

History 218 History of Germany from 1815 
to the Present 

Pol. Sci. 273 Political Systems of Germany 

Credit for the two German courses is for the 
200- or 300-level and constitutes the completion 



of the language requirement. StudenLs live with 
German families as regular members of the 
family. Regular Gettysburg College tuition, room, 
and board cover all but personal expenses. 

Junior Year Abroad 

Qualified students are encouraged to study 
abroad one or both semesters of their junior 
year. Students can choose from the Gettysburg 
College-affiliated American Junior Year in 
Heidelberg program or other programs 
administered by American institutions at 
universities in Munich, Freiburg, Marburg, 
Berlin, Bonn, and elsewhere. (See Study 
Abroad) . 

GERMAN UNGUAGE 

101, 1 02 Elementary German Essentials of 
grammar, composition, pronunciation. Course 
includes oral and written work, graded elementary 
reading, and use of audiovisual cultiual materials 
and correlative drill in the language laboratory. 
Prepares for German 201, 202. 
Staff 

103, 104 Fundamental German Fimdamentals of 
understanding, speaking, reading, and writing 
German. Course includes oral and written work, 
graded elementary reading, use of audiovisual 
cultural materials, and correlative drill in the 
language laboratory. Enrollment is limited to 
those who have previously studied German and 
who are enrolled according to achievement on 
the Departmental Qualifying Examination. 
Students cannot receive credit for both 101 and 
103; 102 and 104. 
Staff 

201, 202 Intermediate German C>ontinuation of 
the work of German 101, 102. Progressively 
more difficult readings introduce the student to 
German literature and civilization. Course 
includes use of audiovisual cultural materials 
and correlative drill in the language laboratory. 
Prerequisite: German 1 02 or equivalent. 

Staff 

301 Advanced German Designed for advanced 
work in language and intended for students who 
have successfully completed at least German 

202, as well as for qualified incoming students. 
Intensive pracdce in developing oral 
communication skills, listening comprehension, 
and written expression. Conducted in German 
Staff 



GERMAN CULTURE STUDIES 

205 Understanding Cultural Differences 

Intercultural workshop focusing on everyday-life 
situations in the German-speaking world. 
Course highlights similarities and differences 
between Americans and Germans in order to 
improve students' imderstanding of other 
t ultiues and to train them to participate 
sucessfully in intercultiual communication. 
Readings are in German; course is conducted in 
German. Prerequisite: Gern\an 201 or equivalent. 
Course receives half credit. 
Staff 

305 Modern Germany: Issues and Identity 

hitroduction to the German major through the 
study of cultural, social, economic, and political 
developments in postwar Germany from division 
to the present. Extensive use of critical/analytical 
readings, memoirs, literature, film, newspapers/ 
magazines, and German television via satellite. 
Conducted in German, with additional language 
practice integrated into the course. Oral reports 
and short papers. Prerequisite: German 202 or 
equivalent. Course is required of all German 
majors. 
Staff 

3 1 1 From Tacitus to Frederick the Great: German 
Culture from Origins to 1 790 Study of German 
cultiual history from its origins to the Age 

of Romanticism, including such topics as 
Germanic tribes, medieval dynasties, roman- 
esque, gothic and baroque styles. Reformation 
and Age of Absolutism. Aim is to deepen the 
student's understanding of and interest in the 
culture of the German-speaking peoples and 
their major contributions to the world's cultural 
heritage. Conducted in German. Prerequisite: 
German 301 or equivalent, or permission of 
instructor. 
Staff 

312 From Beethoven to Brecht: German Culture 
from 1 790 to 1 945 Study of the cultural history 
of the German people from the Age of 
Romanticism through the end of World War II, 
within the context of major social, political, and 
economic developments. Goal is to understand 
the creative spirit in nineteenth- and twentieth- 
century German-speaking coimtries, and to 
appreciate their major contributions to the 
world's cultural heritage. Conducted in 
German. Prerequisite: German 301 or equivalent, 
or permission of instructor. 

Staff 



GERMAN LITERATURE 
1 20 German Literature in English Critical 
analysis and appreciation of form and content 
of representative German literary masterpieces, 
selected from the literary periods from the 
Middle Ages to the present, together with 
an examination of the times and cultural 
circumstances that produced these works. 
Counts toward a major in German. 
Staff 

306 German Literature: An Introduction 

Introduction to the development of German 
literature and how to read and comprehend 
literary prose, poetry, and drama. Course aims 
to develop a sense for the art of reading, 
interpreuve strategies for literary study, and a 
valid basis for the appreciation and judgment 
of literature. Students read, discuss, and write 
about literary texts in various genres and from 
various historical periods. Conducted in 
German Prerequisite: German 202 or equivalent. 
Course is required of all German majors and is a 
prerequisite for all higher-numbered literature 
courses. Offered every year. 
Staff 

328 Goethe's Faust Intensive reading and analysis 
ol Faust. Lectures and discussions highlight 
its aesthetic, moral, and ethical values and 
autobiographical significance. Modern cultural 
implications are also examined. Outside reading 
and reports. Conducted in German. Prerequisite: 
German 306 or permission of instructor. 
Staff 

33 1 German Tales from Goethe to Grass Cotuse 
in German pro.se narrative, represented 
primarily in writings from the early eighteenth 
century to the present. Works read reflect 
particularly the development of German 
narrative since the emergence of the modern 
novel and Novelle. Readings are in German; 
course is conducted in German. Prerequisite: 
German 306 or permission of department. 

333 The Poetic Voice: German Verse Study of 
German l)Tic poetry from the earliest examples 
to the works of contemporary poets. Class 
discussions of the readings concentrate on 
the interrelations of form, content, and idea. 
Course also considers the historical place 
of works by major figures. Readings are in 
German; course is conducted in German. 
Prerequisite: German 306 or permission of 
department. 
Staff 



335 The German Stage Reading and critical 
analysis, through discussion and lecture, of 
representative dramas from the eighteenth 
century to the present. Includes works by 
Lessing, Schiller, Goethe, Kleist, Biichner, 
Hebbel, Hauptmann, Brecht, Diirrenmatt, 
Frisch, Braun, Hacks, or others. Readings are in 
German; course is conducted in German. 
PrerecpdsUe: German 306 or permission of 
department. 

340 Topics in Modern German Culture Study of 
selected aspects of German cultiual history, 
including authors, themes, genres, movements, 
etc., ranging from the eighteenth century to the 
present. One coiuse in this category offered 
every year. 

35 1 Women and Nazism Examination of the 
effects of Nazism on women, primarily (but not 
exclusively) in Germany, beginning in the 1920s 
and extending to postwar times. Course focuses 
on women's perspectives as exhibited in 
historical and literary documents. Fulfills 
literature requirement. May be coimted toward 
the German major with approval from 
professor. 
Ms. Armsler 

400 Seminar Intensive study of selected aspects 
of German language, literature, and civilization 
through reading, discussion, and oral and 
written reports. Topics are selected with a view 
to affording students an opportunity to 
strengthen their knowledge in areas not 
covered in their other course work in the 
department. Conducted in German. 
Staff 

IN COLOGNE: 

214 Cologne: 2000 Years of History and Culture 

Intermediate-level course for students enrolled 
in German Language and Cultiue I and II. 
Study of the development of the city of Cologne 
as an urban complex and as a mirror of German 
and European history. Course also builds 
vocabulary and further strengthens language 
skills. Includes lectures, discussions, readings, 
field trips, essays, and group projects. 

325 German Short Fiction Study of the literature 
of German-speaking coim tries from the end of 
World War II to the present. Course introduces 



students to authors and genres representing 
important literary currents and historical 
developments of the postwar era. Conducted 
in German. 

Individualized Study Guided reading or research 
imder the super\ision of a faculty member. 
Prerec/nisile: Permission of department. 

HEALTH AND EXERCISE SCIENCES 

Associate Professor J. Donolli 

Assistant Professors K. Stuempfle (Co-Chairperson) 

andD. Drury 
Instructors D. Petrie (Co-Chairperson) and C. Wright 
Adjunct Instructors M. Cantele, M. Fees, and 

R. Lehman 

Overview 

The department's philosophy is a holistic one. 
We believe in the Greek ideal of "a sotmd mind 
in a sound body." The College stresses the 
individual need for total fitness for all students 
through our required courses. Our majors' 
courses offer students with a particular interest 
in health and exercise sciences a rewarding and 
well-rotuided educational and life experience. 

A major in health and exercise sciences (HES) 
is an excellent preparation for specific areas, 
such as allied health careers and state-approved 
teaching certification in health and physical 
education (K-12). With proper course selection 
students can qualify for postgraduate work 
in health care fields such as physical therapy, 
occupational therapy, physician assistant, 
cardiac rehabilitation, exercise physiology, and 
nutrition and for admission to medical school. 
Gettysburg College has an agreement with MCP 
Hahnemann University Graduate School for 
early acceptance of selective graduates who 
meet the criteria for admission into the entry- 
level physical therapy program. The College also 
has an agreement with The Johns Hopkins 
University School of Niusing for a combined 
(3-2) degree program, and with Pennsylvania 
College of Optometry for an accelerated (3-4) 
degree program. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requireiwnts: HES majors must satisfy' all 
College Liberal Arts Core requirements. 
Psychology 101 is the preferred social science 
course. Biology 101 and 112 are required for 
students in the Allied Health Science Track and 



> 



should be taken during the first year Biolog\ 
101 and 102 are required for students in the 
Teacher Education Track and should be taken 
dining the first year. 

Majors are required to complete seven core 
courses, plus courses in an area of concentration. 
The seven core courses are HES 112, 209, 210, 
214, 218, 309, and 320. In addition to taking the 
core program, all majors select an area of concen- 
tration and complete the courses specified. 

a) Allied Health Science Track: Each saident is 
required to take the following courses: HES 310, 
376, 449, HES 332 (or Biology 260 or Math 107 
or Psychology 205), and Chemistry 107,108, 
and/or Physics 103, 104 

b) Teacher Education Track: For students 
graduating in the K-12 teacher certification 
program (elementary and secondary teacher 
education), the following courses are required: 
HES 101, 102, 201, 202, 301, 302. HES 211, 230, 
310, 332, Education 201, 209, and P.sycholog\' 
101, 225. In order to complete teacher 
certification Education 303, 304, and 476 must 
be completed. (See listings and requirements in the 
Departinent of Education and under Teacher 
Education Programs.) 

Faculty advisers are available to help in counseling, 
but students have the sole responsibilit)' for 
meeting all major requirements. It is important 
to declare the HES major early in the four-year 
curriculum; failure to do so often means an 
additional semester or two to complete the 
program. HES majors must take all HES core 
courses at Gettysburg College. 

The department strongly recommends that all 
HES majors complete an internship in order to 
gain practical experience and insights into a 
specified area of interest. Internships may be 
taken during the simimer months or during the 
regular academic year. Applied experiences may 
be arranged in such settings as sports medicine, 
physical therapy, adult fitness, cardiac rehabili- 
tation, sports administration, or sports management 
Grading is contracted between the student and 
the facult) sponsor on an S/U basis and is 
determined by the sponsor and the cooperating 
internship supervisor. 

Minor Requirements: Students must meet the 
prerequisite in the natural sciences by 
completing Biolog) 101 and 112. The following 



five courses are required: HES 209, 210, 214, 
218, and 309. The student may choose one 
course from the remaining to complete the 
minor: HES 230, 240, 310, 332, 361, 376, or 449. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

For nonmajors, the one-quarter credit coiuse in 
fitness/recreational skills is required for 
graduation. This course is graded only on an 
S/U basis. 

HES 332 and 342 fulfill the Liberal .\i-ts Core 
reqitirement in quantitative rea.soning. 

FITNESS/RECREATIONAL SKILLS ACTIVITIES 

Activities for Children 
Aerobics 
Archery 
Badminton 
Basketball 
Beginner's Swim 

Body Conditioning (Aerobics, Anaerobics, 
Weight Training) 
Challenge Course 
Fitness Swim 
Golf 

Indoor Soccer 
Indoor Lacrosse 
Lifeguarding** 

Running & Jogging (Self-Paced) 
Skiing** 
Softball 
Tennis 
Volleyball 
Water Polo 
**Requires extra fee 

Students who are unable to participate due to 
medical reasons in the regitiar programs should 
enroll in HES 106, Adapted Physical Education, 
which can be substituted for any 
fitness/ recreational skills course. 

101, 102, 201, 202, 301, 302 Major Skills Skill 

development and methods and techniques of 
class organization and instruction for the 
following physical education activities: lacrosse, 
field hockey, wrestling, swimming, gymnastics, 
folk-square-social dance, baseball, softball, 
tennis, aerobics, conditioning, weight-training 
badminton, elementary school teaching, golf, 
archery, soccer, elementary-junior high-senior 
high games and recreational activities, basketball, 
volleyball, and uack and field. Course is for health 
and exercise sciences majors. 1/4 course each. 
Staff 



I 12 Foundations of Health, Physical Education, 
and Recreation Introduction to the development 
ot health, physical education, and recreation 
programs from historical, philosophical, and 
contemporary perspectives. Special emphasis is 
placed on current controversial issues existing 
in physical education and athletics, as well as on 
the diversit)- of career options available within 
allied health sciences. Prerequisite: Majors only or 
prospective majors. 
Ms. Wright 

209 Human Anatomy and Physiology I Systems 
approach to study the structure and fiuiction of 
the htmian body. Emphasis is placed on the 
levels of organization within the human body, 
and the anatomy and physiology of the 
integiunentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous 
systems. (The remaining systems are covered in 
HES 210.) Prerequisites: "^,10X0^' 101 or 111 and 
Biology 102 or 112. 

Ms. Stuempjle 

210 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Systems 
approach to study the structiue and fimction of 
the htmian body. Emphasis is placed on the 
anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular, 
lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, digestive, 
reproductive, and endocrine systems of the 
himian body. (The remaining systems are 
covered in HES 209.) Prerequisites: Biolog)' 101 
or 1 1 1 and Biolog\- 102 or 1 12. 

M.S. Sluempfle 

21 1 Personal Health Critical look at relevant 
health issues of this decade. Careful inspecdon 
of data concerning drtigs, human sexuality, 
marriage and family li\ing, old age, and 
pollution is included, along with an 
examination of the relationship of personal 
health problems to the commimity at large. 
Ms. Wright 

212 Community Health Broad overview of 
communit) health. Health promotion, 
consimier health, public health, school health, 
environmental health, preventative medicine, 
and the health care system are examined. Each 
area's contribution to commimit)' health is 
discussed. 

Ms. Wright 

214 Athletic Training I Preparation of the 
prospective athletic trainer for the prevention 
and care of injuries. Course includes instruction 



about protective equipment, safet)' procedures, 
and facilities, as well as preparation of the 
athlete for competition, emergency procediues, 
post-injury care, and medical research related to 
training and athletics. Material in the official 
Red Cross Standard First Aid courses is given, 
and certificates can be earned. Pracdcal work 
covered includes massage, taping, bandaging, 
and application of therapetuic techniqties. 
Mr Cantele 

218 Kinesiology Examination of the interaction 
of the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems 
that create movement. Areas of study include 
the osteology, arthrolog\', mvologv', and 
neurology of the head, neck, trimk, and limbs. 
Various skills are analyzed to determine joint 
motion, types of muscle contracdon, and 
involved muscles. Prerequisite: HES 209. 
Staff 

220 Administration in Health and Exercise 
Sciences Study of the administrative theory, 
principles, and probleins in health and exercise 
science. 

^Hf 

230 Nutrition and Performance Investigation of 
human nutritit)n, focusing on the nutrients and 
factors that affect their utilizadon in the human 
body. Emphasis is placed on the effects of various 
nutrients on fitness and athletic performance. 
Topics include nutritional cjuackery, weight 
conuol, and pathogenic pracUces among athletes. 
Prerequisite: Biolog)' 101 or 111. 
Mr D. Petrie 

240 Sport Psychology Study of the principles 
and concepts used in sports psycholog)'. Topics 
of personality and the athlete, success strategies 
of performance, and motivational theories are 
covered in depth. History of sports psychology 
and the psycholog)' of play and competition are 
also stressed. Prerequisite: Psycholog)- 101. 
Mrjannyk 

250 Methods of Teaching Elementary Health and 
Physical Education Examination of history and 
philosophies of teaching elementary health and 
physical education. Principles, methods, and 
strategies for teaching elementary health and 
physical education will be investigated. Sttidents 
explore lesson planning, classroom management 
intervention, and assessment strategies. 
^taff 



251 Methods of Teaching Secondary Health and 
Physical Education Examination of history and 
philosophies of teaching secondary health and 
physical education. Principles, methods, and 
strategies for teaching secondary health and 
physical education are investigated. Students 
explore lesson planning, classroom 
management intervention, and assessment 
strategies. 
Staff 

309 Exercise Physiology Study of integration of 
the body systems in performance of exercise, 
work, and sports activities. Both acute and 
chronic stresses are considered. Performance of 
exercise activities by the body imder 
environmental stress situations. Laboratory 
experiences include the measurement of 
physiological parameters under exercise 
conditions. Prerequisites: HES 209, 210. 

Mr. Drury 

310 Clinical Exercise Physiology Provides an 
understanding of exercise prescription for 
healthy adults and those with coronary heart 
disease risk factors. Standard fitness testing 
techniques are demonstrated in supplemental 
laboratory sessions. All exercise testing and 
prescription considerations are taught in 
accordance with guidelines established by the 
ACSM. Prerequisite: HES 309 or permission of 
instructor. 

Mr D. Petrie 

320 Corrective and Adapted Physical Education 

Provides instruction, experiences, and 
observations of the school environment and of 
school children. Specific abnormalities of 
people are studied, and exercises are adapted 
for individuals to allow more complete 
personality and physical development through 
activity. A laboratory experience allows students 
to gain first-hand experience in working with a 
special needs person. 
Ms. Wright 

332 Measurement and Evaluation in Health and 
Physical Education Concentration on test 
preparation in the cognitive, psychomotor, and 
affective domains; application of measurement 
and evaluation optics; analysis of data through 
the use of computers; and participation in field 
experiences with standardized testing. 
Staff 

342 Biomechanical Analysis of Sport Skills 

Study of the science that investigates the 
mechanics of the human body at rest or in 



motion. Course covers basic mechanical 
principles of statics and dynamics and 
application of these in the analysis of sport 
activities. Laboratory experiences include an 
analysis of a selected sport skill. 
Mr. D. Petrie 

361 Athletic Training II Study of sports injury 
assessment process. Primary assessment, first 
aid, CPR, and basic taping procedures are 
assumed competencies. The NATA competencies 
dealing with the cognitive and psychomotor 
competencies of assessment and evaluation of 
the upper and lower extremities are examined 
in depth. Professional interaction with doctors 
and other allied health professionals is required. 
Prerequisites: HES 209. 210, 214. 
Mr Donolli 

376 Advanced Exercise Physiology In-depth study 
of various factors affecting human performance, 
with emphasis on regulation of various bodily 
functions at rest and during physical activity. 
Laboratory activities acquaint students with 
equipment and testing procedures used in 
measuring physiological parameters. 
Prerequisite: HES 309. 
Mr Drury 

420 Senior Seminar in Athletic Training Special 
medical topics, patholog)'-related topics, 
administration in the athletic training setting. 
Prerequisite: HES 361 . 
Mr. Donolli 

449 Introduction to Research Provides 
theoretical basis for conducting, interpreting, 
and analyzing research in physical education 
and exercise science. Course focuses on 
problem identification, project planning and 
instrumentation, and data collection. Written 
senior thesis presented to HES faculty is 
required. Prerequisite: HES 332, Math 107, Bio 
260, Psych 205, or permission of instructor. 
Mr Drury 

464 Honors Thesis Course allows selected senior 
HES majors to conduct original research under 
the direction of a thesis committee. Upon 
completion of a formal thesis, each student 
orally presents the nature and results of the 
study to the entire HES staff. Successful 
completion of the program entitles the student 
to receive credit for one course that can be 
applied toward the HES major. Prerequisites: HES 
449 and invitation of the department. 
Staff 



HISTORY 



Professors Birkner (Chairperson), Boritt, and Gallman 
Associate Professors Bowman, Chiteji, and Sanchez 
Assistant Professors Hancock, Shannon, Somnier, and 

Louiy 
Visiting Assistant Professors Coohill and Landnieber 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Qaimmaqami 
Adjunct Instructors Brasher, Dombrowsky, and 
Ericson-Hansen 

Overview 

The department aims to acquaint students with 
the concept of history as an organized body of 
knowledge and interpretation that shapes "the 
memory of things said and done." Mastery 
within this broad field provides an appreciation 
of history as literature, an understanding of our 
heritage, and a perspective by which one may 
thoughtfully evaluate our own time. Through 
classroom lectures and discussions, an 
introduction to research, and seminars, the 
department encourages the student to develop 
as a liberally educated person. History courses 
help prepare students for graduate study and 
for careers in teaching, law, the ministry, public 
service, business, and other fields. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major are ten courses, 
including a 100-level history course. History 300 
(in the sophomore year), and one of the senior 
research seminars. All majors must pass at least 
three additional 300-level courses and three 
courses at the 200 or 300 level chosen from at 
least three of four groups: American, European, 
African, or Asian history. (Hist. 345 and CWES 
205 may not both count toward the major.) 
Senior research seminars, numbered 408 to 418, 
are normally restricted to history majors, for 
whom one is required. A selection from the list 
of seminars is offered each year. They provide 
students with an opportunity to work in small 
groups with a faculty member in research upon 
a selected topic. Typically, participants are 
expected to engage in reading, discussion, oral 
reports, writing of formal papers based on 
individual research, and critiques of each 
other's work. 

The minor in history consists of six history 
courses, of which no more than two may be at 
the 1 00 level and at least two must be at the 300 
level. One course may be among the courses of 
other departments listed below. No courses 
taken S/U may be included. 



Greek 251 (Greek History) and Latin 251 
(Roman History) may be counted toward the 
ten-course requirement for the history major. A 
student who has declared a double major in 
history and a modern language may, with 
special permission from the chairperson of the 
department of history, count one of the following 
courses toward the ten-course requirement for 
the history major (but not toward the 300-level 
requirement): French 211; German 311, 312; 
Spanish 310, 311. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

.\11 courses fulfill tlie Liberal Aits Core 
requirement in the humanities. History 104, 
221-224, 271, 272, and 373 satisfs' the 
requirement in non-Western culture. 

103 Europe, Asia, and Africa: 1750-1930 

Introduction to the history of the modern world 
(app. 1750-1930). Focus is on the comparative 
global history of Asia, Africa, and Europe 
during this period. Course examines economic, 
political, and cultural interactions between these 
three continents, and includes some history of 
the Americas to round out the picture of world 
history. Themes include global economics (slave 
trade, industrial revolution (s), world markets), 
imperialism, nationalism, and world war. Course 
is intended as an introductory history class for 
all students and fulfills one of the Humanities 
requirements. Course also fulfills the global 
history requirement for majors. 
Mr Bowman 

104 History of the Islamic World to 1800 

Introduction to the Islamic world from the 
origins of Islam to the decline of the Ottoman 
Empire. Course covers the geographical spread 
of Islam, terms of encounter with regional 
populations, and resulting exchanges. Students 
read the work of a Muslim historian and explore 
the role of Sufism in winning converts. 
Ms. Powers 

105 The Age of Discoveries, 1300- 1 600 Course 
focuses on cultural and economic interactions 
between Europe, Asia, the Muslim world, and 
the Americas, and places great "discoveries" 
of Western history — the new World, conquests, 
the"rebirth" of antiquity, and the beginnings of 
modern science — ^within their context of cross- 
cultural exchange. Stiidents consider literary, 
scientific, and religious influences on indi\ddual 
encounters, as well as historians' explanations 
for long-term global realignments during a 
dynamic period in world history. 

Ms. Brasher, Ms. Landweber, Ms. Sanchez 



^ 



106 The Atlantic World, 1600-1850 Examination 
of the development of an Atlantic world system 
that connects Europe, Africa, and the Americas. 
Students study Atlantic communities in a 
comparative context that emphasizes inter- 
national trade and communication, encounters 
between native and colonial peoples, the 
rise and fall of New World slavery, and the 
development of new national identities. 
Mr. Shannon, Ms. Sommer 

1 10 The Twentieth-Century World Historical 
change in the global setting, from the 
ascendancy of the pre-First World War empires 
to the present. Topics include technological 
development, imperialism and decolonizadon, 
world wars, political revohuions, social and 
economic forces, and the reshaping of thought 
and the arts in the diverse cultures of himianity. 
Mr. Birkrm, Mr. Chiteji, Ms. Ericson-Hansm, Ms. Lmiiy, 
Ms. Qainunaqami 

203, 204 History of the British Isles Survey of 
British history from ancient limes to the present. 
Includes Ireland, Scotland, and the overseas 
empire. Di\iding point between the two courses 
is 1800. 
Mr. Coohill, Mr Shannon 

206 Spain and the New World Examination of 
the social, cultural, and political history of Spain 
and the New World from 1450 to 1700. Special 
attention is given to the effects which the 
discovery of the New World had on Spain and 
Latin America and the manner in which Spain 
imparted its institutions, culture, and beliefs to 
the peoples it conquered. 
Ms. Sanchez 

209 Women's History since 1 500 Survey of the 
history of women since 1500, with particular 
attendon on women's pardcipation in the polit- 
ical, economic, cultural, and familial realms. 
Focus is primarily on European women, with 
occasional comparisons to the United States. 
Ms. Landweber, Ms. Sanchez 

210 History of Early Modern France 

Examination of major themes in French social, 
economic, and cultural history, from the reign 
of Francis I and the emergence of the 
Renaissance state to the Revolution with its 
sweeping away of the order associated with that 
state. Course concentrates on the changing 
social and economic structure of the period, as 
well as on the contemporaneous evolution of 
"popular" and political culture. 
Ms. Landweber 



2 1 1 Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe, 
1500-1800 Survey of developments in French, 
Italian, English, and German popular culture 
over three centuries. Inquiry covers whether 
elite culture-makers were waging war upon 
popular culture in early modern Europe and 
whether popular culture was being driven 
undergroimd from the sixteenth to the 
eighteenth centuries. Topics of study include 
Carnival, communit)' policing, ritual behavior, 
family life, violence, deviant behavior, religion, 
magic, and the transmission of culture. 
Ms. Landweber 

216 Modern Russia and the Soviet Union 

Introduction to the history of modern Russia 
and the Soviet Union. Course follows political, 
economic, cultural, and social developments in 
Russia from the time of Catherine the Great and 
the French Revolution to the collapse of the 
former Soviet Union. Topics include Tsarist 
Russia, Russia in World War I, the Russian 
Revolution of 1917, Stalinism, the Cold War, the 
Post-1945 period, and Gorbachev and the end 
of single-party rule. Course also addresses the 
role of women, minorities, and social classses in 
the history of modern Russia. 
Mr. Boivman 

218 Modern Germany Introduction to the 
histor) of modern Germany, addressing 
political, economic, cultural, and social 
developments since 1800, with special attention 
given to the Bismarckian and Wilhelminian era, 
World War I, the Weimar and Nazi periods. 
World War II, the Holocaust, and the era of the 
two Germanys. Students may not receive credit for 
this course and Hist-C218 taught in Cologne. 
Mr. Bowman 

22 1 , 222 History of East Asia Survey of East Asian 
civilizations to app. 1800 (in 221), and of East 
.\sian political, social, and intellectual develop- 
ments since the beginning of the Qing Dynasty. 
Ms. Loioy 

223 Modern China Study of Chinese history since 
the begiiniing of the Qing Dviiast)', with 
emphasis on transformations of the nineteenth 
century and the Nationalist and Communist 
revolutions. 
Ms. Lowy 

TIA Modern Japan Examination of Japanese 
history and culture from the beginning of the 
Tokugawa period (ca. 1600) to the present. 
Explores Japan's attempts at construcdng a 
nation that would meet the challenges of 



modernity, while at the same time preserving 
Japanese traditions. 
Ms. Loury 

230 The Native American-European Encounter in 
North America Course focuses on encotmters 
and adaptations between native American and 
European peoples in North America from 1500 
to the present. Topics include the demographic 
consequences of contact; impact of European 
trade, religion, and war on native societies; 
relations between native Americans and the U.S. 
government; and the question of native 
American identity in the modern world. 
Mr. Shannon 

236 Urbanism in American History Introduction 
to American history from the perspective of 
urbanism. Beginning with the colonial town and 
continuing to the megalopolis of the late 
tAventieth century, students investigate the 
nature of inban life and its influence on the 
course of American development. 

238 African American History: A Survey Eocus on 
aspects of the African American experience, 
from the seventeenth century to the present. 
Special attention is given to the slave experience, 
emancipation and reconstruction, racial 
attitudes, the northward migration of African 
Americans in the twentieth century, and the 
Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. 
Mr. Hancock 

244 American Military History A survey of the 
American military experience from the early 
colonial period to the most recent experiences 
in the Culf War and Afghanistan. The course 
encompasses a study of the relationships and 
impact of warfare and military forces in the 
establishment, expansion, preservation, and 
development of the United States. Emphasis is 
on the context of American warfare and how it 
has influenced our history and way of life. The 
course analyzes factors that have influenced 
military operations, such as strategy, tactics, 
organization, technology, logistics, national will, 
leadership, and luck. 

Mr. Donihroiiisky 

245 Gender and the American Civil War Study of 
the experiences of women and men dining the 
Civil War era (app. 1840-1 870s), with particular 
attention given to the following questions: How 
did the public role of women evolve during 
these decades? How did the experiences of 
women and men vary according to race, class, 
condition of servitude and location? How did 



the war illuminate or challenge existing gender 
roles? How did the military experiences of the 
war shape notions of masculinity? 
Mr. Gallman 

248 Poverty and Welfare in American History 

Siuvey of the history of povert)' and responses 
to poverty in Ainerica, from the colonial period 
to the passage of recent welfare reforms, ("lass 
focuses on three interrelated clusters of 
questions. Who were the poor and how have 
they lived? What have Americans thought about 
poverty? And what have been the public and 
private policy responses to poverty? Course has a 
required service-learning component 
Mr Galhnan 

262 Modern Latin America Survey of national 
development in Latin America through nearly 
two centiuies of change. 
Ms. Sominer 

264 Brazil Major themes in Brazilian history 
from early Portuguese-indigenous relations, 
expanding frontiers, colonial society, and the 
development of African slavery through 
nineteenth-century formation of national 
identity to tvventieth-centiuy industrialization, 
political struggle, and cultural change. 
Ms. Sommer 

271, 272 African History and Society Study of 
African history from the pre-colonial era to 
the present. Eirst semester covers traditional 
societies, state formations, Africa's relationship 
to the world economy, and European exploration 
and conquest. Second semester examines 
developments leading to the colonization of 
Africa, changes in African societies under colonial 
rule, African responses to colonialism, .\frican 
nationalist movements, and post-colonial 
socioeconomic and political experiments. 
Mr Chiteji 

179 U.S. and the Middle East U.S. relations with 
the Middle East 1880-present. Topics include 
great power rivalry, oil, the Arab-Israeli dispute, 
regional wars, political Islam, cultural and 
religious differences, revolution in Iran, U.S. 
wars in the Persian Gulf and Afghanistan, and 
international terrorism. 
Ms. Q_aimmaqami 

300 Historical Method Course introduces majors 
to the techniques of historical investigation, 
considers the nature of history, and examines 
the relation of history to other fields of study. 
Prerequisite: Two courses in history. 
Mr. Birkner 



►* 



308 Women, Power, and Politics in Early Modern 
Europe Study of women's access to political 
power and their participation in politics in early 
modern and modern Europe. Consideration is 
given to different ways women exercised 
authorit)' and influence and how they expressed 
a political voice. Includes an analysis of 
perceptions of politically powerful women. 
Ms. Landiueber, Ms. Sanchez 

3 1 1 Medieval Europe Siuvey of the period from 
the breakdown of Roman institutions in the 
West to the coming of the Black Death in 1347. 
Special emphasis is given to political, cultural, 
and social developments, including such topics 
as the Germanic invasions, the reign of 
Charlemagne, the struggle between secular 
rulers and the papacy, the Crusades, and the 
tAvelfth-centur)' renaissance. 
Ms. Sanchez 

313 Renaissance and Reformation Study of the 
gradual transition from the medieval to the 
early modern world, from ca. 1350 to the end of 
the sixteenth century. Course covers the cultural, 
political, economic, and religious changes and 
discusses such seminal figures as Petrarch, 
Machiavelli, Luther, Calvin, and Loyola. 

AIs. Sanchez 

314 Early Modern Europe, 1550-1750 Course 

begins with the sixteenth-century wars of 
religion and continues with a study of the 
Habsburgs' attempts to dominate Europe, the 
emergence of France to predominance, and the 
development of the absolute state. The cultural 
and social impact of those political changes 
form a central part of the class. 
Ms. Sanchez 

3 1 5 Europe and the Age of Revolution Intensive 
analysis of the origins and implications of the 
French Revolution. Course explores the 
differing aspirations of the nobles and peasants, 
lawyers and artisans, clerics and women, soldiers 
and philo,sophers whose world was transformed 
during the revolutionary decades. Students 
assess diverse interpretations of the revohuion's 
causes and its consequences for the 
development of modern political cultiue. 
Staff 

316 Transformations in Nineteenth-Century 
Europe In-depth analysis of the history of 
nineteenth-century Europe. Course follows 
political, economic, cultural, and social 
developments in Europe beginning with the 
Ancien Regime and the French Revolution. 



Focus is on the transformations in the 
nineteenth century that brought Europe and 
much of the world into the modern era. Topics 
include the industrial revolution, Napoleon, 
political ideologies, the creation of new social 
classes, and scientific and medical revolutions. 
Course emphasizes the differences between the 
world before 1789 and the world in which we 
live today. 
Air. Bowman, Mr. Coohill 

317 Europe 1871-1919 Period from the Paris 
Commune of 1871 to the settlement of 

the Great War in 1919. Course explores 
transformations in European economies, states, 
foreign relations, society, and thought that 
formed the backdrop for the Great War. 
Mr Bowman 

3 1 8 Europe and the Two World Wars Studies of 
selected aspects of European history from the 
outbreak of the First W^orld War in 1914 to the 
end of the Second World War in 1945. 

Mr Boxcman, Mr Coohill 

319 Europe since 1945 Perspectives on postwar 
Europe: reconstruction, de-Nazification, de- 
Stalinization, the end of the colonial empires, 
nationalism and European integration, and the 
role of the state and of religion, with the 
reflection of these in culture and societ)'. 

Mr. Bowman 

324 Japanese Imperialism, 1853-1945 

Examination of the origines and evolution of 
Japaneses imperialism from the "opening" of 
Japan to the end of World War II. Topics 
include the origins of Japanese imperialism, the 
process of colonizatin, the nature of colonial 
rule, and the effects of imperialism of Japan. 
Prerequisite: History 222, 224, or permission of 
instructor. 

335, 336 American Social and Cultural History 

Course traces America's major social, religious, 
artistic, and philosophical movements and their 
immediate and long-range impact on American 
life and culture. Beginning with the American 
Revolution, History 335 covers the period to the 
Civil War. History 336 continues from that 
period to the present. Offered alternate years. 
Staff 

34 1 Colonial America Examination of the 
colonization of North .\merican from ca. 
1500-1750, with emphasis on the European- 
Indian encounter, the origins of slavery, and 
comparative analysis of family, gender, and labor 



relations. Students also study provincial American 
culture from different regional perspectives and 
within a wider British-Atlantic world. 
Mr. Shannon 

342 Revolutionary America Examination of the 
origins, conduct, and results of the American 
Revolution, from ca. 1750-1790. Emphasis is on 
the social and cultural transformation of 
American life and the political ideologv' of the 
revolutionaries. War for Independence is 
explored from the perspectives of soldiers, 
civilians, women, African Americans, loyalists, 
and Indians. 

Mr. .Shannon 

343 Jeffersonian-Jacksonian Era Course covers 
the period from the 1 790s to the Mexican War - 
and explores currents of American national life 
and sectional interests imder such influences as 
Jefferson's agrarian republicanism and the new 
democratic movements of the Jacksonian period. 
Mr. Birkner 

345 Civil War The trauma of America from the 
end of the Mexican War to Appomattox, moral 
judgments in history, political culture, 
economic interests, diplomacy, and war. 

Mr. Boritt 

346 Slavery, Rebellion, and Emancipation in 
the Atlantic World Comparadve study of slave 
systems, enslaved peoples, and emancipation 
in the Atlantic World. Processes of slavery, 
resistance, and emancipadon in Africa, the 
Caribbean, and the ^Americas from the 1500s 

to today are examined. Course also analyzes the 
effectiveness of emancipations and concludes by 
heightening awareness of ongoing slavery in 
Sudan and other countries. 
Mr Hancock 

348 Early Tv/entieth-Century America Focus is 
primarily on the major polidcal, economic, and 
social developments in the U.S. from about 
1900 to 1945. Some attention is given to the role 
of the U.S. in the world during this period. 

Mr Birkner 

349 The United States Since 1 945 Examination of 
major polidcal, economic, and social developments 
in the U.S. since 1945, including demands made 
on the U.S. as a leading world power. 

Mr Birkner 

36 1 Mexican Revolution Study of the background, 
precursor movements, pardcipants, events, and 
outcome of the violent social revoludon that 



swept the Mexican countryside between 1910 
and 1917. 
A/5. Sommer 

373 History of Sub-Sahara Africa in the Twentieth 
Century Study of the impact of European 
colonial rule on African cultures, African 
responses to colonialism, and the impact of the 
colonial experience on contemporary African 
nations. Course also examine various methods of 
African resistance to colonial rule. 
Mr Chileji 

SENIOR RESEARCH SEMINARS: 
408 The Reformation 

Ms. Sanchez 

410 Abraham Lincoln 

Mr Boritl 

412 Eisenhower and His Times 

Mr Birkner 

413 Decolonization in Africa 

Mr Chiteji 

417 Meaning of Independence 

Air Shaiuion 

418 Nazism 

Mr Bowman 

420 Modern Britain and the British Empire 

Mr Coohill 

421 The United States and World War II 

Mr Birkner 

Individualized Study Individual tutorial, research 
project, or internship, requiring the permission 
of an instructor who supervises the project. 
Instructor can supply a copy of the statement 
of departmental policy regarding grading and 
major credit for different types of projects. 
Either semester. 
Staff 

INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES 

Professm- Cushing-Daniels (Chairperson) 

Associate Professor Powers 

Adjunct Instructors Lindeman and Lane 

The Committee on Interdisciplinary Studies 
offers courses and coordinates specialized 
interdisciplinary programs. These may include 
international programs and global/area studies. 

.\mong other opportunities for Interdisciplinary 
Studies is the special major: a student, with the 
consent of two supervising facultv members 



I 



^ 



from different departments, may design a 
coherent program of at least ten courses focusing 
on a particular issue or area not adequately 
included within a single department. It may be 
based on any grouping of courses drawn from 
any part of the curriculum so long as the proposed 
major is coherent, serves a carefully defined 
academic purpose, and includes no fewer than 
eight courses above the 100 level, three or more 
courses at the 300 level, and a 400-level 
individualized study course. The Committee on 
Interdisciplinary Studies has final responsibilit) 
for approving special majors. (See "Special Major" 
for a fuller description.) 

By nature of their objectives and content, 
Interdisciplinary Studies courses cross the lines 
of departments and specialized disciplines. 
For example, some of these courses attempt 
to provide the common body of knowledge 
traditionally associated with a liberal education; 
others attempt to integrate the understanding 
of different kinds of subject matter; and still 
others combine methodologies from diverse 
departments and disciplines. Most notably, the 
Senior Scholars' Seminar challenges an invited 
group of seniors, representing as many academic 
departments as possible, to apply their skills to 
the investigation of a problem that crosses the 
boundaries of, and demands the methods of, 
several disciplines. (See "Senior Scholars' Seminar" 
for a fuller description.) 

In addition to the courses listed below, courses 
of an interdisciplinary nature can be found in 
this catalog imder the African American Studies 
program, the Environmental Studies program, 
the Latin American Studies program, and the 
Women's Studies program. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

IDS 103, 104, 161, 211, 216, 229, 239, 241, 243, 
244, 246, 247, 249, 260, and 272 fiilfill the 
Liberal AiLs Core requirement in the humanities. 
IDS 229, 239, and 268 satisfy the requiiement in 
non-Western culture. IDS 267 fulfills the 
requirement in the arts. 

103 Literary Foundations of Western Culture 

Exploration of the origins of major genres of 
Western literature and thought, including epic 
and narrative poetry, drama, philosophical 
dialogue, and literary criticism. Authors read 
may include Homer, Sophocles, Eiuipides, 
Plato, Aristotle, Virgil, Seneca, Ovid, and others. 
Through reading, writing, and discussion of 
complete works, the student is introduced to 



those himianistic skills and critical methods that 
have traditionally distinguished the liberally 
educated person. 
Mr. Lane, Ms. Lindeman 

104 Literary Foundations of Western Culture 

Exploration of the development of major genres 
of Western literature and thought (from the fall 
of the Roman Empire to the I8th century), 
including epic and narrative poetry, drama, 
the novel, and literary nonfiction. Authors read 
may include St. Augustine, Dante, Rabelais, 
Shakespeare, Milton, Voltaire, and others. 
Through reading, writing, and discussion of 
complete works, the student is introduced to 
tho.se hiunanistic skills and critical methods that 
have traditionally distinguished the liberally 
educated person. 
Ms. Lindeinan 

161 Introduction to Jewish Studies: The People 
of the Book Introduction to the wide range of 
Jewish experience from the biblical period 
to the present. Given the diversity of the 
experience, students are encouraged to 
develop and articulate their own answers to the 
question: How have various historical, cultural, 
political, and economic contexts affected 
Judaism and how has Judaism affected them in 
turn. Students study historical materials, as well 
as religious, cultural, and political artifacts. 
Ms. Granite 

21 1 Perspectives on Death and Dying Study of 
death and dying from a variety of perspectives: 
psychological, medical, economic, legal, and 
theological. Dignity in dying, what happens after 
death, euthanasia, body disposal, AIDS, and 
other such problems are examined. May be 
counted in requirements for a religion major. 
Prerequisite: permission of instructor. 
Mr C. Myers 

214 Medusa's Laugh: The Newest Wave in French 
Cinema Study of selected comical films made 
by French women directors. Coiuse reflects on 
laughter and provides a historical presentation 
of French comedy traditions. Both obvious 
and subtle "meanings" in comical films are 
deciphered. Humor is identified in three 
contextual "languages": cinematic codes, gender 
codes, and cultural codes. How universal is 
laughter for humankind? To what extent is 
hiunor related to culture and gender? Fulfills 
the Liberal Arts Core requirement in arts. 
Staff 



223 Literature of Anger and Hope That families 
tiirough the ages have struggled with enmit)^ 
and abuse we know from reading Greek tragedy 
and Shakespeare's plays. In the twentieth 
century, violence has come to the fore in terms 
of ethnic and religious hatred, war, and racism. 
Yet in response to these events, major writers 
have created significant works of literatiue 
which transform the worst acts into promises 
of healing and reconciliation. Oiu^ objectives 
are to understand the terms of the conflict 
represented in each text and to explore the 
techniques by which each writer generates a 
sense of hope for humankind. Offered spring 
2002. 
Ms. Powers 

229 South Asia: Contemporary Issues in Historical 
Perspective Study of contemporary cultural issues 
in the Indian sub-continent, viewed through the 
historical events and texts that have generated 
them. Alternate years. Offered spring 2003. 
Ms. Powers 

239 South Asian Literature Study of major South 
.Asian literary works in translation, including 
epics from North and South India, Sanskrit 
drama, Muslim literature, modern novels and 
short stories. Complete works read from an 
interdisciplinarv perspective, using criticism 
from Western and South Asian sources. 
Alternate years. Offered spring 2002. 
Ms. Poitiers 

241 Modern Irish Drama Exploration of the 
evolution of modern Irish theatre within the 
matrix of the esthetic and political revolutions 
that occurred, and continue to occur, in 
twentieth-century Ireland. Irish dramatists have 
produced a body of literature remarkable for 
both its imparalleled artistic achievement and 
its acute political and social responsiveness. 
Major emphasis is accorded W. B. Yeats, Lady 
Augusta Gregor), John M. Svnge, Sean O'Casey, 
Samuel Beckett, and Brian Friel. Not offered 
every year. 
Mr. J. P. Myers Jr. 

243 Anglo-American Folk Song Study of the 
Anglo-American tradition of folk song in the 
U.S. After defining traditional folk song and 
looking at its place in the cultural history of this 
coimtry, course briefly surveys the history of 
folksong scholarship, then imdertakes an in- 
depth study of three broad types of folk music — 



ballads, lyrical songs, and instrumental music. 
Song tv'pes are examined from a thematic 
perspective, based on the content of the lyrics. 
Students engage in some musical analysis, but 
no prior musical knowledge is required. Not 
offered every year. 
Mr. \¥inans 

244 Introduction to American Folklore Course 
begins with discussions of the nature of folklore 
and some sense of the history of the discipline, 
then focuses on materials on the folk group, the 
folk process, the folk performance, the nature 
of folk world-views, and guidance on doing 
folklore research. Emphasis next shifts to 
children's folklore, urban legends, Gettysburg 
ghost stories, gender-related folklore, African- 
American folklore in historical context, and a 
final section on folk song and folk music. Not 
offered every year. 
Mr Winans 

246 Irish Quest for Identity: The Irish Literary 
Revival Study of the cultiue and history of 
Ireland as reflected in its literature in English, c. 
I880-C. 1940. Course explores how Ireland, 
principalh' through her writers, succeeded in 
reviving and asserting her unique Gaelic identitv' 
during the decades immediately preceding and 
following the War of Independence (1916-1921). 
Authors studied include Augusta Gregory, W. B. 
Yeats, J. M. Synge, Sean O'Casey, and James 
Joyce. Not offered every year. 

Mr.J.P. Myers fr 

247 Maintaining Irish Identity: Modern Irish 
Literature Survey of Irish literature since the 
1940s. Course examines how poets, dramatists, 
and writers of fiction have responded to the 
problems of maintaining an Irish identity on a 
partitioned island and in the contemporary 
world. Special attention is given to the 
interrelationship of Catholic and Protestant and 
rural and urban traditions. Authors studied 
include dramatists such as Samuel Beckett, poets 
such as Seamus Heaney, and fiction writers such 
as Sean O'Faolain. Not offered every year. 
Mr.J.P. Myers Jr. 

249 Jewish Writing in the Modern World 

Introduction to a wide-ranging variety of Jewish 
writing from tlie past 100 years, including religious, 
political, philosophical and literary texts. 
Course explores such questions as: Wliat makes 
a text Jewish? How do writers express, repress. 



4 






redefine the meanings of Jewishness/Judaism? 
What is Jewish self-hatred? Students examine 
different stages of Jewish immigrant life and 
ways that films (such as The Jazz Singer, Fiddler on 
the Roof, and Goodbye, Columbus) are both a product 
and a recorder of that experience. 
Ms. Berg, Mr. Goldberg 

252, 253 Area Studies Seminar: Peace Studies 

Interdisciplinary study of conflicts, conilicl 
resolution, and world systems, including 
paradigms for peacemaking, philosophies of war 
and peace, global orders and disorders, issues in 
international conflicts, prevention of nuclear 
war, and security and arms control. Coursework 
includes lectures and films of the 2002-2003 
Area Studies Symposium. Offered 2002-2003. 
Stnff 

255 Science, Technology, and Nuclear Weapons 

Study of the effect of technology on the many 
issues related to nuclear weapons. Coverage 
includes nuclear weapons effects, strategic 
arsenals, past and current attempts at arms 
control, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear 
disarmament. Special emphasis is given toward 
understanding future technological uends in 
the post cold war climate. 
Mr. Pella 

260 The Holocaust and the Third Reich Intensive 
study of selected writings (poetry, prose, drama) 
that demonstrate possibilities of literary 
expressions in response to the Holocaust. 
Students read various writings in English by 
German and non-German writers, including 
Heinrich Boll, Ilona Karmel, Giinter Grass, and 
Elie Wiesel. Course also includes such films as 
The Tin Drum, The Wliite Rose, and Night and Fog. 
Knowledge of German is not required. Not 
offered every year. 
Ms. Armster 

Ibl Theatre and Religion Investigation of the 
theaU"e's role in various Western and non-Western 
religions. Students gain an understanding of 
and an appreciation for the function of 
performance and design in worship, liturg)-, and 
ritual. They also develop a cridcal sense of the 
theatre's effecdveness as a teaching device 
within a religious context. A significant effort is 
made in assessing religion's impact on the 
theatre's evolution in form, sr)ie, and purpose. 
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 
Mr. Hanson 



268 The Arts, Environment, and Religions of 
Indonesia Study of the arts, cultural traditions, 
environmental issues, and religious practices of 
the people of Bali. Students live with local 
families, where they experience the significance 
of the family structure in Balinese life, art, and 
religion. Students witness a vast assortment of 
art-based experiences, including theatrical and 
dance programs and participation in master 
classes with painters, dancers, musicians, 
carvers, and actors. Offered annually, mid-May 
to midjune. One class unit of credit. Prerequisite: 
Permission of instructor. 
Mr. Hanson 

271 Gods, Heroes, and Wagner Study of the 
artistic and philosophical thought of Richard 
Wagner as expressed in Der Ring des Nibelungen — 
an adaptation of the myths and legends of the 
Germanic past used to dissect European reality 
in the nineteenth century. Utilizing various 
approaches (biographical, mythological, literaiy, 
political/historical, aesdietic, musical, 
psychological), course investigates Wagner's 
position in his o^vn age, as well as his impact on 
succeeding generadons, including the ideology 
of nadonal socialism. Knowledge of German or 
background in music not required. 
Mr. McCardlf 

322 1. W. Foundation Public Policy Seminar. 

Interdisciplinary public policy seminar offered 
on a specific topic each year. Seminar 
encompasses an examination of the decision- 
making process from the original articulation of 
needs through official responses and on to 
measuring the impacts of those decisions in the 
public domain. A prominent authority in the 
field of public affairs is invited to direct the 
seminar each year, with the focus of each course 
being determined by that person's field of 
endeavor and expertise. 

Topic for spring 2001: Public Policy: The Politics 
of Interest Groups, taught by i\Is. Warshaiu and Mr. 
Statler. 

325-L London Seminar: Victorian Childhood 

An interdisciplinary course focusing on images 
of children in the literature, art, social history, 
and science of Victorian England. Images of 
childhood from Victorian England include 
fictidotis children such as Oliver Twist, Alice in 
Wonderland, and Peter Pan; newspaper images 
of children in horrific labor conditions and of 
terrifying gangs of street children; and artistic 



images of delicate, apple-cheeked daughters 
and sons of the wealthy. Course explores how 
and wh) Britain's understanding of childhood 
changed during this period and how these 
changes helped to shape current attitudes 
toward children. Field trips in and around 
London are an integral part of the course. 
Offered fall 2002. 
Ms. Cain 

401 Senior Scholars' Seminar: The Future of 
Humanity Seminar for selected senior students 
addressing an important contemporary issue 
affecting the future of humanity. Approach to 
this issue is multidisciplinary. Authorities of 
national stature are inxdted to serve as resource 
persons, and seminar participants present a 
final report on the topics discussed. Topic for 
spring 2001 is A Tale of Two Cities: Berlin and 
Vienna, 1860-1933, taught by Ms. Armster and Mr 
Boivrnan. fS^e Senior Scholars' Seminar section for 
additional details.) 

SPECIAL PROGRAMS 

The following is a partial list of special major 
programs pursued in recent years: Japanese 
Studies, Law and Ethics, Foundations of 
Writing, Sports Management, Ethical Writing, 
Comparative Literature, International 
Economics, Behavioral Neiuoscience, Music 
Management, Africa: Culture and Development, 
Cinematic Aits, Cultiual Studies, Museum 
Studies, and Foundations of Journalism. 

American Studies 

Gettysburg College offers a variety of courses 
analyzing American life and thought, which 
provide students with many opportunities for 
creating special majors in American Studies. 
Such majors may emphasize behavioral analyses, 
historical perspectives, literary and artistic 
dimensions, or coherent combinations of such 
approaches as they are reflected in courses from 
several departments. For example, special majors 
could be designed in the areas of early-American 
culture, modern American social stratification, 
ethnicity, or the religious and economic values 
of the American people. Students should seek 
assistance in planning an American Studies 
special major from Professors Birkner (History) 
or Winans (English), or other faculty members 
who teach courses in these areas, or from the 
Committee on Interdisciplinary Studies. 



Asian Studies 

Gettysburg College offers a number of courses 
for students wanting a sound introduction to 
Asian culture as part of their liberal arts 
curriculum. Each Asian Studies course fulfills a 
distribution requirement. These courses are 
presented by members of various departments, 
persons with interests and competence in Asian 
Studies. A student may minor in East Asian 
Studies by completing the following: One core 
course, three coiuses in one's country of 
specialization (China or Japan), one year of 
Japanese or Chinese language, one course 
offering a comparative perspective within East 
Asia, and one elective course. Students 
interested in the minor in East Asian Studies 
should consult with Professors Gaenslen 
(political science), Sommer (Religion), or 
Hogan (Japanese). A student may construct a 
special major with concentration in Asian 
Studies. Students should seek assistance in 
planning an Asian Studies special major from 
Professors Gaenslen, Hogan, Lowy, Khan, 
Powers (IDS), or Sommer, or other faculty 
members who teach courses in this area, or 
from the Committee on Interdisciplinary 
Studies. Course offerings suitable for special 
majors in Asian Studies are foimd under many 
departmental listings. 

Comparative Literature 

Gettysburg College offers courses in many 
literatures in the original languages (ancient 
Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, German, 
English, and Japanese). In addition, a number 
of courses are offered in foreign literature in 
translation (Classics, IDS, Japanese). Students 
who work in more than one language (e.g., 
English and Spanish) are encouraged to 
consider creating a special major in 
Comparative Literature in consultation with 
faculty in the appropriate departments. The 
study of comparative literature enables students 
to emphasize a particular period, theme, or 
genre across cultures, instead of the traditional 
focus on the chronological study of a national 
literature. A particular theoretical approach can 
also be cultivated (.such as feminist, reader- 
response, structuralist, Marxist, and Freudian). 
Special courses, such as Art Song, may also 
count towards a special major in Comparative 
Literature. Students who wish more information 
are encoiuaged to consult with any of the 



following advisors to the program: Professors 
( Gaboon and Zabrowski (classics); Gaudenzi 
(Italian); Fee (Old Norse; Middle German); 
N. Ciishing-Daniels (Spanish); Armster, 
McCardle, and Ritterson (German); Binet and 
R. Viti (French); Hogan (Japanese); and Ramos 
and Rolon (Latin American Studies). Professor 
Powers (IDS; hidian literature) and Professor 
Myers (English; Irish literature) are also advisors 
to the program, as are many members of die 
English and Theatre depaitmeiiLs. 

Global Studies/Area Studies 

Gett)'sburg College offers an array of courses in 
global studies through the course offerings of 
several departments and through its yearly Area 
Studies program. Each year the College 
arranges a program of films, lectures, symposia, 
and special events focused on an area of critical 
interest in the world. The program has dealt 
with such topics as Central America, Vietnam 
Ten Years After, and Strtiggle in Southern 
Africa. Most recently, Area Studies has focused 
on China in Revolution, Mexico, the Caribbean, 
Japan, South Asia, Latin America, Eastern 
Europe, and the Middle East. The focus of the 
2001-02 Area Studies program is on East Asia. 
To enhance the academic offerings in these 
areas of study, the College has the privilege of 
scholars-in-residence from various areas of the 
world. Scholars-in-residence offer courses and 
guide individualized studies for students in their 
areas of interest. Often several specific coiuses 
are available that study the area focused on for 
the year. Students may enroll in IDS 252, 253, 
the Area Studies course, in either or both 
semesters. These tutorial courses require 
participation in the several aspects of the Area 
Studies Symposium. 

Law, Ethics, and Society 

Gettysbiug College offers several law-related 
courses which present students the opportunity 
to explore fundamental aspects of the law as 
part of the liberal arts curriculum: civil rights 
and liberties, constitutional law, the criminal 
Jusdce system, ethical issues and the law, legal 
reasoning, business law, environmental law, and 
criminolog); Through such interdisciplinary 
study, students explore the close interplay of 
law, ethics, and the society from which law 
springs and which it serves. Special majors may 
be designed that emphasize the law within its 
social and historical context and that, combined 
with internships, research opportunities or off- 



campus study (such as our affiliated program 
with American University), give students a rich 
appreciation for the law in its many dimensions. 
Students who wish more information may 
contact any of the following advisors to the 
program: Professors Mott (polidcal science), 
Portmess (philosophy), and Hinrichs 
(sociologv), and Dean Nordvall (college life). 

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CONCENTRATION 

Ann Fender and Jean Fletcher, Directors 

Overview 

The International Affairs Concentration (LAC) 
exposes students to factors and forces that have 
shaped the contemporary world. The program 
promotes a multidisciplinary approach to the 
study of international relations by focusing on 
issues facing the international commimity and 
the interactions of states and other actors as 
they attempt to achieve their foreign policies or 
goals. Students pursuing careers connected with 
international issues or interested in graduate 
school should find this program attractive. 

The program provides students with an 
opportunity to gain specialization in the 
multidisciplinary field of international relations, 
while at the same time developing a disciplinary 
foundation within their major concentration. 
lAC primarily serves the departments and 
programs whose majors display an interest in 
international relations. These are economics, 
environmental studies, French, German, history, 
Italian, Japanese, Latin American studies, 
management, political science, sociology, 
Spanish, and women's studies. Students 
majoring in other disciplines, such as English 
and philosophy, may also participate in the lAC. 
Their specific programs will be developed with 
the assistance of their major adviser and lAC 
adviser. lAC students are also able to develop a 
specific regional track, such as Latin America, 
Europe, Africa, or Asia. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The lAC consists of nine core courses drawn 
from the departments of economics, history, 
and political science, as well as a series of 
electives available from other departments. 
Study of a language beyond the College 
requirement and study abroad are not reqiured, 
but are strongly encouraged. Students 
interested in lAC should begin taking core 
courses in their first or second year. Application 
for the program is made through the lAC 



director. Students should apply for the lAC 
beUveen the second semester of their first year 
and the end of tlieir sophomore year. To be 
accepted into the program, students must have 
a GPA of 2.0 or above overall and in their major. 
To remain in the program, stndent.s must have a 
GPA of 2.0 or above in the major, the lAC 
courses, and other College courses. 

All lAC students must take the following Core 
Courses: 

Economics 103 Principles of Microeconomics 
Economics 104 Principles of Macroeconomics 
Economics 251 International Economics 
History 1 10 T\ventieth-(>entur) World 
Select Concentration Elective in History (200-, 

300-level course) 
Political Science 103 hitrodnction to 

International Relations 
Political Science 242 U.S. Foreign Policy 
Select Concentration Elective in Political 

Science 
lAC 400 Junior-Senior Seminar 

History, economics, and political science majors 
take core courses in their respective majors 
(which count toward the major requirement 
only) and courses in each of the other core 
disciplines. These students will also take three 
SCE courses outside of their major program 
in at least two different disciplines. All other 
majors take the same core courses as the 
economics, history, and political science majors. 
All students must take LAC 400 Junior-Senior 
Seminar. A list of electives is available from the 
director of lAC and the lAC web page. 

JAPANESE STUDIES 

Assistant Professors Hogan and Klinn 
Instructor Tazawa 

The College offers a full four-year program in 
Japanese language, as well as courses in Japanese 
history, literature, religion, political science, 
anthropology', theatre, art history, and economics, 
which provide students opportimities for 
considerable breadth and depth in the study of 
Japan. Students may design a major or minor in 
Japanese studies based on their particuhir interests, 
or they may focus their attention on Japan as 
part of the minor in East Asian studies. Students 
may also choose to study at Kansai Gaidai 
University in Japan (see below). Academic work 
in Japanese studies on campus is enriched by 



the activities of the Japan Club, which fosters 
interest in Japanese culture b\ sponsoring lectures 
on Japanese topics, Japanese films, and otlier events. 
For current information on Japanese studies, 
please consult the Japanese Studies W'eb page at 
http://www.gett)'sburg.edu/homepage/ 
academics/gusource.hlml. 

Students who have completed at least one year 
of Japanese language are strongly encouraged 
to study at the College's affiliated program at 
Kansai Gaidai University in Japan for one 
semester or a full academic year. Located in 
Hirakata Cit)', between the business and industriail 
center of Osaka and the ancient capital city of 
Kyoto, Kansai Gaidai Universit)' offers instruction 
in Japanese language, as well as a full range of 
courses on Japanese topics taught in English — 
including history, business, economics, art, 
literature, religion, theatie, and political science. 
The program at Kansai Gaidai also provides 
many opportunities for students outside the 
classroom: living with a Japanese host family, 
field trips to cultural and historical sites, study of 
traditional arts, and visits to Japanese businesses, 
and others. Credit for courses taken at Kansai 
Gaidai may be transferred to Gettysburg College 
and counted toward major and/or minor and 
distribution requirements. 

Japanese Language Courses 

Japanese language instruction is offered at all 
levels, from beginning to advanced. Language 
courses are designed to train students in the 
skills of listening, speaking, reading, and 
writing, and to develop the cultural knowledge 
and sensitivity necessary to communicate 
effectively in Japanese. The Japanese language 
emphasizes interaction for students with native 
speakers of Japanese both in the classroom and 
in informal settings outside class time. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Japanese 202 fulfills the Liberal .\rts Core 
requirement in foreign language. Japanese 150, 
238, 247 and 347 san.sfS' the non-Western 
requirement. Japanese 150 fulfills the 
requirement in social science, and Japanese 238, 
247, and 347 fulfill the requirement in the 
himianities. 

101, 102 Beginning Japanese Introduction to the 
fundainentals of speaking, listening, reading, 
and writing. Students develop a functional 
knowledge of the structures of spoken and WTitten 
Japanese, master the phonetic writing system. 



I^H 



^^ 



and begin the study of Chinese characters as 
they are used to write Japanese. Beginning 
Japanese also acquaints students with patterns 
of Japanese social custom and other cultural 
phenomena, as they pertain to the language use. 
M«. Hogan, Mr. Khan 

201, 202 Intermediate Japanese Builds on the 
fundamentals covered in Beginning Japanese to 
develop skills in spoken and written expression, 
comprehension of authentic materials, and 
knowledge of Japanese culture. Course 
emphasizes the acquisition of communication 
strategies effective in Japanese contexts. 
Ms. Hogan, Mr. Tazawa 

301, 302 Advanced Japanese Development of 
spoken language, as well as reading and writing 
ability. Course refines and integrates skills 
acquired in Intermediate Japanese to allow 
students to handle more complex oral 
commiuiications and comprehend more 
advanced readings on Japanese society. 
Mr Tazawa 

303, 304 Advanced Readings, Composition, and 
Conversation in Japanese hitegrates further the 
skills covered in Advanced Japanese. Course 
emphasizes the refinement of comprehension 
and expression skills in oral and written 
Japanese and expansion of knowledge of 
Japanese culture through reading, cla.ssroom 
discussion, and analysis of works of literature, 
newspapers, and magazine articles. Course 
prepares students to use Japanese effectively in 
academic, business, and other settings. 

COURSES ON JAPAN 

1 50 Contemporary Japanese Culture and Society 

Introduction to themes, issues, and institutions 
in contemporary Japan, as seen through the 
lens of Japanese culture and examined from an 
anthropological perspective. Major topics 
include cultural notions used in the 
construction of the self and gender; family, 
marital, and kinship relationships; social 
organizations; education; work; and religious 
and ritual practice. 
Mr Klian 

238 Pre-Modern Japanese Literature Survey of 
Japanese literature, beginning with the creation 
myth recorded in 712 and continuing to the 
dramatic arts of the 1600s. Course examines 



legends, folk tales, fairy tales, poetic anthologies, 
diaries and fiction. Lecture/discussion format. 
Readings in English; no knowledge of Japanese 
required. 
Ms. Hogan 

l^lll^l What Is Real? Extraordinary Fiction 
in Japan and the World Study of various 
permutations of the science fiction genre — 
legends, fairy tales, myths, supernatural and 
futuristic short stories, and novels. Major 
emphasis is on Japanese works, with cross- 
cultural comparisons to offer diverse 
perspectives. Coiuse focuses on the literary 
analysis of the individual texts, while exploring 
the real purpose served by these unreal 
creations. Readings in English. 
JPN 347 is the same course asJPN 247, but wil/i extra 
readings, and assignments. Designed for Japanese 
Studies Majors. 
Ms. Hogan 

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 

Caroline HartzeU, Coordinator 

Overview 

Cettvsbmg College offers a minor in Latin 
American Studies and, in conjunction with the 
Spanish department, a combined major in 
Spanish and Latin American Studies. The minor 
consists of six courses in the social sciences and 
in the himianities. Students who minor in Latin 
American Studies are encoiuaged to spend a 
semester studying abroad in Latin America or 
the Caribbean. The combined major in Spanish 
and Latin American Studies requires a total of 
twelve courses, including one semester of study 
abroad in a college-affiliated program in a Latin 
American country. 

The goal of the Latin American Studies minor 
and tlie combined major with the Spanish 
department is to promote a multidisciplinary 
approach to the study of Latin .\merica. Drawing 
on courses in the humanities and social sciences, 
the minor and major expose students to factors 
and forces that have shaped die region. This 
approach to learning about Latin America allows 
students to develop informed views of complex 
regional issues. In addition, by emphasizing the 
interdependence of our environments, it seeks to 
help students understand civic responsibilities in 
terms that go beyond national borders. 



The College, the town of Gettysburg, and the 
greater Washington area provide a stimulating 
environment for the study of Latin America. 
On campus, our program of activities includes 
lecture and colloquium series, musical 
performances, panel discussions, art exhibits, 
and films focused on Latin America. Ample 
opportunities exist for students to interact with 
the growing Latino community in Gettysburg by 
participating in heritage festivals and service- 
learning-based courses and volunteering with 
local community groups. Students can also 
pursue internships in Washington, D.C. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Latin American Studies 140, 220-229, and 261 
fulfill the Liberal Arts Core requirement in the" 
himianities, and LAS 262, 267, and 331 fulfill 
the requirement in the social sciences. 

Requirements and Recommendations for the 
Minor 

In order to minor in Latin American Studies, 
students must fulfill the College's language 
distribution requirement in Spanish and take six 
courses fi-om the list below. Students must take 
two courses from those listed as core courses and 
four courses from those listed as distribudon 
courses. In the case of the core courses, all 
students must take LAS 140 and either LAS 331 
or LAS 300. In the case of the distribution 
courses, students must draw from courses in at 
least two of the College's di\isions. 

Core Courses: 
LAS 140 Introduction to Latin American 

Studies 
LAS 300 Special Topics in Latin American 

Studies 
LAS 331 Reinventing Latin American Societies 

Distribution Courses: 
LAS 220 Topics in Latin .\merican Literature 
LAS 22 1 Transitions and Desire in Latin 

.\merican Literature 
LAS/Hist 261 History of Colonial Latin America 
LAS/Soc 262 Social Development of Latin 

America 
LAS/Soc 267 Society and Politics in LaUn 

America 
LAS 461 Individualized Study 
Anth 232 Pre-Columbian Civilizations of 

Mesoamerica 
Anth 236 Pre-Columbian Civilizations of South 

America 



Anth 237 African and Afro-Latino Cultiues: 

Studies in Power and Ritual 
FYS 129 Music of Spain and Latin America 
FYS 1 57 First Contacts 
FYS 195 Ladno/aUSA 
FYS 1 99 Travel Narratives of Latin America 
Pol 252 North-South Dialogue (only when 

course includes travel to Ladn America) 
Pol 275 Latin American Politics 
Pol 4 1 2 Women and the Political Economy of 

Development 
Span 309 Current Events in the Hispanic 

World 
Span 343 Survey of Latin American 

Literature I 
Span 344 Siuvey of Latin American 

Literature II 
Span 351 Lvric Poetry 

Span 353 Introduction to Hispanic Cinema 
Span 354 Nineteenth-Century Literature in 

Spain and Latin America 
Span 355 Hispanic Theater 
Span 376 Latin American Contemporary Prose 
Span 379 Colonialism and Latin America 
Women Studies 22 1 Bridging the Borders: 

Latina and Latin American Women's 

Literature 

Requirements and Recommendations for the 
Combined Major 

The combined major requires a total of twelve 
courses. Six of these must be Latin American 
Studies courses and six (above the 202 level) 
must be Spanish courses. In addition, one of the 
courses taken during the student's senior year 
must include a project to be considered the 
major's capstone experience. Dining the 
semester of study abroad, a maximum of two 
courses can be applied to the Latin American 
Studies component of the major and a 
maximum of two courses can be used to fulfill 
electives for the Spanish portion of the major. 

Spanish Department Course Options 
Core Courses: The following three courses are 
required as part of the Spanish component of 
the major. 
Span 301 Spanish Composition and 

Conversation 
Span 343 Survey of Latin American 

Literature I 
Span 344 Survey of Latin American 
Literature II 



Elective Courses: Select three of the following: 
Span 303 Cultural Images II: Social Sciences 
Span 309 Current Events in the Hispanic 

World 
Span 351 Lyric Poetry 

Span 353 Introduction to Hispanic Cinema 
Span 354 Nineteenth-Century Literature in 

Spain and Latin America 
Span 355 Hispanic Theater 
Span 376 Latin American Contemporary Prose 
Span 379 Colonialism and Latin America 

Latin American Studies Course Options 
Required Core Courses: Students must take 
both of the following: 
LAS 140 Introduction to Latin American 

Studies 
LAS/Soc 262 Social Development of Latin 
America 

Students must also take one upper-level course 
from the followng list: 
LAS 300 Special Topics in Latin American 

Studies 
LAS 33 1 Reinventing Latin American Societies 
Pol 412 Women and the Political Economy of 
Development 

Electi\ e Courses: Select three of the following: 
LAS 22 1 Transitions and Desire in Latin 

Anerican Literature 
LAS/Hist 261 Historv of Colonial Latin .Anerica 
LAS/Soc 267 Society' and Politics in Latin 

America 
Anth 232 Pre-Columbian Civilizations of 

Mesoamerica 
Anth 236 Pre-Columbian Civilizations of South 

America 
Anth 237 Mrican and Afro-Latino CAiltures: 

Studies in Power and Ritual 
FYS 129 Music of Spain and Latin America 
FYS 157 First Contacts 
FYS 195 Latino/a USA 
FYS 199 Travel Narratives of Latin America 
Pol 252 North-South Dialogue (only when 

course includes travel to Latin America) 
Pol 275 Latin American Politics 

140 Introduction to Latin American Studies 

Study of the peoples and civilization of pre- 
Columbian America, and of the institutions, 
economy, history, and culture of Latin America 
and the Caribbean, from the Spanish conquest 
to the present. Coiuse reviews several case 



studies and examines how modern Latin 
America responds to underdevelopment in its 
struggle for political and cultural integration. 
Mr. Betances 

220-229 Special Topics in Latin American 
Literature and the Arts Study of Latin American 
literature and related arts from varying 
perspectives. Taught in English 
SMI 

221 Transitions and Desire in Latin American 
Literature Examination of Latin American 
narratives that question sexual difference while 
engaging and representing sociohistorical 
contexts of crisis and change. 
Ms. Ramos 

261 Colonial Latin America Exploration of 
Spanish and Portuguese America from its roots 
in Iberia and indigenous America through 
three centuries of change. During the period. 
Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans 
transformed their economies and cultures and 
created new societies. 

Ms. Sommer 

262 Social Development of Latin America Study 
of the formation of Latin American republics, 
focusing on the inlerpla)' between internal 
processes and external influences. Students 
examine Latin Americans' struggle for political 
and cultural integration to overcome their 
colonial heritage and to build nation states. 

Mr. Betances 

167 Society and Politics in Latin America: A Case 
Study of the Dominican Republic Study of the 
sociopolitical evohuion of nineteenth- and 
twentieth-century Dominican Republic. Course 
examines the tension between dictatorship and 
democracy, changing economic patterns of 
Dominican life, and the influence of the U.S. 
military intervendons of 1916-1924 and 
1965-1967 on the modern Dominican state. 
Emphasis is placed on how the Dominican 
Republic mirrors contemporary Caribbean 
socio-political development. 
Mr. Betances 

300-309 Special Topics in Latin American Studies 

A thematic course focusing on twentieth- 
century Latin America. 

Staff 



33 1 Reinventing Latin American Societies Study 
of the changing role of the state in twentieth- 
century Latin America. Course explores why 
Latin American states shifted from promoting 
national development to preparing the region 
for globalization. Issues of social movements, 
political control, citizenship, and neoliberalism 
are examined in the context of a widespread 
economic, social, and political restructuring of 
Latin American Societies. Prerequisite: LAS 140 
or any course focusing on Latin America. 
Staff' 

MANAGEMENT 

Professors Bobko, Gilbert, Rosenbach, and Schein 
Associate Professors Frey (Chairperson) and Walton 
Assistant Professors Ozag and Samaras 
Instructor Volkmar 

Overview 

The deparmient provides a distinctive curriculum 
designed to engender understanding of the role 
of management in a variety of organizational 
settings: public, private, local, national, and 
international. In order to develop the breadth 
of understanding appropriate for a liberal arts 
education, the cm riculum is integrative. The 
curriculum incorporates the historical and 
social contexts within which managerial decisions 
are made and brings into clear focus the moral 
and ethical dimensions of such decisions. Students 
are encouraged and equipped to become 
informed decision-makers, who employ carefully 
considered values and the aesthetic and intuitive 
components of leadership, as well as the relevant 
analytic and technical skills. Most importantly, 
the curriculum and the manner in which it is 
taught foster the qualities of critical, creative 
thinking; the entrepreneurial disposition to be 
intellectually bold, independent, and innovative; 
the zest for lifelong learning; and the values so 
important to vital and socially responsible 
man^ement in our public and private enteiprises. 

Requirements 

Majors in management are required to 
complete ten core courses, plus a minimum 
of two electives and/or senior seminars. At least 
one of these two additional coiuses must be a 
senior seminar. The ten core courses are as 
follows: Math 104 (or Math 105-106 or III), 
Economics 103, 104, and 241, and Management 
153, 266, 270, 365, 385, and 400. Students 



anticipating a management major are 
encouraged to take Economics 103-104 in the 
first year. 

To qualify' for departmental honors in 
management, a student must 1 ) satisfactorily 
complete Management 400 during the senior year 
with a grade of B or better; 2) be recommended 
by his or her adviser; and 3) have earned a 3.3 
departmental grade point average. 

153 Financial Accounting Study of basic 
principles, concepts, and problems in recording, 
summarizing, reporting, and analyzing financial 
data. Emphasis is placed on reports used by 
decision-makers, both inside and outside the 
firm. Prerequisite: Sophomore status. 

Staff 

154 Managerial Accounting Study of accounting 
concepts for planning, control, motivation, 
reporting, and evaluation by management of 
the firm. Pr«r^w/5//r Management 153. 

Staff 

1^1 Management Information Systems 

Introduction to information technology and 
management of information systems. Focus is 
on the management of change, computer 
applications, and information technology' 
applications. Prerequisite: Management 266 or 
permission of instructor. 
Staff 

266 Management and Organization Introduction 
to management ideas, processes and techniques 
used in both profit and not-for-profit organizations. 
Focus is on the challenge of managing different 
organizations in contemporary society. 
Prerequisites: Sophomore status or higher. 
Staff 

167 Finance Emphasis on financial planning, 
investment analysis, assets management, and 
sources and costs of capital Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104, 241, and Management 153. 
Recomimnded: Economics 243. [Same as Economics 
267.] 
Staff 

270 Organizational Behavior Theory of 
behavioral science applied to the organization, 
with emphasis on the interaction of the 
individual and the organization. Topics range 
from individual attitudes and behavior to 
organizational change. Prerequisite: Management 
266 or permission of instructor. 
Staff 



I 



360 Organizational Ethics Exploration of the 
relationship between law and ethics, of ethical 
factors and restiaints, recognition of ethical 
dilemmas affecting managerial decision-making, 
and policy in private and public sector 
organizations; examination of a variety of 
ethical issues, such as those relevant to the 
environment, consumer protection, discrimination 
in the workplace, conflict of interest, global 
economy, social responsibility of organizations, 
and professionalism; emphasis on case study 
method. Prerequisite: junior status or higher. 
Staff 

365 Human Resources Management Major 
principles of human resource management, 
from the perspectives of both organizational 
demands and individual interests. Basic theoretical 
and applied concepts are covered, including 
recruitment, selection, performance appraisal, 
labor relations, compensation, training, and 
productivity improvement. Focus is also on 
relevant issues of the decade, .such as the work/ 
family interface, privacy, cultural diversity, 
workplace discrimination, and legal issues. Project 
work with organizations required. Prerequisites: 
Management 266 and 270. 
Staff 

385 International Management Examination of 
problems and opportunities confronUng business 
enterprises that operate across national borders, 
with emphasis on adaptation to different cultural, 
legal, political, and economic environments. 
Prerequisites: Management 153 and 266, plus 
Statistics (Economics 241, Mathematics 107, or 
Psycholog>'205). 
■^■'«// 

400 Policy and Strategy Integrative capstone 
course concerned with the role of senior 
executives in business enterprises. Course 
focuses on problems of strategy formulation, 
organization design, and organization renewal. 
Required of all seniors. Prerequisites: Senior 
status plus completion of all core courses. 
Staff 

410 Senior Seminar Investigation of 
contemporary problems and special topics of 
current importance in the field of management. 
Specific issues to be addressed are determined 
by instructor. Topics of senior seminars vary 
across the semesters. Possible topics include 
leadership and foUowership, commimication, 
organizational structure, diversity in 
management, planning and information 



systems, human resources accounting. Seminars 
are integrative and build upon prior course 
work. Most include significant writing, 
presentation, and/or research components. 
Preiequisite: Senior status. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Study Topics of an advanced 
nature pursued by well qualified students through 
individual reading and research, under the 
supervision of a faculty member. Students 
wishing to pursue independent study must 
present a proposal at least one month before 
the end of the semester preceding the semester 
in which the independent study is to be 
undertaken. Prerequisite: Permission of 
supervising facult)' member. 
Please note that the department and College have 
policies for students interested in credit for their 
internship expetience. Students interested in this 
option should obtain a copy of the pivcedures and 
must discuss the internship xuilh a faculty advisor 
prior to the internship experience. 
Staff 

MATHEMATICS 

Associate Professors Bajnok (on leave), DeSilva (on 

leave), and Flesner (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors E^e, Kremer, Walz, and 

Weinreich 
Instructor Maltheztis 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Washinger 
Adjunct Instructors Fiscus and Y. Niiro 

Overview 

A knowledge of mathematics is an essential 
part of what it means to be a liberally educated 
person. Mathematics is both an art and a 
science. It possesses an inherent beauty and a 
purity of expression not found to the same 
degree in any other discipline. 

Beyond its intrinsic value, mathematics is 
indispensable in both the natural and social 
sciences. It occupies a position of increasing 
importance in many other fields. The computer 
has played a major role in this mathematical 
renaissance. Thus, it is essential that mathematics 
majors, as well as other students who will apply 
mathematics, learn how to use the computer as 
a problem-solving tool. 

The mathematics curriculum provides a 
foundation for students who specialize in 
mathematics or in fields that use mathematics. 
By a careful selection of courses, a student can 
prepare for graduate study in mathematics, for 



secondary school teaching, or for a career in a 
mathematically related field. Indeed, a major in 
mathematics pro\ides a good backgroimd for 
virtually any career. Recent graduates have 
found careers in government, law, management, 
medicine, and qualitv' control, as well as in more 
tradidonal areas of employment for mathematics 
graduates. No matter what the student's objectives, 
the curriculum pro\ades courses appropriate for 
the study of mathematics within the context of 
the liberal arts. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: Mathematics majors must 
complete six core courses, plus five additional 
300-level courses. The core courses are 
Mathematics 111 (or 105-106 or exemption), 
112 (or exemption), 211, 212, 21.5 (by middle of 
jimior year), and Computer Science 103 or 104 
(by end of sophomore year). In addition to the 
core program, majors must take one of 
Mathematics 315, 321, or 331, plus four other 
3()0-level mathematics courses. 

Students considering graduate study in 
mathematics are advised to tiike both Madiematics 
321 and Mathematics 331. Department honors 
in mathematics require participation in the 
cocurricular activities of the department, an 
overall grade point average of at least 3.0, and a 
mathematics grade point average of at least 3.5. 

Minor Requireinents: A minor in mathematics 
consists of six mathematics courses numbered 111 
or above. At least one of these courses must be 
at the 300 level. 

Grade Requirements: All courses taken to satisfy 
the requirements for the major or minor must 
be taken using the A-F grading system. To 
advance to a course with prereqinsites, a 
minimum grade of C- is required for each 
prereqiusite course. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Any mathematics course fulfills the Liberal Arts 
C.ore requirement in quantitative reasoning. 

103 Mathematical Ideas Introduction to the 
power and scope of mathematical ideas by 
ivivestigating several particular topics. Topics 
vary among sections. Examples of topics include 
basic mathematical modeling, dynamic geometiy, 
puzzles and recreational mathematics, linear 
programming, game theory, voting power, 
legislative representation, and crvptology. Course 
is intended for first-year and sophomore students 
in the arts, humanities, and social sciences who 



do not plan to take calculus. Students who have 
already completed a Mathematics course at 
Gettysburg College may not enroll in 103. 
No prerequisites. 
Staff 

104 Quantitative Methods Designed for students 
in the social sciences. Topics include equations, 
graphs and functions, matrices, systems of linear 
equations, and an introduction to the derivative 
and its applications. No prerequisites. Students 
who have completed Mathematics 105-106 or 
Mathematics 111 may not enroll in 104. 
Staff 

105-106 Calculus with Precalculus I, II Study 
of differential and integral calculus with 
precalculus. Topics include basic algebraic 
concepts, equations and inequalities, functions, 
introduction to limits, continuity, the derivative, 
and the definite integral. Mathematics 105 and 

106 together cover the same calculus material as 
does Mathematics 111. No prerequisites. 

Staff 

107 Applied Statistics Introduction to statistical 
methods, with applications from social, 
biological, and health sciences. Topics include 
descriptive statistics, fundamentals of probability 
theory, probabilit)' distributions, hypothesis 
testing, linear regression and correlation, 
analysis of categorical data, and analysis of 
variance. An important aspect of the course is 
the use of a statistical package on the computer. 
Credit cannot be received for both this course 
and Mathematics 205, Biology 260, Economics 
241, or Psychology 205. 

Staff 

108 Mathematics Reasoning Study of 
mathematical reasoning. Possible topics 
include number theory, bases, logic and 
problem-solving, rational expressions, algebra, 
straightedge and compass constructions, 
tessellations, polyhedra, symmetry, statistics, and 
mathematical models. Prerequisite: At least one 
mathematics course numbered 103 or above. 
Staff 

1 1 i-l 12 Calculus I, II Differential and integral 
calculus of one real variable. Topics include 
introduction to limits, continuit)', the derivative, 
the definite integral, and series. Applications 
are drawn from the natural and social sciences. 
No prior experience with calculus is assumed. 
Students who have received credit for 
Mathematics 105-106 cannot also receive credit 



i^Q 



for Mathematics 111. These students may 
register for Mathematics 112. 

Siaff 

205 Introduction to Statistics Inuoduction to 
descriptive and inferential statistical methods 
with applications in psychology. Laboratory 
work involves the use of a computer software 
paci<age that allows for the application of 
statistical procedures. Credit may not be granted 
for this course and Mathematics 107, Biology 
260, Economics 241, or Psycholog)' 205. 
Prerequisite: High school algebra. Open only to 
declared majors in psychology. Three class 
hours and three laboratory hours. 

208 Discrete Structures Stud) of mathematical 
structures essential to the study of discrete 
phenomena with an emphasis on an algorithmic 
approach to problem solving using these 
structures. Topics are selected from sets, u lUh 
tables, methods of proof (including induction), 
functions, relations, arithmetic in other bases, 
graphs and trees, mauix algebra, elementary 
combinatorics, probability, and Markov chains. 
Examples are chosen from a variety of disci- 
plines, with emphasis on solutions that are 
algorithmic and computational in nature. 
Prerequisite: M?i\hcm-A\.\cs 111 or 105-106. 
Stall 

2 1 1 Multivariable Calculus Vectors, vector 
functions, fimctions of several variables, partial 
differentiation, optimization, multiple integration, 
tran,sformation of coordinates, line and surface 
integrals, and Green's and Stokes' theorems. 
Prerequisite: Mathematics 112. 

212 Linear Algebra Systems of linear equations, 
algebra of matrices, determinants, absuact 
vector spaces, linear tiansibrmations, eigenvalues, 
and quadratic forms. Prerequisite: Mathematics 
112. 

Staff 

215 Abstract Mathematics I Introduction to 
abstract mathematical thinking, emphasizing 
matliematical reasoning and exposition. Students 
study elementary logic and basic set theory with 
rigorous defmidons and proofs. This foundation 
is then used to explore one of several optional 
topics chosen by the instructor. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 112. 
^taff 



308 Introduction to Combinatorics Topics 
selected from graph theorv, enimieration, 
recursion, partially ordered sets, and design and 
coding theory. Applications are chosen from 
computer science, optimization, and the social 
and life sciences. Prerequisite: Mathematics 215, 
208, or 212. 
^'off 

3 1 5 Abstract Mathematics II Furdier development 
of the skills of abstract mathemadcal reasoning 
and writing proofs. Course is grounded in a 
particular subject area chosen by the instructor. 
Possible areas include topology, number theory, 
and combinatorics. Prerequisite: MathemaUcs 215. 
Staff 

321 Real Analysis Rigorous treatment of concepts 
studied in elementary calculus and an introduction 
to more advanced topics in analysis. Topics 
include elements of logic and set theory, properties 
of real numbers, elements of meuic space 
topolog), continuit)', the derivadve, the Riemann 
integral, sequences and series, and uniform 
convergence. Prerequisite: Mathematics 215 or 
permission of instructor. Alternate years. 
Offered 2003-04. 
Staff 

331 Abstract Algebra Study of basic sUuctures 
of modern absuact algebra, including groups, 
rings, fields, and vector spaces. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 215 or permission of instructor. 
Alternate years. Offered 2002-03. 
Staff 

343 Topics in Geometry Study of both synthedc 
and analytic approaches to geometry. Topics 
include axiomadc systems, Euclidean geometry, 
non-Euclidean geometries, projective geometry, 
and subgeomeuies of projective geometry. 
Prerequisites: Mathematics 212 and 215. Alternate 
years. Offered 2002-03. 
Staff 

35 1 Mathematical Probability Combinatorics, 
discrete and continuous random variables and 
their distributions, expected value and \ariance, 
fimctions of random variables, the Law of Large 
Numbers, the Central Limit Theorem, 
generaung functions, and applications such as 
Markov chains, random walks, and games of 
chance. Prerequisite: Mathematics 211 and 
Mathematics 215 (or 212). 
S'»fJ 



352 Mathematical Statistics Expectation, 
special probabilitv distributions and densities, 
bivariate and multivariate distributions, 
sampling distributions, theory and applications 
of estiination, hypothesis testing, regression, 
correlation, analysis of variance, and 
nonparametric methods. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 351. 
Staff 

362 Operations Research Study of techniques 
and tools used in matheinatical models applied 
to the biological and social sciences. Topics 
include optimization, linear and nonlinear 
programming, transportation problems, network 
analysis, dynamic programming, and game 
theory. Prerequisite: Mathematics 212. Alternate* 
years. Offered 2003-04. 

Slriff 

363 Differential Equations Analytical, numerical, 
and qualitative approaches to differential 
equations. Topics include linear equations and 
systems, series solutions, Laplace transform, 
Fourier series, nonlinear equations, phase 
plane analysis, and an introduction to partial 
diffeiential equations. Prerequisite: Mathematics 
212. 

S'nff 

364 Complex Analysis Complex numbers, analytic 
functions, complex integration, Catichy's 
Theorem, Taylor and Laurent series, contour 
integrals, the residue theorem, and conformal 
mapping. Prerequisite: Mathematics 211. 
Alternate years. Offered 2002-03. 

Staff 

366 Numerical Analysis Numerical techniques 
for solving mathematical problems. Topics 
include sohuions of equations, solutions of 
simultaneous linear equations, interpolation 
and approximation, numerical differentiation 
and integration, the eigenvalue problem, 
numerical solutions of ordinary differential 
equations, and error analysis. Prerequisites: 
Mathematics 212 and Computer Science 103 or 
104. .\lternate years. Offered 2003-04. 

38 1 , 382 Selected Topics Study of an advanced 
phase of mathematics not otherwise in the 
curriculum. Subject matter and frequency of 
offering depend on student interest. Possible 
areas for study are point set topology, graph 



theory, combinatorics, partial differential 
equations, differendal geometry, and number 
theory. Prerequisite: Permission of department. 
Staff 

Individualized Study Pursuit of topics of an 
advanced nature by qualified students through 
individual reading, research, or internship, 
under supervision of a faculty member. 
Prerequisite: Perinission of department. 
Staff 

MUSIC 

Associate Professors Grat to, Jones (Chairperson), 

Matsinko, and Robertson 
Assistant Professors Bar tram and Natter 
Adjunct Assistant Professors Bowers, Botterbusch, and 

Gumert 
Adjunct Instructors Fahnestock, Freund, Hontz, 

Henry, Ryon, Wertz, Yoshikami, and Zeshonsky 

Overview 

The department endeavors to introduce 
students to the historical significance of Western 
music and to the variety of world music so that 
they have an understanding of their musical 
heritage and knowledge of current musical 
trends. Familiarity with the basic elements of 
music and discovery of their own abilides through 
direct contact with and creative manipulation 
of materials is basic to the program. The music 
ciuriculum also involves the student in an 
intensive study of applied music. This encompasses 
indi\idual and ensemble experience. In the 
practice room, studio, and recital hall the student 
has an opportunity to refine techniques for 
musical performance. In the small and large 
ensemble the individual must work within a 
greater social context to achieve a common 
musical goal. The program also provides courses 
for the student who plans to enter the field 
of music educadon based on competencies 
prescribed by the Pennsylvania Department 
of Educadon. The music department offers 
programs leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree 
in music and a Bachelor of Science degree in 
music education. Also available is a minor in 
music, as well as a major in music within the 
elementary educadon certification program, 
which leads to a Bachelor of Arts degree. 

Bachelor of Science Program 

Prospective teachers of music in the elementary 
and secondary schools should complete the 
program for the degree of Bachelor of Science 




in music education. This requires successful 
completion of 35 courses, exclusive of courses 
in applied music. A quarter course in fitness/ 
recreational skill activities is also required. 

L3^ The program includes twelve courses in music: 
iV Music Theory (141, 142, 241, 242, and 341); 
Mu.sic History (212, 213, 214, and 315); 
Conducting (205 and 206); and Applied Music 
(456). The program also includes an elective. 
Analysis Seminar (442). 

In addition to the typical four or five full courses 
per semester, students also carry several quarter- 
courses in applied music. As many as 19 1/2 
quarter-courses may be taken during the four- 
yeai" program; however, they do not coimt 
toward the 35 course graduation requirement. 

Applied music areas taken as quarter-courses 
include: 121-129Q (major performance area: 
voice, piano, organ, guitar, wind, percussion, or 
string orchestral instruments) and 150-155Q 
(instruments of the band and orchestra). 

Five units in music education are also required: 
Music 320, 321 (for two units) and 474 (for 
three tmits), as well as one 1/4 course. Music 
149. Eight other courses are required for 
certification: Psychology 101; Education 201, 
209, and 303; two math courses; and two English 
courses. 

Participation for four years in an authorized 
music ensemble and presentation of a recital in 
the senior year are required. 

The successful completion of the program 
leading to the Bachelor of Science degree in 
music education satisfies the certification 
requirements for teaching instrumental and 
vocal music in elementary and secondary 
schools. 

Students interested in pursuing the Bachelor of 
Science program should consult with the music 
department as early as possible. 

Bachelor of Arts Program 

For students pursuing a Bachelor of Arts degree, 
the department offers a major and minor in 
music. 

Major Requiremenls: Requirements for a major 
in music leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree 
consist often full courses (Music 141, 142, 205, 



212, 213, 214, 241, 242, 315, and 456) plus 
quarter courses in the student's major applied 
area (7 quarter courses). The major must al-so 
participate for four years in an aiuhorized 
departmental ensemble and present a recital in 
the senior year. 

Music majors in the elementary education 
program must meet the same requirements as 
the B.A. degree candidate. 

Minor Requiremenls: A minor in music consists of 
Music 141, 142, and 212; Music 205; one course 
selected from Music 213, 214, or 315; Music 241 
or one of the remaining music history courses. 
Also required are foiu" consecutive semesters of 
applied lessons on the same insUument or voice 
and four consecutive semesters of participation 
in a performance ensemble. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The Liberal Arts (".ore requirement in the arts 
may be fulfilled by one of the following: Music 
101-112, 141, 212, 213, and 214. Music 102 and 
212 also fulfill the non-Western requirement. 

101 Introduction to Music Listening 

Consideration of the principal music forms 
against the backgroimd of the other arts and in 
the context of historical events. Active listening 
is an essential part of the course. Repeated 
spring semester. 

102 World Music Survey Study of music found 
in cultures arcjund the world, including sub- 
Saharan Africa, the Middle-East, and Asia, as 
well as selected ethnic cultures within the 
Americas. Related arts are examined in relation * 
to the cultural contexts in which they are foimd. 
Music making activities and small group projects 
are part of the course. Special event attendance 

is required. 

Ais. Robertson, Ms. Gratto 

103 Music of the Classical Period Study of the 
major composers — Haydn, Mozart, and 
Beethoven — and the significant genres of the 
late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. 
Musical achievements of this period are studied 
within the social and economic milieu. Listening 
and analyzing musical compositions will be an 
integral part of the course. 

Staff 



104 Opera Study of opera history and producdon 
through selected operatic works as examples of 
total music drama. Related genres of operetta, 
musical, and oratorio are also included. 
Extensive listening and viewing assignments are 
required. An opera field trip is usually planned. 
Ms. Gratto 

105 Introduction to Contemporary Music 

Study of music from a variety of Western and 
non-Western genres from the beginning of the 
twentieth century to the present. Emphasis is 
placed on the development of perceptive 
listening skills and the analysis of cultural 
context. 
Ms. Robertson 

1 06 Art Song Study of the history, 
interpretation, and style of the art song. 
Literature includes German, French, English, 
and American art songs. Extensive listening 
assignments are required. 

Mr. Matsinko, Mr. Natter 

1 07 Music of the Romantic Era Study of the 
philosophical background for nineteenth- 
century music and its stylisdc features. Extensive 
listening is done in the areas of orchestral, 
vocal, and chamber music. 

Staff 

108 Women in Music Study of women's 
contribution to music from the Middle Ages to 
the present. Extensive listening assignments 
required. 

Staff 

109 Mozart: The Man and His Music Study of 
Mozart's music, with a focus on his life, times, 
and musical analysis. Extensive listening 
assignments required. 

Mr. Matsinko 

1 10 Survey of Jazz Study of America's 
indigenous musical art form from early blues 
and Dixieland through current trends. A "live" 
jazz quartet is an integral part of style analysis. 
Concert attendance and listening assignments 
are necessary to attain an understanding of the 
genesis and development of jazz. 

Mr. Jones 

1 1 1 Fundamentals of Music Study of the 
fimdamentals of music through reading, 
writing, singing, listening, instrument playing, 
and computer technolog)'. Emphasis is on the 
development of skills and understanding related 
to a thorough knowledge of music notadon. 



Course is intended for non-majors with little 
theory backgroimd and for minors or majors in 
need of remedial help prior to beginning the 
regular music theory sequence. 
Mr Bartmm 

1 12 Two Musics of Japan Study of the two musics 
of contemporary Japan, ho-gaku (pre-Western 
Japanese mixsic) and Japanese music of Western 
influence. Course examines the historical roots 
of ho-gaku in religious kagura and Buddhist 
chants, as well as the secular music genres of 
gagaku, biwa, noh, shamisen, shakuhachi, 
percussion, and koto music to determine what is 
quintessendally Japanese. A comparative study 
of ho-gaku and Western music aims to show a 
synthesis of the two cultures. 
Ms. Yoshikami 

141 Theory I Fundamentals of basic theory, 
notadon, and nomenclature; introduction to 
writing skills and music technology; elementary 
analytic technique; melodic analysis; correlated 
sight-singing (using a moveable DO Kodaly- 
based system), keyboard playing, movement 
(Dalcroze Eurhythmies), and aural percepdon 
skills. Prerequisite: ability to read musical notation 
and permission of instructor. 

Ms. Gratto, Ms. Robertson 

142 Theory II Continuadon of Theory I writing 
skills; focus on analysis and wridng of chorales; 
correlated sight-singing and aural perception 
skills; movement; and keyboard harmony. 
Prerequisite: Grade of C- or better in Theory I. 
Ms Robertson, Ms. Gratto 

149 Introduction to Music Education 

Introductorv study of the field of music educadon 
to prepare for K-12 certificadon to teach music. 
Focus is on current trends and issues in the 
field, including advocacy, special learners, arts 
assessments, muldcultural music, curriculum 
integration, copyright, standards, and music 
technolog)'. Students observe school music 
classes at the elementary and secondary level. 
Ms. Gratto 

205 Conducting I Development of basic 
conducting techniques, with an emphasis on 
choral music. Areas of study include conducting 
gestures, rehearsal planning and execution, 
score analysis and interpretadon, ear training, 
dicdon, group vocal technique, concert 
programming, and management of a choral 
program. Prerequisite: Music 142 or permission 
of instructor. Alternate years. 
Mr Natter 



► 



206 Conducting II Concentration on advanced 
conducting skills, with an emphasis on 
instrumental score study. Areas of study include 
advanced conducting techniques, advanced 
interpretive and rehearsal techniques, the 
instrumental program, and supplemental 
materials. Prerequisite: Music 205. Alternate 
years. 
Ah: Jones 

212 Cross-Cultural Elements and Contexts of 
Music Study of the elements and contexts of 
music in a cross-cultural global perspective. 
Extensive use of musical and videotaped 
performances is included, within an 
introduction to listening, writing, and thinking 
critically about music. Prerequisite: ability to read 
musical notation. 

Ms. Robertson 

2 1 3 Music of the Medieval, Renaissance, and Early 
Baroque Study of the major forms and st)les of 
music and composers from antiquity through 
the seventeenth century. Course includes 
extensive use of musical scores and recordings 
in addition to early music performance by 
students. Prerequisite: Music 212. Offered 
alternate years. 

Ms. Robertson 

214 Music of the High Baroque, Classical, and 
Romantic Eras Study of the principal stylistic 
tendencies from J. S. Bach through the end of 
the nineteenth century. Extensive use of musical 
scores, recordings, and secondary source 
materials are included. Prerequisite: Music 212. 
Offered alternate years. 

Ms. Robertson 

221/222 Vocal Literature and Diction Study 
of classical vocal literature from 1600 to the 
present with emphasis on singing in Italian and 
English (221) or German and French (222). 
Extensive listening assignments and class 
performances required. Prerequisite: ability to 
read music and concurrent registration for 
applied voice or voice class. 
Mr. Fahnestock 

241 Theory III Study of the common practice 
period; extensive written and analytic projects; 
study of musical structure through small forms; 
correlated sight-singing, aural perception skills, 
and keyboard harmony are included. 
Mr Jones 



242 Theory IV Study of chromatic harmony from 
1850 to the present. Analysis of standard forms 
and compositional techniques. Correlated sight- 
singing, aural perception skills, and keyboard 
harmony are included. 
Mr Jones 

26 1 Technology in Music Study of technolog)' 
as it pertains to music applications, including 
the historical uses of technology in music, 
theoretical and practical uses of computers 
for music, MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital 
Interface) hardware and software, recording 
technology, and music notation software. 
Prerequisites: Music 142 and consent of 
insuuctor. 
Mr. Natter 

304 Eighteenth-Century Counterpoint 

Introduction to contrapuntal stvle of the 
eighteenth century and an analysis of the 
Baroque forms, with attention to linear motion 
and fundamental harmonic progression. 
Composition in the various forms is required. 
Mr. Jones 

315 Contemporary Music Study of musical 
developments since the beginning of the 
twentieth century. In addition to Euro-American 
art music, folk, vernacular, jazz, and global 
musics are considered. Extensive use of musical 
scores, recordings, and some musical creation 
are included. Prerequisites: Music 212; Music 213 
or 214. 
Ms. Robertson 

320 Principles and Procedures of Teaching Music 
in the Elementary Schools Study and evaluation 
of methods, materials, and techniques of 
teaching music in the elementary grades. 
Various approaches to guiding children to listen 
to, create, and perform music are included. 
Classroom instrument competencies, including 
the recorder, are developed. This course 
contains a service learning component at 
Gettysburg Head Start. Alternate years. 

Ms. Gratto 

32 1 Principles and Procedures of Teaching Music 
in the Secondary School Study and evaluation of 
methods, materials, and techniques of teaching 
music in the secondary grades. A personal 
philosophy of music education is developed, 

as are competencies in selected classroom 
instruments, including the recorder. 
Experiences teaching secondary students are 
arranged. Alternate years. 
Ms. Gratto 



341 Theory V (Orchestration) Study of 
capabilities and limitations of the standard wind, 
string, and percussion instruments. Included is 
score study, transposition, and emphasis on 
applied orchestration projects for laboratory 
performance and critique. Alternate years. 
Mr. Jones 

442 Analysis Seminar In-depth study, using 
analytical methodologies from musicology, 
ethnomusicology, and music theory, as 
applied to the unifying theme of the seminar. 
Prerequisites: Music 212, 213, 214, and 31.5 or 
permission of instructor. 
Staff 

476 Student Teaching Teaching in public schools 
in cooperation with and under the supervision' 
of experienced teachers. Individual conferences 
and seminars with the College supervisor and 
supervising teacher are required. Offered 
spring semester. Fall semester with permission 
only. Three Course Units 
Ms. Gratio 

Individualized Study Prerequisite: Approval of 
department and directing faculty member. 
Staff 

Applied Music and Performing Organizations 

The department offers instruction in voice, 
piano, organ, guitar, and standard band and 
orchestral instruments. The repertoire is 
adapted to the student's ability. One-quarter 
course credit is given for one half-hour private 
lesson per week, per semester. Some piano and 
voice instruction may be in group classes. 

Students majoring in music who are candidates 
for the Bachelor of Arts degree are entitled to 
eight quarter-courses of private instruction, and 
those who are candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in Music Education are 
entitled to 12 quarter-courses of private 
instruction at no additional cost beyond the 
comprehensive fee. Public performance is 
required of those majoring in this area of 
concentration. 

The department also sponsors various music 
organizations, including the College Choir, 
Concert Choir, Band, and Orchestra, as well as a 
variety of small ensembles. All college students 
are eligible to audition for any of these groups, 
either at the beginning of the school year or at 
other times by appointment. 



121 Voice Private instruction in singing 
technique, with emphasis on breath support, 
resonance, tone qualit)', diction and 
interpretation. Study includes song literature in 
various styles and languages. Repeated spring 
semester. 

1/4 Course 

Mr Natter, Mr. Fahnestock 

122 Voice Class Group instruction in singing 
technique, with emphasis on breath support, 
resonance, tone quality, diction and 
interpretation. Study includes song literature in 
various styles and languages. Repeated spring 
semester. 

1/4 Course 
Mr Natter 

123 Piano Private instruction in the development 
of the necessary techniques for facility in reading 
and interpreting a musical score accurately at 
the keyboard. Literature includes representative 
compositions of various stales and periods. 

1/4 Course 
Mr. Matsinko 

124 Class Piano Emphasis on sight-reading, 
ensemble phmng, and harmonizing melodies 
with various types of accompaniment, as well as 
playing some standard piano literature. 

1/4 Course 
Mr Matsinko 

125 Organ Private instruction designed to 
include literature of various periods, sight- 
reading, hymn-playing, chant and anthem 
accompaniment. Prerequisites: satisfactory 
performance of all major and minor scales (two 
octaves) and a Bach Invention. 

1/4 Course 
Ms. Freund 

1 27 Band Instrument Instruction Private 
instruction emphasizing fimdamentals and 
repertoire for the performance of woodwind, 
brass, and percussion instruments. 

1/4 Course 

Ms. Bowers, Mr. Hamm, Mr. Jones, Mr. Moore, 

Mr Ryon, Mr Wertz 

128 Guitar Private instruction emphasizing skills 
of technique, interpretation, reading, and 
fretboard knowledge. Classical and other styles 
are offered according to needs of sUidents. 

1/4 Course 
Mr Hontz 



> 



129 String Instrument instruction Private 

instruction, emphasizing both fundamentals of 

string playing and repertory. 

1/4 Course 

Mi: Botterbusch, Ms. Zeshonsky 

I BOA Band "Bullet" Marching Band performs 
a corps style show at home football games. 
Symphonic Band performs a wide variety of 
wind literature, including reorchestrated 
niastei-pieces and contemporary works. Symphonic 
Band and Wind Ensemble present three campus 
( oncerts. Symphonic Band prerequisites: 
Membership in "Bullet" Marching Band and/or 
])ermission of the conductor 
Mr. Jones 

I SOB College Choir Premiere choral ensemble, 
which performs sacred and secular choral 
literature from all periods of music history. 
Performances on campus and in the region, 
with an annual spring concert tour. Prerequisite: 
audition and permission of instructor. May be 
taken and repeated for one course credit, with a 
maximum of one course unit toward graduation. 
Mr Natter 

1 30C Concert Choir Performs sacred and secular 
choral music written for large choirs. Rehearsals 
Monday evenings from 7:30-9:30; one to two 
major concerts per semester. Faculty', staff, 
and communit)' members are welcome to 
participate. Prerequisite: simple audition and 
permission of instructors. Alay be taken and 
repealed for one course credit, with a maximum of one 
course unit toward graduation. 
Mr Natter, Ms. Gratto 

I BOD Orchestra Study and performance of 
orchestral music of all areas. Membership is 
t)pen to all students of qualifying ability. Wednesday 
evening rehearsal 7:00-9:00: Monday evening 
rehearsal (strings only) 6:30-7:30. May be taken 
for 1/4 course credit, with a maxiinum of 1 course 
unit toward giriduation. 
Mr Bar tram 

I B2A instrumental Chamber Ensembles Perform 
a wide variety of music representing all 
historical periods. Emphasis is on "one-to-a-part" 
playing. Ensemble choices may include brass 
quintet, percussion ensemble, flute ensemble, 
woodwind quintet, saxophone quartet, and 
other combinations available on student 
demand. Prerequisite: membership in College 
Band and permission of instructor. 
Mr. Bartram, Ms. Gratto, Mr. f ones, Staff 



IB2B Jazz Ensemble Ensemble of 17-20 
musicians dedicated to preserving and 
advancing America's indigenous musical art 
form. All styles of jazz are studied from big 
band swing through contemporary fusion. 
Campus commiuiity and fesival performances, 
including an annual concert with a nationally 
recognized soloist. European tour every four 
years. Prerequisite: by audition and open to 
members of the College Band. 
Mr fones 

IB2C Camerata Advanced ensemble of 12-16 
singers performing music written for small 
ensembles, from madrigals to vocal jazz. 
Ensemble performs in major choral concerts 
and/or in other campus or community 
performances. One hour-long rehearsal weekly. 
Prerequisite: concurrent membership in College 
Choir or Concert Choir, and permission of 
instructor. No credit. 
Mr. Natter 

IB2D Women's Choir Performs music for 
women's xoices from various periods and styles. 
Ensemble performs in major choral concerts 
each semester and/or in other campus or 
communit)' performances. One hour-long 
rehearsal weekly. Prerequisite: concurrent 
membership in College Choir or Concert Choir, 
and permission of instructor. No credit. 
Ms. Gratto 

I32E World Music Ensemble Performs vocal 
music from various world cultures, including 
those within the United States. Ensemble 
performs in major choral concerts and/or in 
other campus or commimity performances. 
One hour-long rehearsal weekly. Prerequisite: 
concurrent membership in College Choir or 
Concert Choir, and permission of insuiictor. 
No credit. 
Ms. Gratto 

150-151 Woodwind instrument Class Instruction 

in the technique of teaching and playing 
woodwind instruments, using the clarinet as the 
basic instrimient and including the recorder. 
1/2 Course 
Mr Wertz 

1 52- 1 SB Brass Instrument Class Instruction in 
the technique of teaching and playing brass 
instruments. Trumpet or cornet is used as the 
basic brass instrument. 
1/2 Course 
Mr. Wertz 



154-155 Stringed Instrument Class Instruction 
and practice in the techniques of teaching 
and playing stringed instruments and the 
organization of a string section. Violin is used 
as the basic string instrument. 
Two 1/4 Courses 
Mr. Botterbusch 

1 56 Percussion Class Organization of practical 
and theoretical materials concerning all 
percussion instrimients, their performance 
techniques, and teaching procedures. 
1/4 Course 
Staff 

456 Senior Recital Solo presentation of 
representadve literature of various stylisdc periods 
of the student's major applied area, with emphasis 
on historical performance practice. Prerequisite: 
permission of instructor and music faculty. 
Staff 

PHILOSOPHY 

Professors DeNicola, Portmess (Chairperson), and 

Walters 
Assistant Professors Gimbel and Hansen 
Adjunct Professors Carrick and Hammann 

Overview 

The study of philosophy is intended to promote 
inquiry into perennial philosophical questions 
such as the nature of justice, happiness, 
knowledge, and freedom; to produce awareness 
of the answers that have been proposed to these 
questions; to teach the tools for the analysis of 
the assumptions and values that imderlie 
different intellectual disciplines; and to promote 
the application of philosophical analysis to issues 
of public policy, law, and morality. The study of 
philosophy encourages the student to develop 
the ability to analyze problems, understand 
central issues, and develop alternative solutions. 
It challenges the student to reflect upon 
problems involving values, to examine problems 
in an interdisciplinary way, to examine 
alternative world views and forms of knowledge, 
and to develop an awareness of intellectual 
history and diverse philosophical traditions. 
Classes encourage discussion and writing. The 
study of philosophy is an integral part of an 
education in the liberal arts tradition. 

A major in philosophy is excellent preparation 
for graduate school or for professional schools 
in almost any field. It will also prove valuable in 



any profession that demands clear thinking and 
the ability to understand the points of view of 
other people. Individually, philosophy courses 
are useful supplements to course work in other 
areas. The department is interested in assisting 
and encouraging students to design special 
majors in which philosophy is an integral part. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Philosophy 101, 103, 105, 107, and 211 have 
no prerequisites. Any 100-level coiuse is 
prerequisite for a 200- or 300-level coiuse, 
though the instructor may grant permission to 
enroll on an individual basis to equivalently 
prepared students. 

A philosophy minor consists of any six courses 
in the department, only two of which may be 
100-level courses. A philosophy major consists of 
nine courses in philosophy, including 211; at 
least two out of 205, 206, 207, and 208; 400 
(Senior Seminar) and 460 (Senior Thesis). No 
more than two lOO-Ievel courses may be counted 
toward the major, and the major must include 
at least one 300-level course. 

Distribution/Liberal Arts Requirements 

All philosophy courses except 103 and 21 1 fulfill 
the liberal arts core humanities requirement. 
Philosophy 211 fulfills the liberal arts quantitative 
reasoning requirement. All other coiuses count 
toward the liberal arts humanities requirement. 

101 Introduction to Philosophy Study of selected 
philosophical texts, which deal with such 
themes as knowledge, happiness, justice, death, 
and the nature of reality. Goal is to develop an 
ability to read about, reflect on, and comment 
on philosophical issues. 
Staff 

103 Critical Thinking Informal logic course 
designed to help students reflect on and 
enhance their ability to think analytically and 
creatively. Discussions and exercises focus on 
techniques characteristic of informal logic 
(classification of argimients, analysis and 
evaluation of arguments, identifying informal 
fallacies, etc.) , as well as strategies for intuitive 
and creative thinking. 
Mr Gimbel 

1 05 Contemporary Moral Issues Study of moral 
problems and larger philosophical questions 
they raise about such issues as the defensible use 
of violence, limits of freedom, extent of our 
obligations to others and to nature, rightful 



► 



state authority, and the nature of duties and 
obligations. Selected readings focus on moral 
disputes as they arise in law and medicine, in 
international affairs, and in private moral 
reflection. Particular attention is given to ethical 
theories and to world\iews that shape positions 
on moral issues and guide moral decision-making. 
■^■'«# 

107 Environmental Ethics Exploration of ethical 
issues that arise regarding what responsibilities 
human beings have to the natural world. Specific 
issues such as population, land use, wilderness 
preservation, biodiversity, and our treatment of 
animals are examined in light of larger 
philosophical questions regarding nature and 
human puipose, obligations to fimire generations, 
the aesthetic and religious value of nature, and 
the possibility of an environmental ethic. 
Staff 

205 Ancient Philosophy Study of philosophers 
and philosophies of ancient Greece and Rome. 
Emphasis is on the Pre-Socratics, Plato, 
.\ristotle. Stoicism, and Skepticism. 

Ms. Hansen 

206 Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy Study 
of leading thinkers in the western philosophical 
tradition, from the fifth to the fifteenth century. 
Special emphasis is on such figures as 
.\ugustine, Bonaventure, Anselm, Thomas 
.\quinas, and Pico della Mirandola. 

Mr. Walters 

207 Early Modern Philosophy Study of such 
major figures as Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, 
Locke, Berkeley, and Hume in seventeenth- 
and eighteenth- century European philosophy. 
Mr Gimbel 

208 Kant and Nineteenth-Century Philosophy 

Study of the philosophy of Immanuel Kiint and 
selected nineteenth-century European 
philosophers such as Hegel and Nietzsche. 
Ms. Hansen 

1 1 1 Logic Introduction to formal logic and a 
study of the formal uses of language, with 
particular reference to the nature of inference 
from premises to conclusion; rules for deductive 
inference; construction of formal proofs in 
sentential and predicate logic; and the nature of 
language. 
Mr Gimbel 



2 1 6 Philosophy and Human Nature Study of 
different theories of human nature and the self, 
both historically and cross-culturally and in light 
of contemporary research in sociobiology, 
artificial intelligence, psycholog)', and gender 
and cultural studies. 
Ms. Portmess 

230 Ethical Theory Study of major figures and 
schools in the Western ediical uadition. Attendon 
is paid to selections from representative 
philosophers, from Plato through Rawls. 
Specific i.ssues examined include the nature of 
rights and responsibilities, virtue, and moral 
obligation. 
.'V/?: Cimhel 

235 Philosophical Ideas in Literature A study of 
the relationship of philosophy to literature and 
the philosophical questions which arise from 
reflection on selected literary and philosophical 
works. Readings explore themes of narrative 
masquerade, human identit)', and the search for 
meaning and debate questions of textual 
interpretation and the reader-text relationship. 
Ms. Hansen 

240 World Philosophy Study of selected wridngs 
from the world's philosophical traditions. Such 
themes as self and world, knowledge and its 
limits, the meaning and purpose of life, the 
nature of realit)' and ideals of moral perfection 
are explored in diverse philosophical traditions. 
Ms. Portmess 

33 1 Emotion .\ philosophical exploration of 
the nature and role of emotion in human life. 
Course examines emotionality as a human 
capacity, emodonal response as an experience, 
and specific emotion types, such as anger or 
fear. Topics include the tradifional opposition 
between reason and passion, between the 
cognitive and the emotive; the relation of 
emotion to morality; the possibilit)' of 
"educating the emotions"; and philosophical 
issues related to particular emotions such as 
envy, jealousy, and embarrassment. 
Mr DeNirola 

333 Philosophy and Science Study of what 
philosophy has to say about science and what 
science has to say about philosophy. Course 
examines such questions as: Wliat is the 
relationship between science and truth? Does 
truth extend beyond science? Is the purpose 




of a scientific theory merely to predict, or to 
explain? Do we live in a determined world or 
a chaotic one? What are the philosophical 
implications of such theories as quantum 
mechanics, evolution, and relativity? 
Ah: Gimbel 

334 Philosophy of Art Survey of important 
problems and issues in the history of philosophical 
aesthetics, inlcuding the nature and function of 
art, the social role of art, and the relationship of 
aesthetics to other branches of philosophy. 
Ms. Hansen 

337 Philosophy of Religion Study of 
philosophical eflorts to understand and justify 
religious beliefs. Course examines writings of 
philosophers who have answered such questions 
as: Wliat is religion? Wiat is the importance or 
significance of specifically religious experiences? 
Wliat account can we give of the meaning of 
religious claims? How can we mediate between 
apparently conflicting religious beliefs? 

Mr. Hammann 

338 Philosophy of Law Study of enduring themes 
of legal philosophy, such as the nature of law, 
law and morality, liberty, responsibility, and 
justice, as well as such specific issues as civil 
disobedience, freedom of expression, privacy, 
compensation, and punishment. Emphasis is 
placed on differing philosophical perspectives 
that underlie disagreements about the law and 
on ethical questions that arise from the practice 
of law. 

Ms. Portmess 

340 American Philosophy Study of selected topics 
in colonial, early republic, nineteenth- and 
twentieth-century U.S. philosophy. Topics 
include deism, transcendentalism, pragmatism 
and historicism. Important secondary movements 
such as puritanism and evolutionism may also 
be considered. 

A//; Walters 

34 1 Contemporary Continental Philosophy Study 
of contemporary European and European- 
influenced philosophy. Course readings may 
include works by Heidegger, Derrida, Foucault, 
the French Nietzscheans (Bataille, Blanchot, 
Klossowski, Haar, Deleuze), French feminists 
(Kristeva, Irigaray, Cixous), and critical theorists 
(Adorno, Horklieimer) . Course explores the 
interrelations between philosophy and 
disciplines — such as literature, psychoanalysis. 



political theorv, and cultural criticism — and the 
ways in which contemporary continental 
philosophers both take up and alter the historical 
traditions of philosophy. 
Ms. Hansen 

400 Senior Seminar Discussion of philosophical 
theories of the emotions, the validity of the 
traditional opposition between reason and 
passion, the relation of emotion to morality, and 
philosophical issues related to specific emotions 
such as envy, jealousy, and embarrassment. 
Mr. Wallers 

460 Senior Thesis Individualized study project 
in\ olving the research of a topic and 
preparation of a major paper. Normally done 
during fall or spring semester of the senior year. 
Prerequisite: major or minor in philosophy. 
Staff 

PHYSICS 

Professors Cowan, Marschall, and Pella (Chairperson) 
Associate Professors Aklinger and Good 
Assistant Professors Stephenson and Crawford 
Laboratory Instructors Cooper and Hayden 

Overview 

The physics curriculum introduces students to 
concepts and techniques basic to our present 
understanding of the physical universe. Diverse 
courses emphasize theories and principles that 
give a broad, unifying description of nature and 
develop the analytical reasoning needed for 
their use. Probing the interrelationships 
between matter and energy, students and faculty 
explore such fields as astronomy, 
electromagnetism, optics, elementary particles, 
relativit)', quantum mechanics, and atomic and 
nuclear physics. Laboratory training stresses the 
design of experiments, the techniques of precise 
measurement, the interpretation of data, and 
written and oral communication. In advanced 
courses, students apply their skills through 
independent studies and research with faculty, 
in contrast to programs at larger institutions. 
Our physics faculty is dedicated to teaching, 
while remaining actively engaged in research. 
Mentoring relationships between facult)' and 
students are the norm. 

The physics major is flexible. The possibility 
of a double major is limited only by interests, 
dedication, and imagination. Gettysburg 
College physics majors have succeeded in 



k 




diverse careers, including government, law, and 
management, as well as engineering, particle 
physics, and molecular biology. Our majors who 
choose graduate study have been well prepared 
for study in a wide range of fields, including 
astronomy; astrophysics; biophysics; business; 
geophysics; environmental, electrical, nuclear, 
and ocean engineering physics; and 
physiological psychology. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The department offers both a Bachelor of 
Science and Bachelor of Arts degree for the 
major. 

B.A. requirements: A minimiun of nine physics 
courses is required for the major. This includes 
the following six core courses: Physics 111, 112, 
211, 255, 310, 325, and three additional courses 
at the 200-level or higher, at least one of which 
must be from: Physics 312, 319, 330, and 341. 
In addition, majors are required to complete 
mathematics coiuses through Mathematics 212 
or its equivalent. This diverse, flexible major is 
well suited for a variety of post graduation 
careers, including secondary school physics 
teaching, industrial research, and graduate 
school in such fields as engineering, computer 
science, law, and medicine. 

First-year students who are considering a major 
should enroll in Physics 111,1 12, and 
Mathematics 111 and 112 if possible. Those 
planning on attending graduate school in 
physics should plan to take the additional 
courses listed under the B.S. requirement below. 
Those considering graduate work in astronomy, 
engineering, or related fields are encouraged to 
augment their physics major with additional 
courses in mathematics, compiUer science, and 
chemistry. Students are not permitted to take 
more than twelve courses in the department 
without permission of the department, unless 
the thirteenth course is Physics 462 (Independent 
Study) . 

B.S. requireinents: In addition to the six core 
courses mentioned above, the B.S. degree 
requires Physics 462, at least three courses from 
Physics 312, 319, 330, 341, and any two courses 
at the 200-level or above. Candidates for the B.S. 
degree must also complete Mathematics 363. 

Minor requirements: A minor in physics consists of 
Physics 111, 112, 211, 255, and two additional 
courses in physics at the 200-level or above. The 
minor represents an appropriate complement 
to a variety of majors, including mathematics 
and computer science. 



Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
natiual sciences may be satisfied by any course 
listed imder physics or astronomy. 

Special Facilities 

In addition to well-equipped teaching 
laboratories in atomic and nuclear physics, 
electronics, and optics, the facilities of the 
department include a planetarium, an 
observatory, an accelerator research lab, and a 
plasma research lab. The observatory features 
a 16" Cassegrain telescope with a computer- 
controlled drive, a UVB photometer, and a 
research-grade CCD camera. The accelerator 
research lab houses a model PN-250 Van de 
Graaf FTV'EC proton accelerator. The plasma 
research lab is home to the Pickets Charged 
Plasma Device in which plasma discharges are 
produced and studied via laser spectroscopy 
diagnostics. Support facilities in Masters Hall 
include a machine shop, electronics shop, and 
a computer-equipped student work area. 

Engineering 

The department administers the Dual-Degree 
Engineering Program with Columbia Universit)', 
Washington University in St. Louis, and 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Students 
selecting this program graduate from Gettysburg 
College with a major in physics upon successful 
completion of an engineering degree at 
Columbia University, Washington University in 
St. Louis, or RPI. 

More details regarding the physics and the Dual- 
Degree Engineering Program are described in 
the Handbook for Students prepared by the 
physics department. Majors and prospective 
majors should request a copy from the physics 
department office or check the department's 
Web page. 

Prerequisites are meant only as guides. Any course is 
open to students luho have permission of the 
department. 

1 1 Solar System Astronomy Overview of 
behavior and properties of planets, satellites, 
and minor members of the solar system. 
Subjects include basic phenomena of the visible 
sky, gravitation and orbital mechanics, results of 
telescopic and space research, and theories of 
the origin and evolution of the solar system. 
Course satisfies science distribution requirement 
for nonscience majors. Three classes and a 
laboratory. 
Mr. MarschaU 



1 02 Stellar Astronomy Overview of current 
knowledge about the universe beyond the solar 
system from a physical and evolutionary 
standpoint. Subjects include observational 
properties of stars, methods of observation and 
analysis of light, nature of stellar systems and 
interstellar material, principles of stellar 
structiue and evoliuion, and overall structure 
and development of the physical universe. 
Course satisfies laboratory science disuibudon 
requirement for nonscience majors. Three 
classes and a laboratory. 
Mr. Marschall 

1 1 The Evolving Universe Overview of the 
fundamental principles of classical physics 
(including gravitation and electromagnetism), - 
the theory of relativity, and quantum physics. 
Course includes a discussion of the four 
fundamental forces of nature; nuclear and 
atomic physics; elementary particles; grand 
unified theories; and cosmology, including the 
origin and fate of the universe. Does not count 
toward the major. Three class hours. 

Af^' Aldinger 

1 02 Contemporary Physics Designed for 
nonscience majors. Course concentrates on the 
relationship between physical principles, 
modern technology, and the world in which we 
live. Topics include heat and thermodynamics, 
la.sers and other optical instruments, electricity 
and circuits, medical diagnostics, and radiation 
effects. Not appropriate for students taking 
Math 112. Three class hours and three 
laboratory hours. No prerequisite. 

Mr: Crawford 

103-104 Elementary Physics I and II General 
coverage of the fields of classical and modern 
physics. Course is structured for students in 
biology, environmental science, the health 
professions, etc. While particularly useful for 
biology majors, the two-course sequence serves 
any student as an introduction to a wide range 
of topics in physics. Prerequisite: Facility in 
algebra and geometry. Three class hours and 
three laboratorv hours. 
Staff 

1 1 1 Introductory Modern Physics I An 

introduction to conservation laws and modern 
physics: the conservation of momentum, energ)' 
and angular momentum as fundamental laws, 
vectors and the concept of velocit)', super- 



position and the interference of waves, physical 
optics, introductory principles of quantum 
physics, and applications in atomic and nuclear 
physics. Four class hours and three laboratory 
hours. 
Mr. Pella 

1 12 Introductory Modern Physics II An 

introduction to classical and relativistic 
mechanics: Newton's laws of motion, the work- 
energy principle, celestial mechanics, and the 
special theory of relativity, including four-vector 
notation. Differential and integral calculus is 
introduced and used. Prerequisites: Physics 111 
and Math 111, which may be taken concur- 
rently, or permission of instructor. Four class 
hours and three laboratory hours. 
Ms. Stephenson 

2 1 1 Introductory Electricity and Magnetism An 

introduction to classical electromagnetic theory 
and applications: electiostatic fields, currents, 
magnedc fields, magnetic inducdon, and 
Maxwell's equations. Other topics include 
waves, light as a propagating electromagnetic 
disturbance, and optics. Prerequisites: Physics 112 
and Mathematics 112, which may be taken 
concurrently, or permission of instructor. Four 
class hours and three laboratory hours. 
Mr Crawford 

240 Electronics Principles of electronic devices 
and circuits using integrated circuits, both 
analog and digital, including amplifiers, 
oscillators, and logic circuits. Prerequisite: Physics 
211. Three class hours and six laboratory hours. 
Mr. Crawford 

255 Mathematical Techniques for Physicists 

Intermediate treatment of mathematical 
methods used in physics. Topics include elements 
of vector calculus, complex variables, ordinary 
and partial differential equations, solution of 
Laplace's equation, special functions, 
determinants, and matrices. Prerequisites: Physics 
211 and Mathematics 112. Three class hours. 
Mr Aldinger 

310 Atomic and Nuclear Physics Introduction to 
quantum mechanics. Potential wells, barriers, 
one electron atoms, and multielectron atoms 
are studied. Other topics include nuclear 
models, decay, and nuclear reactions. Three 
class hours and three laboratory hours. 
Prerequisite: Physics 255. 
Mr Pella 



^^ 



3 1 2 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics 

Temperature, heat, first and second laws of 
ihermodynamics, and introductory statistical 
mechanics of physical systems based on the 
principle of maximum entropy. Topics include 
the ideal gas, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein 
"gases," electrons in metals, blackbody radiation, 
low temperature physics, and elements of 
transport theory. Prerequisite: Physics 211. 
Three class hours. 
Ms. Stephenson 

319 Classical Mechanics Intermediate-level 
course in mechanics for upperclass physics 
majors. Topics include chaos, nonlinear 
dynamics, central forces, oscillations, and the 
formalisms of Lagrange and Hamilton. 
Prerequisites: Physics 211, 255, and Mathematics 
211. Three class hours. 
Slajf 

325 Advanced Physics Laboratory Laboratory 
course with experiments drawn from various 
areas of physics, such as optics, electromagnetism, 
atomic physics, and nuclear physics, with paiticular 
emphasis on contemporary methods. Error 
analysis, experimental techniques, and written 
and oral communication are stressed. Prerequisite: 
Physics 310. 
Staff 

330 Electricity and Magnetism Intermediate 
course in electromagnetism, including vector 
fields and vector calculus, electrostatic field 
theory, dielectrics, magnedc phenomena, fields 
in matter, Maxwell's equations, Laplace's 
equation and boundary value problems, and 
electromagnetic waves. Prerequisites: Physics 211 
and Physics 255. Three class hours. 
Mr Good 

341 Quantum Mechanics Introduction to the 
Schrodinger and Heisenberg formulations 
of quantiun mechanics. Topics include 
free parucles, harmonic oscillator, angular 
momentum, hydrogen atom, matrix mechanics, 
spin wave functions, helium atom, and 
|3erturbation theory. Prerequisites: Physics 255, 
310, and 319 and Mathemadcs 363. Three class 
hours. 
Staff 

352 Optics and Laser Physics Intermediate 
treatment of physical optics and laser physics. 
Topics include electromagnedc theory of light, 



interference, diffraction, coherence, 
holography, Fourier opdcs, fundamentals of 
laser operadons, la.ser spectroscopy, and fiber 
optics. Three class hours and six laboratory 
hours. Prerequisites: Physics 211 and Mathemadcs 
2 1 1 or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Good 

381 Special Topics in Physics Topics in physics 
not covered in die usual curriculum. Topics vary 
from year to year and may include relativity; 
astrophysics; advanced topics in modern optics, 
solid state physics and electromagnetism; 
fundamental particles and nuclear structure; 
the physics of plasmas and various mathemadcal 
topics in physics (topology, special funcdons, 
fractals) . Prerequisites: Upper division standing 
and approval bv instructor. Three class hours. 
Staff 

452 Tutorials: Special Topics Designed to cover 
physics or physics-related topics not otherwise 
available in the ciuriculinTi. Open to upperclass 
physics iTiajors who arrange with a staff member 
for supervision. Possible areas of study include 
advanced elecuonics, medical physics, astrophysics, 
acoustics, nuclear physics, and plasma physics. 
Prerequisite: Approval by department. 
Staff 

462 Independent Study in Physics and Astronomy 

Experimental or theoretical invesdgation of a 
research-level problem selected by a student in 
consultation with a faculty member. Students 
shoidd arrange for supervision by the end of 
the jimior year. Results of the invesdgadon are 
reported in a departmental colloquium and 
in a written thesis. Prerequisite: Approval by 
department. 
Staff 

474 internship Research participation during 
the summer at a recognized research laboratory 
such as Aigonne National Labs, Department 
of Energv' Laboratories, or NIST Individual 
students are responsible for obtaining 
acceptance to these programs. In most cases 
students will be required to describe their 
participation in a departmental colloquium. 
Prerequisite: Completion of sophomore year and 
departmental approval. 
Mr Pella 




POLITICAL SCIENCE 



Professors Matt and Warshaw 
Associate Professors Borock, Gaenslen, 

Hartzell, lannello, D. Tannenbaum, and 

Dawes (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professor Bohrer 

Overview 

The department aims at providing an 
understanding of the study of politics, emphasizing 
the methods and approaches of political science 
and the workings of political systems in various 
domestic, foreign, and international settings. 

The program provides balance between the 
needs of specialists who intend to pursue 
graduate or professional training and those who 
do not. Courses offered in the department help 
prepare the student for careers in politics, 
federal, state, and local government, public and 
private interest groups, business, journalism, 
law, and teaching. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major requirements: A minimum of eleven courses 
in political science. Majors are required to take 
four introductory courses: Political Science 101, 
102, 103, and 104. These courses are designed 
to introduce students to the discipline and to 
the types of issues that are important to political 
scientists. The 100-level courses may be taken in 
any order, and should be completed by the end 
of the sophomore year. All students must take 
Political Science 215 (Political Science Research 
Methods) as .sophomores or first-semester 
juniors. Among the six courses needed to complete 
the major, students must take three courses in 
three different subfields at the 200 level, and 
two courses within two of those subfields at the 
300-400 level. The remaining requirement may 
be satisfied with any upper level course. 

Students are encouraged to take internships 
for academic course credit, but they are graded 
S/U and do not count toward the major 
requirements. Political science coiuses taken off 
camyjus will satisfy 200-level requirements only. 
Students are allowed to coimt a maximum of 
two of those courses for major and minor 
credits toward graduation. 

Minor requirements: Successful completion of any 
two 100-level courses and any four upper-level 
coiuses that normally count toward the major, 
provided tliey do not all fall into the same subfield. 

Departmental honors in political science are 
awarded to graduating majors who have 



achieved an average of 3.5 in political science 
courses and who have successfully completed a 
significant research project in the senior year. 
Students wishing to qualify for honors are 
responsible for choosing a faculty member to 
direct the project. A second faculty member will 
act as a reader of the completed work. Those 
who achieve honors are expected to present 
their work in a public forum. 

Students interested in political science are 
ui ged to take basic courses in history and 
economics during their first two years. In the 
junior and senior years, majors are urged to 
participate in departmental seminars, 
individualized study, and internships. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

.Any of the following courses may be counted 
towards the Liberal Arts Core requirement in 
the social sciences: 101, 102, 103, and 104. The 
following courses may be counted toward the 
Liberal Arts Core requirement in non-Western 
culture: 270, 271, 362, and 363. 

Special Programs 

Qualified students may participate in off-campus 
programs, such as the Washington Semester, 
The United Nations Semester, and Study Abroad. 

INTRODUCTORY COURSES 

101 American Government Examination of 
the institutional structure and polic)'-making 
process of national government as reflections 
of assvimptions of liberal democracy and the 
American social and economic .systems. In 
addition to the legislative, executive, and judicial 
branches of government, political parties, 
interest groups, and elections are considered. 
Mr Dames, Ms. lannello, Mr Mott, Ms. Warshaw 

102 Introduction to Political Thought .\naly.sis of 
political philosophies relating to fundamental 
problems of political association, past and 
present. Course examines concepts of power, 
authorit)', freedom, equalit)', social justice, and 
order, as expressed in works of major political 
philosophers. 

Mr Tannenhanm 

103 Introduction to International Relations 

Examination of the behavior of states and non- 
state actors in the international system. Topics 
include systems analysis, nationalism, power, 
foreign policy, international institutions, 
interdependence and the world economy, conflict 
and cooperation, global en\ironmental and 
ecological issues. 
Mr. Borock, Ms. Hartzell 



104 Introduction to Comparative Politics 

Introduction to structures and processes of 
political institutions in major types of political 
systems, including parliamentary systems, 
countries of the former Soviet Bloc system, and 
systems in developing countries. 
Mr. Bolim; Mr. Gaenslen 

METHODOLOGY 

215 Political Science Research Methods 

Introduction to quantitative research methods 
and their application to the study of politics. 
Topics include empiricism, survey research and 
polling, electoral behavior, and public opinion. 
Special attention is given to research design, 
data collection, data processing, and statistical 
analysis. Prerequisites: Completion of three of the 
following: Political Science 101, 102, 103, and 
104, or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Boliren Mr. Dcnues 

AMERICAN GOVERNMENT 
220 Urban Politics Study of the changing 
patterns in American urban life. Particular 
attention is given to the governing of luban 
America in the past, present, and future, and 
the structure of power that has affected urban 
policy decisions. Prerequisite: Political Science 
101 or permission of instructor. 
Staff 

223 U.S. Congress Study of the United States 
Congress, focusing on theories of 
representation, nomination and electoral 
processes, internal organization of Congress, 
influences on Congressional policy-making, 
and Congressional interaction with other 
participants in the policy process. Prerequisites: 
Political Science 101 or permission of instructor. 
Ms. Warshaw 

224 The American Presidency Study of the 
presidency in the ^American political system, 
including presidential selection, presidential 
leadership and decision-making, the president's 
advisors, and the role of the presidency in the 
policy-making process. Prerequisites: Political 
Science 101 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Warshaw 

225 American Constitutional Law Study of the 
judicial process in the L'.S., with particular focus 
on the Supreme Coiut and its historical role in 
nation-building, establishing principles of 
federalism and the separation of powers, and 
determining the scope of personal and propert)' 
rights. Prerequisites: YoWucaX Science 101 or 
permi.ssion of instructor. 

Mr. Mott 



322 Civil Rights and Liberties Study of selected 
problems involving interpretations of the Bill of 
Rights. Attention will be given to both the i 

evolution and current standing of issues treated I 
by the Supreme Court. Prerequisites: Political 
Science 101 and 225, or permission of instructor. 
Mr Molt 

33 1 Political Parties in American Politics 

Examination of political parties, their role in 
democracy, and the nature of the party system 
in relation to other social and political processes. 
Aspects of voting behavior and campaign 
techniques are considered. Prerequisites: Political 
Science 101 and 215, or permission of instructor. 
Mr Daxces 

INTERNATIONAL POLITICS 

242 United States Foreign Policy Examination of 
the scjurces, goals and patterns of foreign policy. 
Attention is given to the processes by which 
policy is formulated and implemented and to 
the evaluation of the effecdveness of policy. 
Topics include decision making, foreign economic 
policy, deterrence, instj lunents of foreign policy, 
regionalism, multilateralism, and die development 
of post-Cold War objectives. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 10.3 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Borock 

25 1 Political Economy of Advanced Industrial 
Societies C:ourse explores scope and implications 
of interdependence among advanced industrial 
societies in the global system, as well as political 
determinants of international economic 
developments. Alternadve theoretical perspectives 
on international political economy are examined, 
as well as the nature of the structure and 
management of the international economic 
system that was created by the industrialized 
countries after World War II. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 103 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Hartzell 

252 North-South Dialogue Course investigates 
the political economv of North-SoiUh relations. 
Examining the distribiuion of wealth between 
the developed and developing countries of the 
world, course focuses on political and economic 
factors that have made global inequality a 
central characteristic of the relationship 
between the North and South. Important issues 
of the contemporary period such as North- 
South trade, the debt crisis, foreign aid, and 
famine are investigated and the developmental 
prospects for the South are assessed. Course 
may, in some of the years it is offered, include a 
two-week service learning trip to a developing 



country. Prerequisite: Political Science 103 or 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Hartzell 

340 Models and Policy Analysis Examination 
of national/ regional policy options and 
consequences, using a global computer model 
to develop scenarios that focus on present or 
futiue international issues. Scenario topics 
include global warming, North-South disparities, 
environmental and ecological issues, economic 
development and trade, arms racing, and 
nuclear proliferation. Prerequisite: ]un\ov or 
seniors status, or permission of instiiictor. 
Mr. Borork 

344 U.S. National Security Policy Examination 
of the domestic and foreign policies developed, 
by the U.S. to defend itself and its interests. 
Attention is given to the structure within which 
policy is formulated and implemented and the 
transidon to post-Cold War defense objectives 
and stiategies. Topics include decision making, 
defense spending, military intervention and 
peacekeeping, regionalism, terrorism, nuclear 
proliferation, and war fighting strategies. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 103 or permission 
of instructor. Polidcal Science 242 is 
recommended. 
Mr. Borork 

346 Approaches to International Relations 

Examination of the study of international 
relations from the perspective of the realist/ 
neorealist and liberal/neoliberal theoretical 
traditions. Attention is also given to the 
theories" impact on policy making. Topics 
include power, war, peace, integradon, 
international organization and law. Prerequisite: 
Political Science 103 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Borork 

COMPARATIVE POLITICS 
260 West European Politics Study of the 
government and politics of France, Germany, 
and Great Britain. Analysis of the development 
of their political institudons, social and cultural 
factors affecting their polidcal systems, 
alignment of political forces, and structures and 
processes of decision making. Prerequisite: 
Political Science 1 04 or permission of insuiictor. 
Mr Bokrer 

270 Government and Politics in China 

Introduction to the domestic politics of China, 
particularly since 1949. Topics include the 
historical legacy, ideology, political institudons. 



elite-mass relations, policy process, 
developmental strategies, and efforts at reform. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or permission 
of instrtictor. 
Mr Gaenskn 

271 Government and Politics in Japan 

hitroduction to post- World War 11 Japanese 
politics, involving comparison with political 
patterns elsewhere in the indusuialized world. 
Topics include the historical legacy, political 
structures and processes, elite-mass relations, 
and the natiue of the connection between 
business and government. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 104 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Gaenslen 

275 Latin American Politics Introducdon to 
Latin American politics. Focus is on polidcal 
issues surrounding economic development in 
the Ladn American context: political 
preconditions, policy choices of Latin American 
regimes and leaders, and political consequences 
of development in general, and of those policy 
choices in particular. Course also compares the 
political .systems and development trajectories of 
Latin American coimtries to other countries in 
the world. Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Hartzell 

362 Peasants, Politics, and Rebellion Peasants as 
political actors, with a focus on rural ecology 
and economy, peasant mentality and ciUture, 
and theories of rebellion and revoludon. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or permission 
of instructor. 

Mr Gaenslen 

363 The Politics of Developing Areas 

Introducdon to the study of political 
development and imderdevelopment, including 
approaches to Third World politics, natine of 
traditional politics, disruptions caused by 
colonialism and imperialism, reformation of 
domestic polidcs, and contemporary polidcal 
processes and problems. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 104 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Gaenslen 

POLITICAL THEORY 

280 Modern Political Ideologies Study of the 
philosophical content and the role of political 
ideologies in the modern world, with emphasis 
on liberalism, conservatism, socialism, 
feminism, anarchism, Marxism, communism, 
and fascism. Concept of ideologv', historical 



k 



development, and intersection and overlap of 
ideologies are also considered, as is the 
influence of political philosophy on ideologies 
and of ideologies on political behavior. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or permission 
of instructor. 
Mr. Tannenbaiim 

381 American Political Thought Study of the 
development of political thought in America 
from the colonial period to the present. Course 
examines individual writers and movements, 
and considers the relationship of the ideas 
examined both to current issues and politics 
and to the broader tradition of political 
philosophy. Prerequisite: Pfjlitical Science 102 or 
permission of instructor. 

Xh: Tannenbaiim 

382 Feminist Theory in American Politics Course 
examines the role of feminist political thought 
in American politics. Topics include various 
strains of feminist theory, including liberal, 
Marxist, radical, and anarchist theories, with 
particular emphasis on kinds of feminist 
political participation that emerge from liberal 
and anarchist political ideals. Course also 
provides a context in which key concepts such 
as politics and power may be reconceptualized 
from an American feminist point of view. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or permission 
of instructor. 

Ms. lannello 

200, 300 Topics in Political Science Exploration 
of an announced topic chosen each year or 
every other year by the department. .Among the 
Special Topics currenUy offered are the following: 

200 The Holocaust and Modern Political Thought 

Study of the ideas of modern political thinkers 
from Machiavelli to Marx, Camus, and Wiesel, 
which provide insight into human behavior 
during the Holocaust — the systematic 
destruction of six million European Jews, and 
other targeted populations, by the Nazi German 
regime and their collaborators during the 1930s 
and 1940s. Prerequisites: Political Science 102 or 
permission of instructor. 
Mr. Daws 

308 State Politics and Policy Conipaiative 
analysis of politics in the fifty states. An empirical 
analysis of the operation and functions of state 
political systems. Prerequisite: Political Science 
101 and 215 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Dawes 



400 Seminars Advanced study of domestic, 
foreign, or world politics, or political theory. A 
common core of reading and written reports by 
each student is provided. Topics differ each 
year, but several seminars are offered routinely 
and are listed below. 

40 1 Executive Policy Making Study of the 
constraints in the presidential policy-making 
process. Included is an examination of the 
bureaucratic, constituent, and congressional 
impact on the development of policy options 
in executive decision making. Students are 
responsible for a major term paper, which 
involves considerable independent research. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 101 and 224 or 
permis.sion of instructor. 

Ms. Wars/unti 

402 American Voting Behavior and Electoral 
Politics Survey of research on political 
participation and vote choice in the U.S. Also 
considered are various functions elections serve 
in a democracy, as well as the relative merits of 
aggregate and individual level approaches to 
the study of the politics of the mass electorate. 
Emphasizes contemporary American politics, 
but also includes analysis of historical and 
comparative aspects of voting behavior. Prerequisite: 
Political Science 101 or permission of instructor. 
Mr. Dawes 

405 Executive-Legislative Relations Examination 
of the complex institutional and political 
relationship between the Executive and 
Legislative branches of the Federal government. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 101 and 224. 

Ms. Warshaiu 

406 Politics of Poverty Consideration of the 
definitions of poverty and the location of the 
problem within the federal political system. 
Attention is given to competing ideologies/ 
theories of the development of poverty in urban 
areas and corresponding proposals/solutions 
offered by each perspective. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 101 or permis.sion of instructor. 

Ms. lannello 

409 Comparative Political Economy Introduction 
to the workings of domestic economic systems 
and to some of the main analytical frameworks 
that political economy uses to examine these 
systems. Comparative focus on issues of political 
economy is two-fold: Use is made of comparative 
methods as well as of different theoretical 
approaches to imderstanding domestic political 
economies. To that end, coinse focuses on 
relationship between poliUcal systems, regime 



types, ideology, and economic systems and the 
effects these have on certain public policy 
outcomes. Prerequisites: Political Science 103, 
with Political Science 251 or 252 recommended, 
or permission of the instructor. 
Ms. Hnrtzell 

412 Women and the Political Economy of 
Development Examination of the central role 
that women in developing covmtiies perform 
in the development process, as well as of the 
impact that development has on women. 
Analysis of die role that women play in household 
production, in the care of their families and 
their participation in both the formal and 
informal economies. Perspectives ranging from 
economists' efforts to accm^ately measure Women's 
contributions to development, to political 
scientists' focus on the political power of 
women, to feminist critiques of mainstream 
development theories are employed. Course 
includes a service learning component. 
Prerequisites: Political Science 103 or permission 
of instructor. 
Ms. Harttzell 

414 Europe in Transition Focus on the profoimd 
political, social, and economic changes in the 
post-World War II era in West European politics. 
Topics include the crisis of the welfare state, 
immigration and the rise of parties of the far- 
right, the enlargement and enhancement of the 
European Union, the integration of East- 
Central Europe after the Cold War, and the 
devolution of power from national to sub- 
national bodies. Prerequisite: Political Science 104 
or permission of instructor. Political Science 260 
recommended. 
Mr. Bohrer 

Individualized Study Intensive research on an 
approved topic presented in oral or written 
reports, under the supervision of a faculty 
member. 

Internship Minimum six weeks of on-site 
participation in administration with a public or 
private organization under the supervision of a 
faculty member. Available fall or spring semesters 
or the summer. 

Honors Opportunity for highly qualified 
students to participate in a program of original 
research under the supervision of a faculty 
member. Each student completes a thesis and 
presents her or his research in a public forum. 



PSYCHOLOGY 

Professors Bomstein, D 'Agostino, Pittman, and 



Associate Professois Arterberry (Chairperson), Cain, 

Fincher-Kiefer, and Siviy 
Assistant Professors Goubet, McCall, and Wessinger 
Adjunct Associate Professor Stangor 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Sauve 

Overview 

The department emphasizes an empirical 
approach to psychology in all of its course 
offerings. The objective of the department is 
to promote knowledge of die causes of behavior, 
with emphasis on the formation of a scientific 
attitude toward behavior and appreciation 
of the complexity of human personality. 
This objecdve is approached by providing a 
representative array of courses in psycholog)', 
including seminars, special topics, independent 
reading, and independent research, and by 
providing selected opportunities for field work. 
Direct experience with the major methods, 
instruments, and theoredcal tools of the discipline 
is emphasized throughout. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Psycholog)' 101 is a prerequisite for all other 
courses in the department. Requirements 
for a major include Psychologv' 101, 205 (or 
Mathemadcs 205), 305, 341, two advanced 
psychology laboratory courses, one from each of 
the following two groups: (a) 314, 321, 327, 328 
and (b) 315, 316, 317, 336, 338; three addidonal 
courses in psycholog)', and two laboratory courses 
taken in sequence within the same department in 
the Division of Natural Sciences. Most psycholog)' 
laboratory courses have a 200-level course as a 
prerequisite. Majors must earn a grade of C or 
better in both Psychology 205 (or Mathematics 
205) and 305. (Psychology 205 err Mathematics 205 
may not be repeated for the major) It is 
recommended that students complete 
Psycholog)' 305 by the end of the sophomore 
year. Students may not take two advanced 
psychology laboratory courses in the same 
semester. Majors are strongly encouraged to 
take Computer Science 104. 

An individualized study, as well as experience 
in the use of the computer and/or training in 
computer science, are highly recommended 
for those planning to go on to graduate work. 
Students should consult with their adviser for 
specific information on the prerequisites for 
work at the graduate level in the specialized 
areas of psycholog)'. 



Honors Research Program 

This program provides outstanding students 
with an intensive research experience, hivitadons 
for participation may be extended to students 
who have a GPA of 3.5 in Psychology 101 , 205 
(or Mathematics 205), and 305. These courses 
should be completed by the end of the 
sophomore year. 

Students in this program take two advanced 
laboratory courses in the junior year (priorit)' 
will be given at registration), and enroll in 
Psychology 464 (Honors Research) in their 
senior year (an honors thesis may be substituted 
for Psycholog)' 464; see Honors Thesis course 
description below) . Results of these honors 
research projects are presented at the Spring 
Undergraduate Research Colloquium. Students 
are also expected to attend departmental 
colloquia and other departmental events. 

Requirements for Departmental Honors 

Departmental Honors are awarded to graduating 
majors who, in the combined judgement of the 
staff, have demonstrated academic excellence in 
coursework in the major, and who have completed 
the individualized empirical research project, 
honors research, or an honors thesis. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Psychology 101 and all 200-level courses 
(except Psychology 205 or Mathematics 205) 
may be used to fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in social sciences. Psychology 205 
or Mathematics 205, open only to psychology 
majors, may be used to satisfy the quantitative 
reasoning requirement. 

101 General Psychology hitroduction to basic 
scientific logic, facts, theories, and principles 
of psycholog)', including the study of human 
motivation, learning, emotion, perception, 
thought, intelligence, and personality. Offered 
each semester. 
Staff 

205 Introduction to Statistics Introduction to 
descriptive and inferential statistical methods. 
Laboratory work involves the use of a computer 
software package that allows for tlie application 
of statistical procediues. Credit may not be 
granted for this course and Mathematics 107, 
Mathematics 205, Biology 260, or Economics 
241. Offered each semester. Prerequisite: Viigh 
school algebra. Required of all majors; open 



only to declared majors. Three class hours and 

three laboratory hours. 

Ms. Arterberry, Ms. Cain, Mr. Siviy 

214 Social Psychology Re\'iew of current psycho- 
logical theory and research in social psychology. 
Topics include attitude and behavior change, 
conformity, attraction, interpersonal perception, 
and psychological aspects of social interaction. 
Ms. Riggs, Mr Pittman, Mr. Stangor 

215 Human Cognition Introduction to cognitive 
psychology. Topics covered include perception, 
attention, memory, learning, forgetting, language 
comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving. 
Theories are presented concerning cognitive 
processes, and empirical evidence is considered 
that might challenge or support these theories. 
A'Is. Fincher-Kiefrr 

2 1 6 Sensation and Perception Explores 
phenomena of sensation and perception from 
the perspective of experimental psychology. 
Emphasis is on imderstanding the mechanisms 
and processes that imderlie our experiences of 
the material world. Small discussion groups 
explore special topics and areas of cmrent 
research. Prerequisite: V?,)'cho\o^' 101 or Biology 
101 or 111. 

Mr McCall 

221 Basic Dynamics of Personality Introduction 
to major approaches to pensonality, including 
psychodynamic, behavioral, himianistic, and 
trait models. General issues and problems that 
arise in the study of personality are considered, 
and the importance of empirical evidence is 
emphasized. 
Mr Bornstein 

225 Developmental Psychology: infancy and 
Childhood Psychological development of the 
individual, from conception up to adolescence. 
Theory, methodology, and research are presented 
in the areas of perception, learning, cognition, 
language, social, emotional, and moral 
development. 
Ms. Arterberry, Ms. Cain 

236 Introduction to Brain and Behavior 

Introduction to the anatomical, physiological, 
and biochemical bases of human behavior. 
Topics include sleep and dreams, development, 
learning and memory, motivation and emotions, 
language and other higher functions, and 
p.sychopathology. Emphasis is on developing 
an ability to conceptualize psychological 
phenomena in biological terms. 
Mr. Siviy 



237 Psychopharmacology Examination of 
how psyclioaclive compounds affect the 
brain, behavior, and cognition. The major 
neinochemical systems of the brain and how 
psychoactive compounds affect these systems 
are discussed at length. Topics include both 
recreational and psychotherapeutic agents. 
Methods used in psychopharmacology research 
are emphasized throughout the course. 

Ah: Siviy 

238 Cognitive Neuroscience An exploration 
of the rapidly developing sub-discipline of 
cognitive neuroscience. Emphasis is on 
exploring cognition using a multidisciplinary 
approach, drawing from cognitive psycholog}', 
biology, neurology, and neuroscience. Some 
specific areas covered include the neural basis 
of vision, audition, attention, memory, 
language, and consciousness. The overall 
unifying theme is to explore the neural 
substrates responsible for mediating various 
cognitive functions, i.e., how the brain enables 
the mind. Prerequisite: Psycholog)' 101 or Biolog)' 
101 or 111. 

Mr. Wessinger 

305 Experimental Methods Introduction to 
scientific method and experimental design. 
Emphasis is on the logical development of 
new ideas, kinds and sources of error in 
experimentation, methods of control, design 
and analysis of experiments, and scientific 
communication. Prerequisite: Psychology 205 or 
Mathematics 205. Three class hoius and three 
laboratory hours. 
Mr. D Agostino, Ms. Finrher-Kiefer 
Mr. Pittman, Ms. Riggs 

314 Experimental Social Psychology Studv of 
specific content areas in social psycholog)'. 
Current theories and empirical data are used 
to illustrate experimental designs and relevant 
methodological considerations. Laboratory 
work includes design, execution, and analysis 
of two original experiments. Prerequisites: 
Psychology 214 and 305. Three class hours and 
the equivalent of three laboratory hours. 

Mr Pittman, Ms. Ri^s 

3 1 5 Thinking and Cognition In-depth examination 
of the cognitive processes involved in memory, 
language comprehension, problem solving, and 
reasoning. Current research and existing dieories 
are surveyed. Research is conducted in one area 



of investigation. Prerequisites: Psycholog)' 215 and 
305. Three class hours and three laboratory hours. 
Ms. Fincher-Kiefer 

316 Perception Investigation of current topics in 
perception, with particular emphasis on high- 
level vision. Examples include object and face 
recognition, depth perception, visually guided 
reaching, and locomotion. These and other 
phenomena are analyzed, asking: What problems 
do human perceivers solve? How are these 
problems solved? How do perceptual abilities 
develop? Prerequisites: Psycholog)' 216 and 305. 
Three class hours and the equivalent of diree 
laboratory hours. 

Ms. Arterberry, Mr. McCall 

317 Memory and Social Cognition Introduction 
to human memory and social cognition. Focus 
is on the cognitive structures and processes 
involved in social judgment. Errors and biases in 
human judgment are also examined. Prerequisite: 
Psychology 305. Three class hours and three 
laboratory hours. 

Mr D Agostino 

32 1 Assessment of Personality, Psychopathology, 
and Intelligence Introduction to methodological 
and conceptual issues involved in the 
construction and use of personality tests and 
measures of psychopathology. Survey of literature 
on test development and validation is followed 
by in-depth study of .selected topics in 
personalit)', psvchopathology, and intelligence. 
Each student also designs, conducts, analyzes, 
and wiites up an experiment evaluating some 
aspect of a personalit)' test or measure. 
Prerequisites: Psychology 221 and 305. Three class 
hours and the equivalent of three laboratory 
hours. 
Mr Borusleiii 

326 Abnormal Psychology Introduction to 
psychopatholog)' and abnormal behavior, with 
paiticular attention to conceptual, methodological, 
and ethical issues involved in the study of 
abnormal psycholog)'. Models of psychopathology 
and psychodiagnosis are discussed, with an 
emphasis on the empirical evidence for different 
models. Prerequisite: Psycholog)' 221. 

Mr Bornstein 

327 Experimental Cognitive Development 

Intensive stud) of one or more areas of 
cognitive development. Emphasis is on the 
unique characteristics of research with children. 



k 



Laboratory work is conducted in a preschool or 
day care center. Design, execution, and analysis 
of a research project is required. Prerequisites: 
Psychology 225 and 305. Three class hours and 
three laboratory hours. 
Ms. Arterberry, Mr. McCall 

328 Laboratory in Social Development Intensive 
study of one or more areas of social and 
personality development, utilizing observational 
and experimental methods. Emphasis is on the 
unique characteristics of research with children. 
Laboratory work is conducted in a preschool or 
day care center and includes the design, execution, 
and analysis of a research project. Premjuisites: 
Psychology' 225 and .S05. Three class hours and 
three laboratory hours. 
Ms. Cain 

336 Behavioral Neuroscience Advanced discussion 
of topics included in P.sycholog)' 236, as well as 
an in-depth treatment of brain development 
and the neurochemical basis of behavior. 
Prerequisites: Psycholog)' 236 or 237 and Psychology 
305 or permission of the instructor. Three class 
hours and three laboratory hours. 
Mr .SVt'/v 

338 Experimental Cognitive Neuroscience 

In-depth examination of the neurobiological 
substrates involved in perceptual and cognitive 
processing. Empirical data are used to illus- 
trate conception, design, and analysis of 
contemporary cognitive neuroscience topics. 
Emphasis is placed on a multidisciplinary 
approach to illustrate the importance of 
converging techniques when exploring cognitive 
neuroscience topics with particular focus on 
both behavioral and functional MRI data. 
Laboratory work includes the conception, 
design, execution, analysis, and write-up of 
experiments. Preiequisites: Psychology 215, 216, 
236, or 238; and 305. Three class hours and the 
equi\'alent of three laboratory hours. 
Mr. Wessinger 

341 History of Experimental Psychology Review 
of the historical development of scientific 
psycholog). Emphases are on early fbimdations 
of major conceptual issues and on the role of 
the reference experiment in setting the course 
of modern p.sychological research. Prerequisite: 
Psychology 305. 
Ms. Cain, Mr McCall 



400 Seminar Opportunity to work on a selected 
topic in a siriall group imder the guidance of a 
faculty member. Not offered every year. Topic 
for a given semester is announced in advance. 
Enrollment by permission of instructor. May 
be repeated. 

450 Individualized Study Tutorial opportunit)' 
to dcj intensive and critical reading and to write 
a term paper on a topic of special interest. 
Student is expected to become thoroughlv 
familiar with reference books, microfilms, and 
scientific journals available for library research 
in the field of psychology. Prerequisite: 
Permission of instructor. May be repeated. 
Staff 

460 Individualized Empirical Research Design 
and execution of an empirical study involving 
the collection and analysis of data in relation to 
some psychological problem under the supervision 
of a faculty member. Students are required to 
present an acceptable research proposal no 
later than four weeks following the beginning 
of the semester or to withdraw from the course. 
Research culminates in a paper. Prerequisite: 
Permission of instructor. May be repeated. 
Staff 

464 Honors Research Students in the Honors 
Research Program take this course in their 
senior year. Course has two components: (a) a 
research project, similar to that described under 
Individualized Empirical Research, in which 
each student designs and executes an empirical 
study under the supervision of a staff member; 
and (b) an honors seminar in which honors 
students present and discuss their research 
projects. Students may elect to do their research 
project in either the fall or spring semester. 
Seminar meets both semesters, and all students 
participate in all of the seminar meetings. One 
course credit is given in the spring semester. 
Prerequisites: Participation in the Honors Research 
Program and completion of two advanced 
laboratory courses. 

466 Honors Thesis Designed to meet needs of 
the clearly superior student. During the senior 
year each participant engages in an original 
program of research under the direction of a 
thesis committee. In addition to completing a 



formal thesis, each student presents and 
discusses his or her research before the entire 
staff. Successful completion of the program 
entitles the student to receive credit for t\vo 
courses that can be applied towards a psycholog\ 
major. Prerequisite: By invitation of the 
department only. 
Staff 

473 Internship A minimum of 160 hours of on- 
the-job experience on a mental health, human 
resource, or research position. Students must be 
sponsored by a faculty member, and receive 
approval by the internship coordinator. Available 
during the fall or spring semesters or dining the 
summer. Course does not count toward minimum 
requirements in a major or minor; graded S/U. 

RELIGION 

Associate Professor C. Myers (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Gray and Sommer 
Instructors Altieii and Steinfels 

Overview 

Essential to an understanding of the past and 
the present is a study of the varied religious 
experiences and traditions of humankind. 
The department offers courses in sacred texts, 
historical traditions, and religious thought and 
institutions, all of which investigate the complex 
phenomenon of religion. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

A major consists of ten courses. Two may be 
taken outside the department; two must be at 
the 200-level; one must be a 300- or a second 
400-level course. A major must also take at least 
one of the following: Religion 460, 470, or 474. 
1 he department encourages qualified students 
to consider internships and/or overseas study, 
including the jimior year abroad. 

A minor consists of six courses. One of the six 
may be outside the department, but not in a 
student's major; at least one must be at the 200- 
level and at least one must be at the 300- or 400- 
level. 

.\ny of the following coiuses, ovUside the 
department may be coimted toward either a 
major or minor. Other coiu.ses may be possible 
with the permission of the department. 

Classics 230 Classical Mytholog)' 
Greek 204 New Testament Creek 
Hist. 3 1 1 Medieval Eiuope 
Hist. 313 Renaissance and Reformation 



IDS 21 1 Perspectives on Death and Dying 
IDS 229 South Asia: Contemporary Issues 

in Historical Perspective 
IDS 239 Survev of South Asian Literature 
IDS 267 Theatre and Religion 
Latin 306 St. Augustine 
Phil. 105 Contemporary Moral Issues 
Phil. 205 /Vncient Philosophy 
Phil. 337 Philosophy of Religion 

The department's rationale for numbering 
courses is as follows: 

100-lei'el courses tend to be topical and thematic. 

200-level courses are surveys that usually take a 
historical approach. Neither 100 nor 200 courses 
have a prerequisite. 

300-level courses are more narrowly focused or 
specialized, often examining in greater detail an 
issue or area treated more generally in other 
courses. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All religion coiuses can be counted toward 
satisfying the three-course humanities 
requirement in the Liberal Arts Core. The 
following religon courses meet the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in non-Western culture: 224, 
241, 244, 248, 249, 251, 252, 254, 256, 257, 340, 
•352. 

101 introduction to Religion Introduction to basic 
elements entailed in tlie study of religion such as 
sacred space, sacred time, ritual, pilgrimage, 
cosmology, ritual, scripture, and the afterlife. 
Course explores case studies from various cultural 
traditions tliroughout the world. 
Staff 

105 The Bible and Modern Moral Issues 

Investigation t)f the relevance of the Bible for 
life in the twent)-first century. Some is.sues 
studied from a biblical perspective include sex 
roles and sexual relations, economic inequities, 
and legal injustices. Among topics to be covered 
are marriage and divorce, homosexuality, 
women's rights, poverty, war, and peace. Three 
class hours. No prerequisites. Open to first-vear 
students and sophomores only. 
;V/?: C. Myers 

1 17 Topics in Biblical Studies Intensive study of a 
religious topic, pi oblem, writer, or theme in the 
field of biblical studies. Offered at the discretion 
of department. 

Staff 



1 27 Topics in History of Religions Intensive study 
of a religions topic, problem, writer, or theme in 
the field of the history of religions. Offered at 
discretion of department. 

Staff 

I27A Topics: Introduction to Islam Exploration 
of the sacred text of Islam, the Koran, and a 
survey of the origins and development of 
Islamic institutions from inception to the 
present. Course presents Islam as it is 
incorporated into the daily lives of its followers, 
and considers the growth and development of 
the cultural, political, legal, theological, and 
mystical aspects of Islam from the early to the 
modern periods. Course readings emphasize 
primary source materials. 
Ms. Steinfeh 

129 Introduction to Judaism Overview of ancient 
and con temporary Jewish belief and practice 
through an examination of sacred texts, theolog) , 
and history. Special attention is given to Jewish 
theology, holidays, and life-cycle. 
Staff ' 

137 Topics in Religious Thought Intensive study 
of a religious topic, problem, writer, or theme 
in the field of religious thought. Offered at 
discretion of department. 
Staff 

i37A Topics: The Quran Intensive study of the 
Quran and its place in Islamic thought and 
practice. Course covers the major themes 
of the Quran with emphasis on its vision of 
prophethood, depiction of the afterlife, and 
ethical and social teachings. The historical 
context of the Quran and its u-se in Islam 
as a source of law, devotion, and ritual are 
examined. 
Ms. Steinfels 

I37B Topics: Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam 

Intensive stud\' of the figure of Muhammad as 
prophet, political actor, and religious exemplar. 
Both traditional Islamic narratives and modern 
historical biographies are used to examine the 
life and personality of Muhammad. Particular 
attention is paid to Muhanunad as the object of 
devotion and imitation in Islamic thought and 
practice. 
Ms. Steinfels 

1 4 1 Religion and Culture in the U.S. Study of how 
"religion" and "culture" interscc t, using methods 
and insights from the academic study of religion. 



anthropolog)', folklore studies, and Native 
American studies to see how scholars have 
(mis) represented indigenous traditions. Trickster 
narratives serve as a window to see firsthand that 
ideas about culture shape ideas about religion 
(and rice versa). 
Ms. Altieri 

144 Ritual Thinking: Ritual Doing Examination of 
such questions as how religious ritual differs 
from everyday routine or how the academic 
study of religion makes such a distinction — and 
why? Course pursues such questions by means of 
Western and non-Western case studies, seeing 
that ritual is always connected to particular 
communiues of belief — communities with their 
own histories, traditions, and contexts; with 
their own understandings of space, time, and 
qualities of being in the world. 
Ms. Allirri 

204 History, Literature, and Religion of the 
Hebrew Scriptures Study of the history, 
literature, and religion of the Hebrews from the 
time of Abraham to about 500 B.C.E. History 
and culture of Israel are related to those of 
surrounding nations, with special emphasis on 
the relevancy of archeological data. 

Mr. C. Myers 

205 History, Literature, and Religion of the New 
Testament Introduction to writings of the New 
Testament as they originated in their Greco- 
Roman milieu. Emphasis is on the distinctive 
purposes and main content of each writing. Use 
of source, form, and redacdon criticism as tools 
for the academic study of the New Testament is 
demonstrated. 

Mr. C. Myers 

224 Religions of African Americans Same as 
AAS 224. (See African American Studies.) 

225 Religion in the Civil Rights Movement 

Exploration of religions fimction during the 
Civil Rights Movement. Course examines the 
historical context that gave birth to the Civil 
Rights Movement and assesses the Church's 
vacilladon and religion's abilit)' to bring 
consti'ucUve, humane change. Considerable 
attention is given to the efforts of African 
.\merican (Christian women, Martin Luther King 
Jr., and Malcolm X. Intersection of Christianity, 
Judaism, Islam, Black Nationalism, agnosticism, 
and atheism is also discussed. 
Mr. Gray 



241 Religions of South Asia Survey of the 
religions oi South Asia — Hinduism, Buddhism, 
Jainism, Sikhism, and Islam. These traditions 
are considered in their original forms and in 
their growth and development over the centuries. 
Course is historically based, but attention is also 
given to the modern period. Course materials 
include translations of original texts and films. 
Much attention is given to India, with some 
consideration also given to the traditions of 
Nepal and other South Asian countries. 
Ms. Steinfeh 

244 Introduction to Buddhism Introducdon to 
the beliefs and practices of the Buddhist 
tradition, from their origins in ancient India to 
their modern interpretations in the writings of 
the Beat generation in twentieth-century 
America. Course surveys the development of 
Buddhism in China, Tibet, and Japan, with 
attention given to both primary texts and 
historical studies. 
Ms. Sommer 

248 Religions of China General introduction 
to major religious traditions of China through 
textual, historical, and social studies of 
Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. 
Attention is also given to an assessment of 
their contemporary viability. 

Ms. Sommer 

249 The Religions of Japan Special emphasis on 
understanding the religious thinking of the 
Japanese, ancient and modern, through textual, 
historical, and cultural study of religious 
traditions: Shinto and folk beliefs. Buddhism, 
Confucianism, and Taoism. 

Ms. Sommer 

25 1 Looking for the Tao Introducdon to the 
major texts of classical Chinese thought. Course 
surveys the works, in English translation, of the 
most important thinkers of the Confucian, 
Taoist, Legalist, and Mohist schools of the fifth 
to the third centuries B.C.E and explores their 
significance for social, educational, and 
environmental concerns in modern East Asia. 
A/5. Sommer 

252 Women in Buddhism Historical survey of 
writings about women, both human and divine, 
in Buddhism in South and East Asia. Course 
considers the religious beliefs and practices of 
women in their positions as nuns, abbesses, 
laywomen, and social acdvists. Also explores the 



attributes of goddesses, demonesses, and other 
conceptualizations of the divine female in Asian 
religions. 
Ms. Sommer 

254 Confucianism Survey of the religious and 
philosophical traditions of Confucianism in East 
Asia from ancient to modern times. Course 
explores such notions as ritual, educadon, human 
nature, self-cultivation, and quiet sitting. Attention 
is also given to women's learning and women's 
education in ancient and later imperial times. 
Ms. Sommer 

256 Introduction to African Religion Exploration 
of the history and practice of African religion, 
from its origin in ancient Africa to manifestations 
in Africa and the Americas. Examines the Twa, 
Ethiopia, Kemet, Moors, Dogon, Ifa, Voudun, 
Candomble, religious belief and practice during 
enslavement, Moorish Science Temple, Islam 
among .African .\mericans, African American 
Christianity, and African Centered Spiritualit)'. 
Philosophical content, myths, rituals, consequential 
personalities and movements, societal place, 
and music are considered. No prerequisite. 

Mr. Gray 

257 Spiritual Power in African Religion 

Examination of spiritual power and its various 
manifestations and functions in African religion. 
Course considers and attempts to answer the 
following and other questions: WTiat is spiritual 
power? Wliere does it come from? How does 
one acquire it? How does it work — in healing, 
through plants, heibs,diet, through words, 
chants/prayers, music, ancestors, totems, 
animals, objects, rituals? Wliat is the relation- 
ship between magic and spiritual power? No 
prerequisite. 
Mr Gray 

263 Investigations in Bio-Medical Ethics 

Examination of how key medical concepts such 
as life, death, duty, autonomy, advocacy, illness, 
and wellness are understood. How might 
science and religion help answer questions 
surrounding these concepts? How might they 
offer conflicting responses? How are these 
various perspectives brought to bear on 
dilemmas such as the care of seriously ill 
newborns and children, the terminally ill, the 
mentally incompetent, the uninsured, the 
despairing? How might we weigh, ethically, 
technological advances such as genetic 
engineering and fetal research? Given these 



^^ 



and many other rescarcli and treatment options, 
does "cotild" mean we "should"? 
Ms. Altir)i 

264 Religion and Environmental Ethics Study of 
liow ideas about "himianness" color atutudes 
and actions toward the environment. How do 
religious and scientific notions of "creation" 
influence our relationships with one another 
and with nature (including its constituent 
parts)? How might our world's religious 
traditions and scientific discourses help us 
to identify and to shed light on problems 
plaguing our environment? Let us engage such 
inquiries in an effort to develop responsible, 
compassionate, and life-affirming human and 
non-human inter-relational ties. 
Ms. Allien 

3 1 1 Jesus in the First Three Gospels Examination 
of the Jesus tradition, as interpreted in tlie Gospels 
of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, using techniques 
of source, form, redaction, and literary criticism. 
Special attention is given to the distinctive 
perspective of each Gospel. Prerequisite: Religion 
205 or permission of instructor. Not offered 
every year. 

Mr. C. Myers 

3 1 2 The Gospel of John Explorauon of the 
thought and content of the Fourth Gospel. 
Effort is made to determine the backgrotmd 
purposes for writing, and the community 
addressed by John's Gospel. The question of its 
relationship to the Synoptic Gospels and the 
Epistles of John is included. Prerequisite: Religion 
205 or permission of instructor. Not offered 
every year. 

Mr (',. Myers 

314 The Apostle Paul Study of the life, letters, 
and legacy of the early Christian, Paul, through 
a careful consideration of primary and selected 
secondary sources. Particular attention is given 
to understanding the Pauline literature in its 
historical context. Ancient and modern 
interpretations of Paul's life and work are also 
treated. Prerequisite: Religion 205 or permission 
of instructor. Not offered every year. 
Mr C. Myeis 

324 Martin and Malcolm Exploration of religion 
in the lives of Martin Luther King Jr. and 
Malcolm X. Course examines religious and 
social forces that infiuenced their early 



development and life commitments, and 
considers how their theologies influenced each 
other and impacted our country and globe. 
Course materials include pivotal speeches, 
interviews, books, and live film footage. 
Mr. Gray 

340 Cosmolgy of the Body Exploration of the 
religious, symbolic, and magical dimensions of 
cross-cultural concepts of the hiunan body. 
Course surveys religious attitudes toward such 
topics as resurrection, reincarnation, 
miuilation, cannibalism, fasting, and body 
decoration. Not offered every year. 
A/,s. Sommer 

343 Mythology and Religion Mytholog)' and 
religion have always been companions. Course 
aims at understanding this friendship. Students 
familiarize themselves with certain mythological 
artifacts, as well as current "surrogate myths." 
Primary focus is an appreciation of the process 
of "mythmaking," which is approached from 
several critical viewpoints. Not offered every year. 
Staff 

352 The Tao of Traditional Chinese Medicine 

Introdiu lion to the philosopiiical and religious 
aspects of traditional Chinese healing practices. 
Course surveys such topics as the composition 
of the human body and its relationship with 
the larger cosmos, the diagnosis of ailments 
caused by material and spiritual pathogens, the 
medical and ritual treatment of conditions, and 
preventative practices such as meditation and 
exercise. Emphasis is on pre-modern traditions, 
but some attention is given to their modern 
applications. Prerequisite: one course in Chinese 
religions or philosophy (for example, Religions 
of China, Looking for the Tao, or 
Confucianism) or permission of the instructor. 
Ms. Sommer 

460 Individualized Study for Majors and Minors 

Senior Project must be approved bv department. 
Staff 

470 Individualized Study and Internships 

474 Summer Internships 

Staff 

IDS 2 11 Perspectives on Death and Dying For 

course description, see InterdiscipliniU) Studies. 
Mr C. Myers 



SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY 

Professors Emmons, Heisler, and Hinrichs 

Associate Professors Betanres, Gill (Chairperson), and 

Poluchek 
AssistanI Professors Hendnn, Ho, Howard, Nijhowne, 

and Rednion 
Adjunct Associate Professor Rosenberg 
Adjunct AssistanI Professor Silverthorne 

Overview 

Studies in the department investigate social 
organization, social action, and the role of 
cultiue in shaping human behavior. The courses 
explore a variety' of approaches that reflect the 
diversity of perspectives used by sociologists and 
anthropologists. Some perspectives start with 
individuals in interaction with each other and • 
focus on how they develop meaningful social 
relationships, groups, and institutions. Others 
focus on how individuals are molded by 
institutions, groups, and cultural beliefs, while 
yet others examine the functional or conflictual 
relationships among classes and subcultures. 
By emphasizing the systematic and comparative 
study of social institutions and cultures, the 
faculty guide students in analyzing social 
realities, dealing with contemporary issues, and 
understanding social change. The department 
is committed to experiential education, field 
projects, and internships. 

The goals of the department's program are to 
contribute to the liberal arts education at 
Gettysbiug College, to acquaint students with 
sociological and anthropological perspectives, 
and to help them meet their academic and 
career needs. The program prepares majors for 
graduate studies and careers in fields such as 
sociology, urban planning, public policy, social 
work, health care, commimications, education, 
criminology, law, cultural andiropolog}', and 
archaeology. 

The department has a chapter of Alpha Kappa 
Delta, the Sociological Honor Society. Majors 
are eligible for the Harry C. and Catherine 
Noffsinger Hartzell Award and the Holly 
Gabriel Award. Students who successfullv 
complete a senior project and thesis are eligible 
for honors. Several majors serve as student 
representatives to department facult)' meedngs 
to provide a voice for students. 



Requirements and Recommendations 

Major requirements: The department offers a 
major in sociology and a combined major in 
anthropology-sociology. Students who major in 
sociology' take a minimiun of ten full-credit 
courses. Majors must take Sociology lOT 302, 
and 306 and earn a grade of C— or better in these 
courses. They must also take the capstone 
seminar (Sociology 400), one of the inequality 
courses (Sociology' 202, 209, or 217); one of the 
seminars in sociological theory (Sociology 310, 
311, 312, or 313); and a second 300-level 
department course in methods (either Sociology 
303 or 323). The remaining three courses are 
electives chosen from among the sociology 
course offerings (excluding the Sociology 470 
courses and normally excluding the Sociology 
450 courses), and may include one anthropology 
course. None of the courses required for the 
major may be taken S/U. 

Students who select the combined major in 
anthropology-sociology take a minimum of ten 
full-credit coiuses, with at least four courses in 
each discipline. Anthropology-sociology majors 
must take Anthropology 103 and 105, and 
Sociology 101 and 302, and earn a grade of C- 
or better in each of these courses. They must also 
take a capstone seminar (Anthropology 400 or 
Sociology 400) ; a second 300-level department 
course in mediods (either Sociology 303, 
Sociology 323, or Anthropology 323); and a 
theory course (Anthropology 308 or Sociology 
306) and earn C- or better. Students also take 
three electives in anthropology and sociology 
course offerings (excluding the Anthropology or 
Sociology 470 courses and normally excluding 
the 450 courses) . None of the courses required 
for the major may be taken S/U. 

Minor requirements: Students with a major in 
sociology may minor in anthropology, biu 
students with the combined major in 
anthropology-sociology may not minor in the 
department. The sociology minor requires six 
courses: Sociology 101, 302, and 306; and three 
electives from the sociology course offerings 
(normally excluding the Sociology 450 and 470 
courses) . Six courses are required for the 
anthropology minor: Anthropology 103 and 
105; either Anthropology 308 or 400; and three 
electives from the Aiithropology course 
offerings (one of which may be an 
Anthropology 450 course). 






Prerequisites 

Sociolog)' 101 is a prerequisite for most other 
sociology' courses (except as noted in course 
descriptions) . The Sociology' 302 methods 
course is a prerequisite for other 300-level 
courses in methods (e.g., Sociology 303 or 323). 
The Sociology 306 theory course is a 
prerequisite for other 300-level courses in 
theory (Sociolog)' 310, 311, 312, or 313). Both 
Sociolog)' 302 and 306 are prerequisites for 
Sociology' 400. 

Most upper-level anthropology courses require 
either die Anthropology 103 or 105 introductory 
courses (except as noted in coinse descrip- 
tions). The Sociolog) 302 methods coiuse is 
required for the Anthropology 323 methods 
course, and it is strongly recommended for the 
.\nthropolog)' 308 theory course. For majors, 
.Anthropolog)' 308 is strongly recommended 
before the Anthropology 400 seminar. 

Individualized Study 

hi response to varying needs, interests, and 
expertise of individual students and faculty 
members, the department provides means for 
students to pursue independent research and 
studies through individual tutorials, fieldwork 
applications or direct experiences, internships, 
and other opportunities to expand specialized 
interests. To receive credit for the.se projects, 
students confer with a particular facult)' 
member in the department and register for 
Anthropology 450s or 470s, Anthropology 460, 
Sociology 450s or 470s, or Sociolog)' 460. 
Students who want to be considered for the 
department's Honors Program are required 
to register for either .\iithropoIog)' 460 or 
Sociology 460. These students should consult 
with a department faculty member in their 
jvmior year. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All full-credit sociology courses fulfill the 
College's Liberal Aits Core requirement in 
social sciences, except 300-level methods 
courses (Sociology 302, 303, and 323). Sociology 
303 satisfies the requirement in quantitative 
reasoning. All full-credit anthropology courses 
may be used to fulfill the College's Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in social sciences, except 
Anthropolog)' 323. The following Anthropolog)' 
courses fulfill the requirement in non-Western 
culuu-es: Anthropolog)' 103, 220, 228, 232, 234, 
235, 236, 237, and 301. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

103 introduction to Cultural Anthropology 

Comparative study of social practices and 
cultural systems in various societies, using a 
series of case studies and topics dealing mainly 
with non-Western cultures or Western attempts 
to imderstand them. Course gives an overview 
of the history of cultural anthropology, major 
questions and theoretical debates, fieldwork 
and research methods, and the relevance of 
anthropolog)' to the modern world. No 
prerequisite. 
Ms. Ho, Ms. Howard, Ms. SUverthorne 

105 World Prehistory and Human Evolution 

Introduction lo physical anthropologv and 
archaeolog)', the two subdisciplines of 
anthropology that focus on the question of 
human biological and cultural change through 
time. Course examines how anthropologists 
interpret human genetic variation, the behavior 
of nonhuman primates, the evolution of fossils 
hominids, and major developments in technology 
and material cultiue. No prerequisite. 
Ms. Hendon, Ms. Nijhowne 

220 World Cultures Study of cultural patterns 
and social practices aroimd the world, viewing 
them through the distinctive lens of cultural 
anthropolog)-. Course questions models of the 
world and concepts of culture. Prerequisite: 
.\nthropolog)' 103 or Sociology 101 or any area 
studies course. 
Ms. Howard 

228 Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Gender and 
Sex Roles Examination of the social roles of 
women and men, the dynamics of sexual 
identity, and the ideologies of gender in various 
societies. Course explores broad theoretical 
issues (such as biological vs. cultural determinants; 
gender stratification and inecjualit) ; the effects 
of social, cultiual, and economic variables), as 
well as a range of specific societal studies. 
Prnequisite: Anthropolog)' 103. 
Ms. Hendoti 

232 Precolumbian Civilizations of Mesoamerica 

Introduction lo the organization and 
development of Native American civilizations in 
Mexico and Central America. Evidence from 
archaeological and ethnographic research. 
Native texts and art, and Spanish Colonial 
writings is used to study religious beliefs, 
sociopolitical organization, economic 
relationships, and intellectual achievements of 



such groups as the Ohnec, Maya, and Aztecs. 
Period prior to the sixteenth-century Spanish 
conquest is emphasized, but modern 
incUgenotis cuUiues are also studied. Prerequisite: 
Anthropology 103, 105, or consent of instrtictor. 
Ms. Hendon 

234 Principles of Archaeology Study of the 
practice of archaeology — the combination of 
methods and theoretical concepts that together 
result in archaeological interpretations of past 
himian behavior and society. Using a case study 
approach, students are introduced to the nature 
of archaeological interpretation. Prerecjuisite: 
Anthropology 103, 105, or consent of instructor. 
Ah. Hendon 

235 Early Civilizations in Cross-Cultural 
Perspective Study of the origins and 
development of the earliest urban societies. 
Compares and contrasts examples from 
different parts of the world, including China, 
Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, Egypt, and South 
Asia. Using archaeological data, written texts, 
art, and other sources, the course studies the 
causes and consequences of the shift to more 
centralized political systems and more 
specialized economic organization. Course takes 
both cross-cultinal and historical perspectives. 
Integral to the course is a discussion of how 
civilization and the state have been defined. 
Pr^r^^umte.- Anthropology 103, 105, or consent 
of instructor. 

l\ls. Hendon 

236 Precolumbian Civilizations of South America 

Introduction to the organization and 
development of Native American civilizations in 
South America. Evidence from archaeological 
and ethnographic research. Native texts and art, 
and Spanish Colonial writings is used to study 
religious beliefs, sociopolitical organization, 
economic relationships, and intellectual 
achievements of such groups as the Inka, 
Moche, and Chavin. Period prior to the 
sixteenth-century Spanish conquest is 
emphasized, but modern indigenous culttnes 
are also studied. Prerequisite: Anthropology 103, 
105, or consent of instructor. 
M.S. Hendon 

237 African and Afro-Latino Cultures: Studies in 
Pov/er and Ritual. Cross-cultural comparisons 
of politics, religion, and identitv' in Africa and 
the African diaspora of Latin America and the 
Caribbean. Course explores case studies of 



religious rituals and spirit possession, slave 
revolts and wars of independence, cultural 
movements and ethnic mobilization on both 
sides of the southern Adandc. Prerequisite: Prior 
course in Anthropology, African American 
Studies, or Latin American Studies. 
Ms. Howard 

238 The Anthropology of Contemporary Cultural 
Issues Exploration of how anthropologists 
analyze current issues in international affairs 
and industiialized societies, including the 
United States. Case studies illustrate 
anthropological perspectives on topics such as 
nationalist movements and international 
development, immigration and multicultiualism, 
luban gangs and suburban consumers, 
changing gender roles and reproduction 
practices, modern myths and rituals. Course also 
discusses challenges of conducting fieldwork in 
diversified societies and ethical dilemmas arising 
in politically sensitive settings. Prerequisite: 
Sociology 101 or Anthropology 103. 
Ms. Howard 

250-270 Topics in Anthropology Exploration of 
a particular topic, chosen by a faculty member. 

274 Practicum in Archaeological Analysis 

Practical learning experience in archaeological 
data analysis and research. Working with staff of 
the Gett)'.sburg National Military Park, students 
carry out labwork, including artifact processing 
and cla.ssification, data entry, and research. 
Exact mix of activities varies from semester to 
semester. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor and 
previous course work in archaeology, history, or 
Civil War Era Studies. One-half credit course; 
may be repeated with consent of instructor. 
(SameasCWES274.) 
Ms. Hendon 

30 1 Social Life of Things Cross-cultural 
exploration of how members of various 
societies, past and present, invest objects with 
symbolic meanings as they produce, lUilize, and 
exchange them in everyday life. Drawing 
primarily on non-Western case studies, the 
course integrates perspectives from studies of 
material culture in fields such as economic 
anthropology, archaeology, and the 
anthropology of art. These resources ilhiminate 
the many ways that things acquire a kind of 
metaphorical life in association with the lives of 
people who use them. Prerequisite: .Anthropologv' 
103 or 105, plus another .Anthropology comse. 
Ms. Hendon, Ms. Howard 



308 History of Anthropological Theory Analysis of 
the rise of anthropology and development of its 
major theoretical models. Course traces the 
precursors of anthropology, the emergence of 
the field of "anthropolog)" and its siibdisciplines 
in the nineteenth century, the elaboration of 
the culture concept and fieldwork methods in 
the twentieth, and recent trends in post-colonial 
anthropology'. Prerequisite: Anthropology 103 or 
105. Sociology 302 is strongly recommended. 
Offered every other year. 
Ms. Hendon, Ms. Howard 

323 Field Methods in Social Research Seminar on 
how sociologists and anthropologists conduct 
ethnographic fieldwork. Topics include how 
theory informs research, ethical issues, and 
developing descriptive fieldnotes. Students 
carry out original research projects, using field 
methods such as participant observation and 
qualitative interviewing, and learn how to 
gather data, analyze results, and write up 
ethnographic reports. Prerequisite: C- or better 
in Sociology 302. (Same as Sociology 323.) 
Ms. Howard, Ms. C.ill 

400 Anthropology Seminar Intensive culminating 
research experience for anthropology-sociology 
majors. Seminar is designed aroimd particular 
topics or debates, which provide unifying themes 
for students' research projects. Course guides 
students as they consolidate their understanding 
of the anthropological perspective. Prerequisite: 
Anthropology 103, 105, and 308, or consent of 
instructor. Not offered every year. 
Ms. Hendon, Ms. Howard 

450s, 470s Individualized Study Independent 
study in fields of special interest outside the 
scope of regular course offerings. Prerequisite: 
Consent of faculty' sponsor. 

460 Research Course Individual investigation 
of a research topic in anthropology' under the 
guidance of a faculty member. Topic must be 
approved by department. Project culminates in 
written and oral presentations of a formal 
paper to the faculty. Required for departmental 
honors. Students must submit a proposal a 
minimum of two weeks before the end of the 
semester preceding the proposed study. 
Prerequisite: Consent of department. Open to 
juniors and .seniors only. 
Staff 



SOCIOLOGY 

101 Introduction to Sociology Study of basic 
structures and dynamics of human societies, 
focusing on the development of principles and 
concepts used in sociological analysis and 
research. Topics include cultiue, socialization, 
social institutions, stratification, and social change. 
No prerequisite. 
Staff 

202 Wealth, Power, and Prestige Examination of 
distribution of valued resources and associated 
social ranking and rating .systems. Topics include 
social classes, social mobility, economic and 
political power, and informal prestige and fame. 
Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 
Mr. Emmons, Ms. Heisler 

204 Sociology of Mass Media and Popular Culture 

Analysis of broadcast and print media institutions. 
Perspectives include the "production of 
culture," cultural content analysis, socialization 
effects, and media coverage. Various popular 
culture genres, both mass and folk, are 
included, with special emphasis on music and 
film. Preiequisite: Sociology 101. 
Mr. Emmons 

206 Sociology of the Family Analysis of the 
family as a social institution. Course takes a 
comparative and sociohistorical approach to 
the study of American families, with a particular 
focus on the interaction between family and 
economy. Topics include intrafamily relations, 
work-family links, and family policy. Prerequisite: 
Sociology 101. 

Ms. Polur/iek 

207 Criminology Introduction to the sociological 
study of crime. Course begins with a discussion 
of criminal law and the extent of crime, then 
continues with a comprehensive examination 
of police, courts, and corrections. Theories of 
crime causafion, criminal behavior systems, and 
victimology' are also examined. Prerequisite: 
Sociology' 101. 

Mr. Hinrichs 

209 Race and Ethnic Relations Study of the 
diverse manifestalions of race and ethnicity 
aroimd the world, with particular locus on 
the American experience. Topics include 
immigration and assimilation, prejudice and 
discrimination, and the construction and 
reconstruction of ethnic and racial boundaries 
and identities. Prerequisite: Soc'ioXog)' 101. 
Ms. Heisler 



2 1 2 Deviance, Diversity, and Difference 

Examination of the concept of deviance and 
exploration of various sociological theories and 
perspectives for viewing deviant phenomena. 
In-depth analysis of alcohol and drug use, 
variations in sexual behavior, pornography, 
\aolence, child abuse, and homelessness. 
Prerequisite: Sociolog)' 101. 
Mr Hinrichs, Mr Redmon 

217 Gender Inequality Examination of patterns 
of gender stratification in American social 
structures. Course centers on how class, race, 
and gender influence the experiences of women 
and men in families and occupations. Topics 
include images of women in the media, 
construction of gender, and movements for 
change. Prerequisite: Soc'ioXo^ 101. 
Ms. Gill 

23 1 Self and Society Study of the self, 
socialization, .social roles, social relationships, 
communication, and group behavior. Emphases 
include group d)namics and differences in 
perception based on class, race, and gender. 
Prerequisite: Socio\o^' 101. 
Mr Redmon, Ms. Rosenberg 

233 Science, Knowledge and the Nevy Age 

Exploration of science as a social institution. 
History and ideology of science as an objective 
method are examined, drawing from Merton, 
Kuhn and others. "Antiscience" and "New 
Science" perspectives include postmodernist, 
feminist, and New Age views. UFO studies and 
other paranormal topics receive special 
attention as alternative knowledge systems. 
Prerequisite: SocioXo^' 101 or Anlhropolog)' 103 
or consent of instructor. 
Mr Emmons 

239 Health, Medicine, and Society Analysis of 
social factors that influence health and illness 
and of health care as a .social institution. Topics 
include the cultural construction of health and 
illness, the sick role, the effects of social 
inequalit)' on health and illness, health 
occupations and professions, and the social 
organization of health care systems in various 
societies. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Ms. Potuchek 

240 Gays, Lesbians, and Society Examination of 
the development of gay, lesbian, and bisexual 
life styles and the supporting social movement 
in societal context. Topics include the history 
of the gay rights movement in America and the 
historical events, cross-culturallv, that have 



shaped gay identity; theories of sexualit)'; the 
coming out process; homosexuality cross- 
culturally; religion and homosexuality; 
homophobia and intolerance; the structure of 
the gay community; gays and the military; the 
impact of AIDS, constitutional and legal issues; 
current radical movements; and gavs as parents. 
Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 
Mr. Hinrichs 

241 Globalization, Social Movements, and 
Consumerism Examination of the relationships 
between globalization and consimierism and 
tlie social movements that they engender. Using 
case studies from around the world, this course 
examines a variety of questions concerning the 
origin and development of social movements in 
the context of a changing world economic system. 
Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 
Mr Redmon 

262 Social Development of Latin America 

Formation of Latin .\merican nation-states, 
focusing on interplay between internal 
processes and external influences. Students 
examine Latin Ajiieiican struggles to overcome 
the region's colonial heritage through political, 
economic, and social integration. No 
prerequisite. 
Mr Betances 

Ibl Society and Politics in Latin America: A Case 
Study of the Dominican Republic Study of the 
sociopolitical evolution of the nineteenth- and 
t\ventieth-century Dominican Republic. Course 
examines the tension between dictatorship and 
democracy, changing socioeconomic patterns of 
Dominican life, and influence of the U.S. in die 
development of the modern Dominican state 
and societ)'. Same as LAS 267. No prerequisite. 
Mr Betances 

302 Research Methods Introducdon to the logic 
of social science research. Coal is to develop 
student's abilit)' to review and evaluate critically 
social research findings and to prepare for 
planning and carrying out research. A variety of 
qualitative and quantitadve designs is examined, 
including survey, experiment, pardcipant 
observadon, and ethnographic interviews. Issues 
such as sainpling, measurement, causality, 

and validity are considered. Prerequisite: 

Sociology lOL 

Staff 

303 Data Analysis and Statistics Study of 
elementary quantitati\e data analysis, including 
logic, application, and interpretation of 



statistical techniques. Students carry out 
original quantitative research projects using 
SPSS. Includes laboratory. Prerequisite: C- or 
better in Sociology 302 or consent of instructor. 
Ms. Gill, Ms. Rosenberg 

306 Introduction to Sociological Theory 

Exploration of the nature of sociological theory 
and major theoretical orientations (paradigms). 
C'oiuse exaiuines the origins and creation of 
these paradigms in the nineteenth and early 
twentieth century — the period of "classical 
sociolog)'" and their development, elaboration, 
and application in contemporary sociolog)'. 
Ms. Heisler 

310 Seminars in Sociological Theory Examination 
of a topic in sociolog)' from a number of 
theoretical perspectives. Emphasis is on gaining 
an in-depth knowledge of the topic, while also 
learning how theoretical perspectives shape 
research and analysis. Prerequisite: Sociolog)' 306 
or consent of instructor for nonmajors. 

Mr Redmon 

3 1 1 Theories of Community Study of 
communities from a sociological perspective, 
wth major emphasis on urban areas. Theoretical 
perspectives of Weber, Simmel, Spengler, Park, 
Wii th, Redfield, Duncan, and otliers iue examuied 
and iLsed to understand the historical development 
of cities, the ecology of cities, the development 
of suburbs, urbanism as a way of life, city planning, 
metropolitan dynamics, and contemporary 
urban problems. Prerequisite: Sociolog)' 306 or 
consent of instructor for nonmajors. 

Mr Hinrirhs 

3 1 2 Theories of Social Change Applications of 
theories of social change to contemporary 
trends and changing norms, values, and 
expectations. Emphasis is on a critical 
examination of recent changes in the economy 
and political structure of U.S. society and on the 
assessment of the efforts by social movements to 
direct social change. Prerequisite: Sociology 306 
or consent of instructor for nonmajors. 

Ms. Gill 

313 Theories of Politics and Society Analysis of 
the role of power in social and political 
institutions. Course examines the bases, 
distribution, and exercise of power in 
organizations, communities, and nations, as well 
as organized attempts to change exisdng power 
relationships. Theoretical perspectives include 



Marxism, Weberian theory, elitism and 
pluralism, resource mobilization, and new social 
movements theory. Prerequisite: Sociology 306 or 
consent of instructor for nonmajors. 
Ms. Heisler 

323 Field Methods in Social Research Seminar on 
how sociologists and anthropologists conduct 
ethnographic fieldwork. Topics include how 
theory informs research, ethical issues, and 
developing descriptive fieldnotes. Students 
carry oiu original research projects, using field 
methods such as participant observation and 
qualitative interviewing, and learn how to 
gather data, analyze results, and write up 
ethnographic reports. Prerequisite: C- or better 
in Sociolog)' 302. (Same as Anthropology 323.) 
Ms. Gill. Ms. Howard 

33 1 Reinventing Latin American Societies Study 
of the changing role of the state in twentieth- 
century Latin America. Course explores why 
Latin American states shifted from promoting 
national development to preparing the region 
for globalization. Issues of social movements, 
political control, citizenship, and neoliberalism 
are examined in the context of widespread 
economic, social, and polidcal structuring of 
Ladn American societies. Prerequisite: IAS 140 or 
any other course with a focus on Latin America. 
(Same as LAS 331.) 
Mr Beta n res 

400 Sociology Seminar Intensive culminating 
experience for sociology majors. Under the 
direction of a faculty member, students work to 
integrate their major and their understanding 
of the sociological perspective. Prerequisites: 
Sociolog)' 302 and either Sociolog)' 306 or 
Anthropolog)' 308. The second 300-level 
course in theory and methods is strongly 
recommended. 

450s, 470s Individualized Study Independent 
stuch in fields of special interest, including 
internships, outside the scope of regular course 
offerings. Consent of facult)' sponsor. 
Staff 

460 Research Course Individual investigation of 
a research topic in sociolog)' in the student's 
special area of interest under the guidance of a 
faculty member. Topic must be approved by 
department. Project culminates in written and 
oral presentations of a formal paper to the 



departmental faculty. Required for departmenUil 
honors. Students must submit a proposal to the 
department a minimum of nvo weeks before the 
end oi the semester preceding the proposed study. 
Prerequisite: Consent of department. Open to 
juniors and seniors only. 

SPANISH 

Professors Thompson and Burgess 

Associate Professors Cushing-Daniels, Olinger, Rolon, 

Vinuela (Chairperson), and Yager 
Assistant Professors Ramos and Valiela 
Instructors Balastequi and Flores-Ocampo 
Lecturers Marin and Moore 
Adjunct Lecturer Elorri ago 
Teaching Assistant Aragon 

Overview 

The abilit)' to speak and understand a language 
other than one's own, and to have insight into 
the ardstic and cultural heritage of other 
peoples of the world, is considered an integral 
part of a liberal arts education. The department, 
through a strong core of basic courses, gives 
students facility in the use of spoken and written 
Spanish and some knowledge of its literature 
and cultural history. The oral-aural method of 
modern language teaching is stressed in the 
classioom. 

Advanced-level courses in literature and 
civilization are designed to give students an 
understanding and appreciaUon of the literature 
and cultures of the Hispanic peoples. Students 
are encouraged to study in a Spanish-speaking 
country, and opportunities are offered through 
study abroad programs with approved colleges 
and through cooperative agreements with the 
Instituto Universitario de Sevilla in Seville, 
Spain; the Foreign Student Study Center at 
the Universit) of Guadalajara in Guadalajara, 
Mexico; the Universal Language Institute in 
Cuernavaca, Mexico; and in Argentina (Buenos 
Aires or Mendoza) . 

Courses in the department provide soimd 
preparation for graduate study, teaching, or 
careers in government, business, or social work. 
The department works cooperaUvely with the 
education department in the preparation of 
Spanish teachers. Since the largest minority 
group in the United States is Spanish speaking, 
the department feels that a knowledge of 
Spanish and an understanding of the Hispanic 
cultiues is of increasing importance. 



Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major in Spanish include 
eleven coiuses abo\e the 300-level, at least five 
of which must be taken at Gettysburg College. 
Course requirements are Spanish 301 (except 
for students who demonstrate an exceptional 
command of the Spanish language and petition 
the department to be exempted from this 
requirement); Spanish 302, 303, or 309; Spanish 
345 and three other courses at the 340-level; two 
courses at or above the 350-level; Spanish 400. 

Other courses for the major are elective and 
may include one of the following classes, which 
are taught in English: Anthropology 232, 
Anthropolog)' 237, Anthropology 250, First-Year 
Seminar 129, Political Science 275, Economics 
214, any Latin American Studies Class. 

Spanish majors must spend one semester 
studying abroad in a program approved by the 
department. (Students with extensive previous 
experience living or slud)'ing abroad may 
petidon the department to be exempted from 
this requirement.) Students in the teaching 
certification program must complete Spanish 
330 and 33 L Requirements for a minor in 
Spanish include six courses above the 202-level, 
and must include Spanish 301 (except for 
students who demonstrate an exceptional 
command of the Spanish language and pedtion 
the department to be exempted from this 
requirement) . Students may include Spanish 
202 for the minor if they have begun language 
study at the elementary or intermediate-level at 
Gettysburg College. No courses taken S/U may 
be included. Minors who have completed a 
semester of study abroad and five courses at the 
300 level and Spanish majors may elect to be 
interviewed by an ACTFL-certified evaluator 
and receive a letter attesting to their oral 
command of Spanish. 

The Spanish Department also offers a combined 
major with Latin American Studies. Course 
requirements for the Spanish component of 
the major are Spanish 301, 343, and 344; three 
courses from the following: Spanish 303, 309, 
351, 353, 354, 355, 376, or 379; and one 
capstone course which can be from Latin 
American Studies or Spanish. Students must 
spend one semester studying abroad in a 
program approved by the department. Students 
must have two advisors — one from Latin 
American Studies and one from the Spanish 
Department. 




► 



Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Prior to their first registration at the College, 
all students receive preregistration materials 
that give detailed instructions on language 
placement and fulfillment of the Liberal Arts 
Core requirement in foreign language. 

Achievement equivalent to 202 may be 
demonstrated by an advanced placement 
examination or a departmental placement 
examination given during orientation before 
the initial week of fall semester. 

The Liberal Arts Core requirement in foreign 
language may be satisfied by successful 
completion of Spanish 202 or 204. (Students 
may not repeat a course in the sequence from 
101 or 103 through 202 or 204 after they have 
passed a subsequent, higher numbered course.) 
All Spanish literatiue and civilization courses 
satisly the Liberal .Arts Core requirement in the 
humanities; Spanish .303 and 331 satisfy' the 
requirement in the social sciences . 

Intermediate Program Abroad 

Students may complete the distribution 
requirement in foreign languages (third and/or 
fourth semesters) by studying for a semester in 
Se\ille, Spain, or in Cuernavaca, Mexico (in 
alternate years; fall 2002 in Spain, fall 2003 in 
Mexico). Students must have a C average overall 
and in the major. The intermediate program 
includes a two-credit course in Spanish language 
at the appropriate level and a two-credit cour.se 
that integrates the study of Spanish or Mexican 
literature and ci\ilization. A professor from the 
department leads students on an initial 
orientation tour of Spain or Mexico and teaches 
the literature/civilizalicMi class. Students live 
with families. 

203-204 Courses in Spanish Language for 
Intermediate-Level Students in Seville, Spain, or 
Cuernavaca, Mexico Practice in oral and written 
expression, grammar review, readings, and 
discussions of Hispanic culture, with an emphasis 
on present-day language usage and contemporary 
Hispanic society'. Offered every fall, alternating 
between Spain (2002) and Mexico (2003). For 
intermediate students studying in Cuernavaca, 
Mexico, or in Seville, Spain. Prerequisite: Spanish 
104 or equivalent; concurrent enrollment in 
Spanish 253-254. One credit each. 
Staff 



253-254 Courses in Spanish Civilization and 
Literature for Intermediate-Level Students in 
Seville, Spain or Cuernavaca, Mexico Integrated 
approach to the study of Hispanic literature and 
civilization. Courses provide an overxdew of the 
evoliuion of Hispanic culture and examine the 
origins of the most representative values of 
Hispanic culture in art, literature, and 
contemporary life. Students visit museiuns and 
historical sites and attend artistic events. Offered 
every fall, alternating between Spain (2002) 
and Mexico (2003). For intermediate students 
studying in (hiernavaca, Mexico, or in Seville, 
Spain. Prerefjiiisite: Spanish 104 or equivalent; 
concurrent enrollment in Spanish 203-204. One 
credit each. 
SiMff 

Study Abroad 

Advanced students who have completed Spanish 
301 may study at the Institute Universitario de 
Sevilla in Seville, Spain, or at the Foreign 
Student Study Center at the University of 
Guadalajara in Guadalajara, Mexico, both of 
which offer a wide variety of courses in Spanish, 
including literature, history, sociology, political 
science, management, and more. Students must 
have a C average overall and in the major. See 
Study Abroad, Instituto Universitario de Sevilla; 
and Study Abroad, Foreign Student Study Center, 
University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico. 

101-102 Elementary Spanish Elements of 
understanding, speaking, reading, and writing 
Spanish. Enrollment limited to those who have 
never previously studied Spanish. Students 
cannot receive credit for both 101 and 103; 102 
and 104. 
Slajf 

103-104 Fundamental Spanish Fundamentals of 
understanding, speaking, reading, and writing 
Spanish. Use of language laboratory is required. 
Enrollment is limited to those who have previously 
studied Spanish and who are enrolled according 
to achievement on the Departmental Placement 
Examination. Students cannot receive credit for 
both 101 and 103; 102 and 104. 
Staff 

201-202 Intermediate Spanish Practice in oral 
and written expression, grammar review, readings, 
and discussions of writing in Spanish. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 102 or 104 or consent of department. 
Staff 



245 Spanish Conversation Conversation course 
beyond the intermediate level, with emphasis 
on everyday, applied usage of the language for 
nonliterary purposes. Prerequisite: Grade of C 
or better in Spanish 202, or consent of the 
depaitment. Enrollment limited to twelve students. 
Counts toward the minor, but not the major. 
Offered annually. Students whose native 
language is Spanish may not elect this course. 
Staff 

301 Spanish Composition and Conversation 

Exercises in directed and free composition; 
group discussion and presentation of individual 
oral work; review of grammar and syntax at an 
ad\ anced level. Prerequisite: Grade of C or better 
in Spanish 202, or consent of department. 
Grade of C or better in Spanish 301 is required 
to advance to 302. 
Stajf 

302 Cultural Images I: Arts and Humanities 

Advanced composition and conversation course 
focusing on culttiral topics in the Hispanic 
world related to arts and the humanities. Uses 
readings, videos, music, and speakers. Prerequisite: 
Grade C or better in Spanish 301, or consent of 
department. Offered annually. 

303 Cultural Images II: Social Sciences Advanced 
composition and conversation course focusing 
on cultural topics in the Hispanic world related 
to the social sciences Uses readings, videos, 
music, and speakers. Prerequisite: Grade C or 
better in Spanish 301, or consent of 
department. Offered annually. 

305 Service Learning Project in the Hispanic 
Community Students work with a Hispanic 
family for 22 hours throughout the semester to 
help the family learn English, satisfy its needs, 
and generally acculturate to American society. 
Students meet with the instructor once a week. 
Students learn basic English-as-a-second- 
language teaching techniques, read about 
the immigrant and migrant experience, and 
experience the Hispanic cultures and language 
first-hand. One-half unit of credit. May be 
repeated once. Graded S/U. Does not count 
toward the major or minor. 
StaJ] 



309 Current Events in the Hispanic World 

Advanced composition and conversation coiuse 
based on current events in the Hispanic world, 
using articles from Hispanic periodicals and 
Spanish language news programs. Prerequisite: 
Grade C or better in Spanish 301, or consent of 
department. Offered annually. 
Staff 

330 Spanish Phonology Introduction to Spanish 
phonetic and phonemic theory and analysis, 
applied to improve pronunciation skills. Study 
of variation in pronunciation in Spain and Latin 
America. Three lecture hours and one laboratory. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 302 or 309 or approval of 
deparUTient. Offered 2002-03. Offered in 
alternate years. 

Staff 

331 Introduction to Spanish Linguistics 

Introduction to linguistic theories, methods, 
and problems as applied to Spanish. Attention is 
also given to typical areas of investigation, such 
as Spanish dialectology, sociolinguistics, and 
bilingualism. Prerequisite: Spanish 302 or 309 or 
approval of department. Offered in alternate 
years. 
Staff 

341 Survey of Spanish Literature I Introduction 
to representative Spanish texts from the Middle 
Ages through the seventeenth century and to 
the cultural and historical contexts in which 
these works were written. Prerequisite: Grade C or 
better in Spanish 301, or consent of department. 
Offered annually. 

Staff 

342 Survey of Spanish Literature II Introduction 
to representative Spanish texts from the 
Enlightenment to the post-Civil War peiiod and 
to the cultural and historical contexts in which 
these works were written. Prerequisite: Grade C or 
better in Spanish 301, or consent of department. 
Offered annually. 

Staff 

343 Survey of Latin American Literature I 

Introduction to representative Spanish- 
American texts from the fifteenth through the 
nineteenth century and to the cultural and 
historical contexts in which these works were 
written. Prerequisite: Grade C or better in Spanish 
301, or consent of department. Offered annually. 
Staff 




^^ 




344 Survey of Latin American Literature II 

Introduction tt) representative Spanisli- 
;\merican texts from the twentieth century and 
to the cultural and historical contexts in which 
these works were VNTitten. Prerequisite: Grade C or 
better in Spanish 301, or consent of department. 
Offered annually. 
Staff 

345 Introduction to Literary Analysis 

Introduction to basic critical approaches to 
the reading of prose fiction, poetry, and drama. 
Through the careful study of works in each 
genre, students acquire a knowledge of analytical 
skills and critical terminology' in Spanish. Offered 
annualh'. Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in 
Spanish 341, 342, 343, or 344, or consent of 
department. 

351 Lyric Poetry Study of Spanish lyric poetry 
through the ages. Course concentrates on the 
interrelationship of form, content, and idea, 
noting major influences on the poetry of each 
period. Appreciation is considered a major goal, 
and much poetry is read orally and discussed. 
Alternate years. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or 
consent of department. Offered in alternate 
years. 
Staff 

353 Introduction to Hispanic Cinema Study of 
Hispanic cinema from its inception, \wth emphasis 
on films made since the advent of revisionary 
cinema aroiuid 1960. Course examines the 
development and renovation of cinematography, 
the relationship between cinema and other 
forms of artistic expression, and the historic 
development of Hispanic cinema. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 345 or consent of department. 
Offered in alternate years. 

Staff 

354 Nineteenth-Century Literature in Spain and 
Latin America Study of nineteenth-century 
literature in Spain and Latin America, 
according to the cultural movements and 
transformations of this century. Readings 
include narradves, essays and poetry. Facilitates 
strategies for the interpretation of literature 
grounded on gender conflicts, creation of 
political contexts, and scjcial change. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 345 or consent of department. Offered 
in alternate years. 

^tnff 



355 Hispanic Theater Study of the drama of 
Spain and Spanish America through the ages. 
Focus varies from semester to semester, based on 
such aspects as literary period, common theme, 
historical development, and dramatic theory. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of deparmient. 
Offered in alternate years. 
Staff 

363 Literature of the Golden Age Representative 
texts selected from different genres of sixteenth- 
and seventeenth-century Spanish literature. 
Readings and discussions focus on topics such as 
honor, gender relations, social class, religion, 
and notions of nationality and empire. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of depaiunent. 
Offered in alternate vears. 
Staff 

367 Generation of '98 and Pre-Civil War 
Literature Studies in the essa), poetry, prose 
ficdon, and drama of the major writers of the 
late-nineteenth and early-t\ventieth centuries in 
Spain. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of 
department. Offered in alternate years. 

Staff 

368 Post-Civil War Literature of Spain 

Studv of major literar\ trends and works in 
Spain, beginning with the resurgence of Spanish 
literatiue in the 1940s and continuing to the 
present day. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent 
of department. Offered in alternate years. 
Staff 

369 Cervantes Study of the masterpiece, Don 
Quijote de la Mancha, as well as some Novelas 
ejetnplares and entremeses or one-act plays. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 345 or consent of department. 
Offered in alternate years. 

Staff 

376 Latin American Contemporary Prose 

Emphasis on the novel of the "boom" in Ladn 
America. Major writers such as Gabriel Garcia- 
Marquez, Carlos Fuentes, Julio Cortazar, Elena 
Poniatowska, Juan Rulfo, and Jorge Luis Borges 
are read. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent of 
department. Offered in alternate years. 
Staff 

379 "Colonialism" and Latin America Study of the 
textual productions resulting from the initial 
centuries of conquest and colonization of Latin 
America. Readings and discussions include the 
study of European preconceptions and the 
impact they had on representation of Latin 
American "origins" in literature. Goals include 



the analysis of the varied discursive responses 
to the process of colonization and how they 
pervade our current understanding of Latin 
.\merica. Prerequisite: Spanish 345 or consent 
of department. Offered in alternate years. 
Staff 

400 Senior Seminar Directed and specialized 
studies in Spanish and Latin American literatures 
from the medieval period to the present. Course 
is taken by seniors during the final semester in 
order to complete their undergraduate work 
in Hispanic literatures. Prerequisite: Limited to 
seniors, except with permission of department. 
Offered every spring. 
Staff 

PORTUGUESE 

101-102 Elementary Portuguese Elements of 
imderstanding, speaking, reading, and writing 
Portuguese. Coiuse includes oral and written 
work, graded elementary reading, and use of 
audio-visual cultural materials and correlative 
drill in the language laboratory. 
Staff 

201-202 Intermediate Portuguese Practice in 
oral and written expression, grammar review, 
readings, and discussions of Portuguese writing. 
Prerequisite: Portuguese 102 or equivalent. 
Staff 

Mr. Hanson 

THEATRE ARTS 

Associate Professor Hanson (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Musrhamp and Russell 
Adjunct Assistaiit Professors Kellinger and Atwood 
Assistant Instructor Ryan 
Adjunct Professor Emeriti IS Schmidt 

Overview 

Courses in the theatre arts department are 
designed to train students to conceive of the 
theatrical event as a unit, joining its literary and 
historical values with means of expression in 
production and demonstrating the relationship 
of acting, directing, and design with the efforts 
of both past and present playwrights. This is 
accomplished through the students' work in the 
theatre program's productions, which include 
mainstage offerings in Kline Theatre, as well as 
studio presentations in Stevens Theatre and 
otherstage works-in-progress. The study of 
theatre arts prepares students for careers in the 
theatre, arts adminisuation, teaching, and 
business. 



A well-balanced program for a major in theatre 
arts should include: (1) knowledge of the history 
of the theatre from earliest cultures to the 
present; (2) training in and application of 
the various performance areas of theatre; 
{?)) knowledge of the characteristics and 
development of the literary genre known as 
drama; and (4) the development of a play 
from the initial script to actual performance. 

The theatre program also offers a minor in the 
field. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Majors in theatre arts must take Theatre Arts 
105, 203, and 214. They must also elect the 
specified number of courses from each of the 
following categories: 

I. History and Drama Core(2 courses): 
1 course from each of the following groups: 

A. Theatre Aits 204, 328, or 329 

B. English 226, 365, or 366 

II. Studio Core (3 coiu\ses): I course from 
each of the following groups: 

A. (Design) 115, 116, or 215 

B. (Acting and Dance) 120, 163, or 222 

C. (Directing) 212 

111. Electives (2 courses): Any theatre arts course 
from curriculum and/or IDS 267, IDS 268, 
or FYS theatre-related courses (e.g., F\'S 185, 
FYS 190). One may be from the following: 
Classics 264, Classics 266, English 303, 
French 332, French 342, German 335; 
IDS 241, Spanish 353, or Spanish 355. 

Requirements for the minor in theatre arts are 
six courses: Theatre Arts 105; Theatre Arts 203 
or 204; Theatre Arts 214; two studio courses, 
one from Performance Studio (Theatre Arts 
120, 163, 212) and one from Production Studio 
(Theatre Arts 115, 116, 215); one coiuse in 
theatre arts or any of the above listed theatre 
arts or drama courses, IDS 267, IDS 268, or 
an FYS theatre-related coiuse. Note that all 
students in a minor program are required to 
take more than two classes at the 100 level. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

All courses in Theatre Aits, except 214, 328, and 
329, fulfill the Liberal Aits Core requirement in 
the arts. Theatre Aits 214, 328, and 329 fulfill 
the Liberal Arts Core requirement in the 
humanities. 



> 



105 Introduction to Theatre Arts Overview of 
theatre, including historical background, 
literaiy works, technical aspects, and performance 
techniques. The theatre of today is studied in 
relation to its predecessors and in terms of its 
modern forms in cinema and television. Students 
read texts and analyze methods used in bringing 
those works into production. Field trips offer 
opportunities to critique performances. Open 
to first- and second-year students only. 
Mr. Hanson, Mr. Muschamp, Ms. Russell 

1 1 5 Theatre Production Com se provides an 
fxtensive investigation of historical and 
contemporary trends and practices essential 
for theatre production. Students gain an 
understanding of theatre procedures and 
acquire a grasp of equipment necessary for the 
execution of scenery, properties, sound, and 
stage lightitig. Course is a combination of 
lecture and laboratory work and requires 
backstage participation in college productions. 
Mr. Hanson 

120 Fundamentals of Acting Study of the theory 
and technique of the art of acting; voice 
technique for the stage; the use of pantomime, 
including the study of gestiue and movement. 
Emphasis is placed on the discipline and control 
of the body and the voice to best serve the actor. 
Improvisation is employed. In addition, students 
are expected to perform in scenes for class 
analysis. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 
Mr Muschamp, Ms. Russell 

163 Introduction to Dance Overview of the 
histoi y and development of modern dance, with 
emphasis on the such pioneers as Dimcan, 
Denis-Shawn, Humphrey, Weidman, Hawkins, 
and Cunningham. Course develops an 
appreciation of dance as an art form. Emphasis 
is placed on the discipline and control of the 
body to best serve the dancer. 
Ms. Kellinger 

203, 204 History of the Theatre Survey of the 
theatre from the Greeks to the present. 
Emphasis is placed on the relevance of theatre 
design, production techniques, and acting styles 
to the plays of their periods. First semester 
covers Greek, Roman, Medieval, Elizabethan, 
Asian, and Italian Renaissance; second semester 
is devoted to French Neoclassical, the 



Restoration, and the eighteenth, nineteenth, 
and twentieth centuries. 
Ms. Russell 

1 1 2 Fundamentals of Directing Study of the 
theory and technique of the art of the director. 
Course explores how a play is selected, play 
analysis, tryouts and casting, and the purpose 
and technique of blocking, movement, and 
stage business. Particular attention is given to 
the preparation of the director's production 
promptbook and other written analysis. 
Students are required to direct scenes in class 
and a short play as part of the Laboratory 
Theatre Series. Prerequisite: Permission of 
instructor. 
Mr. Muschamp 

214 Survey of Dramatic Literature Overview of 
di amatic literature from die Greeks to the present. 
Play stiucture is analyzed, and comparisons made 
between methods of executing plot, development 
of character, and theme. Includes plays from the 
Greek and Roman periods, medieval, Elizabethan, 
and seventeenth through twentieth centuries. 
Emphasis is placed on written analysis. 

Ms. Russell 

2 1 5 Fundamentals of Stage Design Basic 
theories and technique of design for the stage. 
The theory behind the design, and the 
interrelationship of scene design, lighting, 
costimies, and properties. How stage design 
interprets themes and moods of a play is 
studied, as well as identification of period and 
place. Course follows a lecture-discussion format 
and involves extensive studio work. Students 
analyze, create, and execute basic designs for 
the Laboratory Theatre Series, in association 
with students in Theatre Arts 212. Prerequisite: 
Permission of instructor. 

Mr Hanson 

220 Advanced Acting Further study in the 
theory and techniques of the art of the actor, 
the analysis and interpretation of acting roles, 
and the building of characterization. Roles, 
both comic and tragic, from Contemporary 
Restoration, Elizabethan, Commedia clell'Arte, 
and Greek theatre are analyzed and performed. 
Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 120 and/or permission 
of the instructor. 
Mr Muschamp 



222 Oral Interpretation of Literature Analytical 
and strnctural study of recognized prose, poetry, 
and dramatic selections that will facilitate 
individual rehearsal and performance of the 
literature. Readings incorporate the Readers 
Theatre format, with emphasis placed on 
developing an appreciation for the literary work 
as a complete aesthetic unit. Students are 
challenged to recognize their potential for 
speaking and reading before an audience. Class 
employs an ensemble approach and presents 
several public performances dining the semester. 
Mr. Hanson 

250 Cinematic Arts: History and Methods Viewing 
and discusssion of historically and culturally 
relevent films from aroimd the world during the 
period of 1896 (film's inception) to World War II. 
In lab, students apply filmic techniques of 
lighting, camera placement, and setting to 
construct mise-en-scene. 

Mr: Ryan 

25 1 Cinematic Arts: History and Methods Viewing 
and discusssion of historically and culturally 
relevent films from around the world during the 
period of post- World War II to the present. In 
lab, students apply filmic techniques of lighting, 
camera placement, and setting to construct mise- 
en-scene. 

Mr. Ryan 

252 Studies in Film Aesthetics Study of historically 
significant films, film theory, and criticism 
intended to develop an appreciation for film as 
an art form. Students keep a journal of critical 
responses to films, write short critical papers, 
and become familiar with writing about films. 
Mr. Muschamp, Mr. Ryan 

255 Advanced Stage Design Examination of 
historical and contemporary theories of scene, 
lighting, and costume design. Students consider 
design as the visual manifestation of a 
playwright's concepts. In addition to designing 
both a play for proscenium, arena, thrust, and 
profile stages and a period play for a period 
other than its own, students complete advanced 
designs in scene, lighting, and costumes, and 
create designs for the Laboratory Theatre Series 
in association with students in Theatre Arts 282. 
Prerequisite: Theatre Aits 215. 
Mr. Hanson 



IDS 267 Theatre and Religion Investigadon of the 
theatre's role in various Western and non-Western 
religions. (For full description, see IDS 267.) 
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 
Mr Hanson 

IDS 268 The Arts, Environment, and Religions of 
Indonesia (See Hsting under Interdisciplinary 
Studies. Students live with families in Bali. 
Offered annually, mid-May to mid-June.) 
Mr. Hanson 

282 Advanced Directing Fiuther studies in the 
theory and technique in the art of the director. 
Students engage in directional analyses of plays 
representing different periods. Particular 
attention will be given to contemporary 
methods of presentation, with special emphasis 
on arena and thrust staging. In addition to 
directing scenes in class, students direct two 
scenes and a one-act play for public presentation, 
the latter as part of the Laboratory Theatre 
Series. Prerequisites: Theatre Arts 212 and/or 
permission of instructor. 
Mr. Muschamp 

307 Theatre Arts Practicum: Acting Dining a 
seven-week program, students rehearse and 
perform in two mainstage pioductions for 
children and families as part of the Gettysburg 
Theatre Festival (founded 1963). Students work 
alongside professional actors, administrators, 
and designers of the Festival and under 
professional direction. Commedia dell'Arte and 
other improvisational techniques are employed 
in the creation of each presentation. A study of 
the works represented on the mainstage, as well 
as discussion sessions and workshops with 
professional actors and directors are included in 
class work. 
Staff 

3 1 1 Theatre Arts Practicum: Technical During a 
seven-week period, students participate in the 
varied technical aspects of mounting two 
mainstage productions for children and families 
as part of the Gettysburg Theatre Festival 
(founded 1963). Hands-on experience is gained 
from the construction, painting and placement 
of sets, hanging and running of stage lights, and 
the construction and gathering of properties 
and costumes. A study of the technical and 
design aspects along with the cultural and 
aesthetic heritage of the works produced is 
integral to the course. 
Staff 



I 



320 Problems in Acting Course for students who 
have demonstrated the skill and talent to 
undertake further studies in acting. Culminates 
in an independent study project. Prerequisite: 
Theatre Arts 120 and 220 and/or permission of 
instructor. 
'>■'«// 

328, 329 Twentieth-Century Drama Study of 
major dramatists from Ibsen to the present and 
of dramatic movements such as realisin, 
naturalism, expressionism, as well as Theatre of 
the Absurd. First semester includes Ibsen, 
Strindberg, Chekhov, Shaw, Pirandello, Odets, 
O'Neill, and others; second semester begins 
after World War II, and includes Williams, Miller, 
Hellman, Hansberry, Pinter, Beckett, lonesco. 
Genet, and others. 
Ms. Russell 

355 Problems in Stage Design Coiuse for 
students who have demonstrated the skill and 
talent to undertake further studies in design. 
Culminates in an independent study project. 
Prerequisites: T\\e2L\re Arts 215 and 255. 
Mr. Hanson 

377 Theatre Arts Practicum: Acting (Advanced) 

For students who have demonstrated that their 
skills in performing before the public (both 
young and old) might be fiuther developed. 
Students continue work begun in Theatre Arts 
307; they are expected to produce mature and 
advanced work and undertake a broader range 
of roles and more complex ones. Prerequisite: 
Theatre Arts 307. 
Staff 

381 Theatre Arts Practicum: Technical (Advanced) 

For students who have demonstrated that their 
skills in the technical aspects of theatre might 
be fvnther developed. Students continue work 
begun in Theatre Arts 311 and are expected to 
undertake more advanced assignments in set 
construction, stage lighting, costumes, and 
properties. Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 311. 

•sv«// 

382 Problems in Directing Coinse for students 
who have demonstrated the skill and talent to 
undertake further studies in diiecting. 
Culminate in an independent study project. 
Prerequisites: T\\e?Ltre Arts 212 and 282. 

Staff 



Individualized Study Production of a major work, 
tutorial, or internship under supervision of a 
faculty meinber. Student must submit a written 
proposal to the department well in advance of 
registration. Prerequisites: \\)\iYO\3\ of 
department and directing facult)' member. 

SPEECH 

101 Public Address Study of the basic principles 
of public address. Emphasis is placed on 
developing both a theoretical and practical 
imderstanding of oral communication through 
lecture and reading assignments, as well as 
through practice in preparing, organizing, 
delivering, and criticizing speeches in class. 
Mr. Muscharnp 

201 Advanced Public Address Analysis of public 
address as an art form and as an important 
civilizing force in Western society. Students have 
the opportunity to apply concepts and strategies 
they have learned in Speech 1 01. Prerequisite: 
Speech 101. 

VISUAL ARTS 

Professor Paulson 

Associate Professors Agard and Trevelyan 

Assistant Professors Small and Warurick (Chairperson) 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Dorrill and lie 

Adjunct Instructors Blair, Ramos, and Winsfiip 

Slide Librarian Magura 

Overview 

The visual arts department has the following 
major objectives: (1) to educate visual 
sensibilities, beyond routine responses, toward 
an awareness of oin- visual environment, as well 
as to the cognition of works of art as the living 
past; (2) to study the historical cultural 
significance and aesthetic structure of 
architecture, painting, and sculpture, and the 
enduring dialogue between continuity and 
change; (3) to teach the history of art and the 
practice of art as separate but interrelated 
disciplines; (4) to provide the interested major 
with a curriculum which gives a foundation for 
graduate or professional study that can lead to a 
career in high school or college teaching, to 
work as a graphic or industrial designer, or to a 
profession as a painter, sculptor, print maker, or 
photographer. 



The department offers a flexible program of 
study in interrelated studio and art history 
courses, with potential majors in two areas, art 
history and studio art. The depaidnent encourages 
students from disciplines other than art to select 
from both t)'pes of courses. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Students interested in a major or minor in art 
history or studio art should contact the visual 
arts department for a current check sheet. To 
complete a major in Art History students are 
required to complete the following courses: 

1) V,\H 111, 112, 120, and 400, plus a minimum 
of five additional courses in art history. These 
courses must include at least one course in 
either the ancient or medieval fields, one in 
either the Renaissance or Baroque fields, one in 
either the nineteenth century or modern fields, 
and one in a non-Western field. Courses are 
selected in consultation with the ad\iser in 
order to meet projected needs and to construct 
a coherent program. 

2) Two basic studio coiuses to foster an 
understanding of visual structure and studio 
processes. 

Students intending to major in Ait History 
should take Art 111, 112, and 120 in the first 
year of college. 

To complete a major in Studio Art students are 
required to take the following courses: 

1) VAS 141, 145, and 146. 

2) At least one coiuse each in painting, print 
making, and sculpture. 

3) Additional courses in at least two of the 
three disciplines listed in #2, photography, 
or ceramics. 

4) Three coinses in art theory and history: 
VAH 120, 318, and an art history elective. 

5) Participation in the senior studio seminar 
and senior exhibition in the spring semester of 
the senior year. 

Students intending to major in Studio Art are 
advised to take VAS 141, 145, 146 and VAH 120 
in their first three semesters of college. VAH 318 
is to be completed before taking the Senior 
Studio Seminar. 



To complete a minor in Art History students are 
required to take the following courses. 

1) VAH 120. 

2) Three art historv and/or theory of art 
courses. 

3) One 100-level studio course. 

4) One 200-level studio course. 

To complete a minor in Studio Art students at e 
required to take the following coiu'ses. 

1 ) Four studio courses. 

2) VAH 120 and one art history elective. 

Students minoring in either Art History or 
Studio Art should note that no more than two 
100-level courses are acceptable to fulfill the 
College's requirements for a minor. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Any course in the areas of history, theory, or 
studio art may be counted toward the Liberal 
Arts Core requirement in the arts. VAH 227, 
228, 247, and 248 fulfill the Liberal Arts Core 
requirement in non-Western cultiue. 

Special Facilities 

A collection of approximately 45,000 color 
slides supports the teaching of art history and 
studio classes. The department also has video 
equipment and a growing library of tapes to 
support other teaching activities. We are also 
equipped with powerful computers and 
appropriate software for computer assisted 
design, as well as CD-ROM capacit), with a 
library of disks for student use. Regular trips to 
the museums of Washington, D.C., Baltimore, 
and Philadelphia, as well as art exhibits at the 
College, make possible the necessary contact 
with original works of art. 

The department has presses for relief, surface, 
and intaglio print making. For sculpture, it has 
both gas and electric welding equipment; air 
power tools for working in wood, stone, and 
plastic; three kilns for ceramic arts; a small 
fotmdry for bronze casting; and heavy lifting 
beams and hoists. 

The l,660-.sq.-foot Schmucker Hall Art Gallery 
presents as many as nine different exhibitions 
each year. Included in the gallery calendar are 
works by professional artists, a faculty show, a 
student show, the senior art major show, and 
traveling exhibits, as well as selections from 
public and private collections. 



k 



HISTORY AND THEORY OF ART 

III, 112 Ideas and Events Behind the Arts 

Introductory study of the visual arts from 
prehistoric times to the nineteenth century. 
Course examines reasons for changes in the 
content, form, and function of two-dimensional 
and three-dimensional art. Exercises in visual 
analysis of individual works develop critical 
methods. Fulfills distribution requirement in 
the arts. Prerequisite. ]unioi's and seniors require 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Small 

120 Theory of the Visual Arts Course gives a 
basic approach to visual experience by 
examining factors that relate to the making of 
art, functions of art, and viewer relationships 
with art, including methods of analysis. In 
addition to class lectures and discussions, hands- 
on sessions assist students in understanding the 
processes of making visual imagery. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: 
Juniors and seniors require permission of 
instructor. 
Ms. Small 

201 Arts of Ancient Greece and Rome 

Introduction to the painting, sculpture, and 
architecture of the classical world, focusing 
on cultural and intellectual differences between 
the people of these two civilizations as reflected 
in the arts of both. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: juniors and 
seniors require permission of instructor. 
Ms. Trevelyan 

202 Medieval Art Survey of the arts of the 
Middle Ages and their development from the 
Roman catacomb through the high Gothic 
cathedral. Analysis of art as a reflection of 
changing political and social conditions in 
Europe, with particular emphasis on liturgical 
arts in the Middle Ages. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in the arts. Recommended prior 
course: Ait 111 or 201. 

Staff 

205 Arts of Northern Europe: A.D.I 350-1 575 

Analysis of artistic developments in Northern 
Europe from late Gothic times through the 
turbulent period of the Reformation. Works 
of Jan Van Eyck, Claus Sluter, Hieronymous 
Bosch, Hans Holbein, i\lbrecht Durer, and 



others are explored to discover ways in which 
.social, political, and intellectual developments 
are mirrored in the art of that period. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: 
Alt 201 , any 100-leveI art history course, or 
permission of instructor. Alternate years. 
Staff 

206 European Painting 1700-1900 Introduction 
to eighteenth-centiuy painters in Italy, France, 
and England and their relationship to the 
Enlightenment. Major emphasis on the evolution 
of painting in France during the nineteenth 
century in relation to the changing social, 
political, and philosophical climate. Alternate 
years. Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. 
Prerequisite: Art 1 1 1 , 1 1 2, 1 20, or 20 1 , or 
permission of instructor. 
Ms. Small 

2 1 Twentieth-Century European Painting Study 
of the schools and critical writings surrounding 
the major figures. Such movements as Art 
Nouveau, Nabis, Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, 
German Expressionism, De Stijl, Dada, and 
Surrealism are examined. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in the arts. Recommended prior 
courses: Art 111, 112, or 120. 
Ms. Small 

2 1 5 German Art from Middle Ages to Today 

(See description for Fall Semester in Cologne, 
Germany under Department of German.) 

217 History of Modern Architecture Examination 
of the evolutionary forms of the built environ- 
ment, beginning with the ascendancy of the 
machine aesthetic just prior to World War I 
and continuing through the "post-modernist" 
theories of the 1970-80s and the works of 
Graves, Gehry, and Isozaki in the 1990s. 
Prerequisite: VAH 111, 1 1 2, or permission of 
instructor. 
Staff 

22 1 Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Painting 
in the United States Survey of American 
painting from the Colonial Period to 1900, 
studied in relationship to developments in 
Europe, and with emphasis on the response of 
art to the changing social and technological 
environment in America. Alternate years. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in the arts. 
Ms. Small 



227 Art of the First Nations of North America: 
Eastern Woodlands and Plains Survey of the 
arts created by the original inhabitants of 
North America living in the Eastern 
Woodlands and Plains regions, with a focus on 
the cultiual and religious traditions that 
formed the basis for much of the art. Emphasis 
is on developing an understanding of and 
appreciation for the fundamental differences 
between the arts and cultures of Native North 
American peoples and those of modern 
Western cultures, as well as aspects of 
similarit)'. Fulfills distribution requirement in 
the arts and non-Western culture. 

Ms. Trevelyav 

228 Art of the First Nations of North America: 
The Far North and West Survey of the arts 
created by the original inhabitants of North 
America living in the Far North and the West, 
with a focus on the cultmal and religious 
traditions that formed the basis for much of 
the art. Emphasis will be on developing an 
understanding of and appreciation for the 
fundamental differences between the arts and 
cultures of native North American peoples and 
those of modern Western cultures, as well as 
aspects of similarity. Fulfills the distribution 
requirements in the arts and non-Western 
culture. 

Ms. Trevelynn 

303 Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture in the 
Italian Renaissance Sm \ ey of the \'isual arts 
dining the centuries that, in many ways, mark 
the boimdary between the ancient and 
modern worlds. Course approaches the arts of 
the period from this perspective. Many artists and 
mommients included are traditionally 
acknowledged to be among the finest in the 
history of art, including the works of 
Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, 
and Titian. Secondary focus is to question and 
explore reasons why the art of this period is so 
acclaimed. Fulfills distribuUon requirement in 
the arts. Pierequisite: Art 111, 1 1 2 or 20 1 or 
permission of instructor. 
Staff 

307 Mannerist and Baroque Periods in 
European Art Study of painting, sculpture, and 
architecture in Europe, from the first decades 
after the Reformation through their 
transformauon under the impact of the 



Counter Reformafion. Aitistic developments in 
Italy are discussed, as well as allied approaches 
in northern Europe and Spain. Works of some 
of the world's best known artists are examined, 
including Bernini, Caravaggio, Rubens, 
Rembrandt, Vermeer, El Greco, Vehisquez, and 
Poussin. Fulfills disuibution requirement in the 
arts. Prerequisite: All 201 or any 100-level art 
history course or permission of instructor. 
Alternate years. 

3 1 8 Art After 1 945 Critical examination of the 
art forms and issues that identify' the current 
post-modern phase of twentieth-century art. 
Past and current usages of the terms "modern" 
and "avant-garde" are explored in the context 
of contemporary modes of visual expression, 
art criticism, communications technology, and 
cultural pliualism. Prerequisite: two courses in 
art history and/or theory or permission of the 
instructor. 

322 Painting in the United States Since 1 900 

Survey of twentieth-century painting. Course 
concentrates on two basic themes: the 
changing social role of painting as America's 
needs and self-image change, and the on-going 
eclectic process in which American painters 
extend and deepen their familiarity with world 
art. Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. 
Ms. Small 

400 Seminar Ad\anced study of specific art 
history issues and problems, with particular 
focus on the revisionist art history of the last 
twenty to thirty years. Students revisit the 
content and theoretical approaches of previous 
courses in the context of the "new art history," 
as seen from the art historical dialogue. The 
theoretical literature of Feminist art history 
proxddes the framework for this re- 
examination. Approach varies according to the 
specific topic, but common denominators 
include a close examination and analysis of art 
objects and thorough investigation of their 
historical and social context. Students develop 
skills in advanced verbal and visual research, 
written and oral projects, and critiques 
Prerequisites: Minimum of three art history 
courses, at least one of which is a 300-level 
course, or permission of instructors. 
Ms. Trevelyan, Ms. Small 



STUDIO ART 

Purpose of all studio courses is to sharpen the 
sense of sight; coordinate mind, hand, and eye; 
develop an abilit)' to organize visual material; 
and to integrate the intuitive and rational into 
creative activity. Lectures accompany basic 
studio courses when necessary to relate theory 
and practice. The Lora Qually Hicks memorial 
fimd, established by family and friends in honor 
of Lora Qually Hicks '71, provides funds for the 
purchase of works created by Gettysburg 
College students. 

141 Introduction to Drawing Drawing from 
models and controlled studio problems. 
Intended to promote coordination of the hand 
and the eye to achieve a degree of technical 
mastery over a variet)' of drawing tools. Emphasis 
is placed on line qualit)', techniques of shading, 
negative-positive relationships, figure-ground 
relationships, form, structure, and an awareness 
of the total field. Offered fall semester only.* 
Prerequisite: First-year students and sophomores 
only. 
Mr. Agard, Mr. Warwick 

145 Basic Design (two dimensional) Introductory 
course to help students develop a capacity to 
think and work both conceptually and 
perceptually. Course pro\ides a basic discipline 
with which to organize a variet)' of materials into 
structural and expressive form. Prerequisite: First- 
year students and sophomores only. 

Mr Agard 

146 Basic Design (three dimensional) An 

introductory course extending the basic 
disciplines of 141 into the third dimension. 
Projects introduce materials such as clay, plaster, 
wood, and metal. Intent is to assist students in 
CMganizing three dimensional forms. Prerequisite: 
First-year students and sophomores only. 
Mr Paulson 

251 introduction to Painting Development of a 
series of paintings according to a thematic 
image. Assigned problems are designed to 
introduce a variety of conceptual, procedural, 
and experimental possibilities. Prerequisite: VAS 
141 or permission of instructor. Recommended 
course: VAH 322. 

Mr Agard, Mr Winship 

252 Intermediate Painting Development of 
imique and experimental techniques, procedures, 
images, presentations, and textural applications. 
Series of paintings is developed. Alternative 



concepts and methodology are discussed. 
Students are referred to works by artists who 
have related aesthetic interests. Prerequisites: VAS 
141, 251, or permission of instructor. 
Mr Agard 

255 Introductory Printmaking Creative process 
as conditioned and disciplined by intaglio 
techniques. Discussion of past and contemporary 
methods, and the study of original prints. 
Prerequisites: YAS 141 or permission of instructor. 
Mr Paulson 

256 Printmaking Introductory course in 
experimental work, with a primary concentration 
on lithography, seriography, and cameo 
techniques. Preiequisite:yAS 141. Recommended 
course: VAS 145. 

Mr Paulson 

261 Introductory Sculpture Introduction to 
fundamentals ol three-dimensional forms and 
modes of expression involving creative 
problems in the organization of space, ma.ss, 
\oliune, line, and color. Correlated lectures and 
demonstiations are u.sed to acquaint students 
with those aspects of sculptural history and 
theory relevant to studio projects. Coiuse is 
intended for both general students, and art 
majors. Prerequisite: MAS 146 or permission of 
instructor. Recommended course: VAS 335. 
Mr Paulson 

262 Sculpture Program of studio projects 
(arranged by instructor and student) concerned 
with developing an individual approach to 
three-dimensional form, with concentration in 
directly fabricating techniques invohang a series 
of experiments in spatial organization. 
Prerequisites: VAS 146 or permission of instructor, 
and VAS 261. 

Mr Paulson 

263 Ceramics Introduction to earth (clay), the 
most basic of materials as a mediiun for personal 
three-dimensional expression. Material is 
approached in an intellectiuil and poetic sculptural 
application rather than a utilitarian one. 

Ms. Ito 

265 Photography Introductory course with a 
concentration on camera usage, design theory, 
and darkroom techniques in the black-and- 
white creative process. Additional emphasis on 
origins, evolution, and relationship of the 
photographic image to contemporary materials 
and methods. Prerequisite: YAS 141, 145, or 
permission of instructor. 
Mr Blair 



267 Special Topics in Studio Focus on materials, 
techniques, and compositional parameters not 
systematically covered in the regular curriculum. 
Topics are chosen by individual studio facult)- 
members, are variable, and may include cast 
metal sculpture, welded sculpture, calligraphy, 
computer graphics, color photography, 
figurative drawing, watercolour painting, 
assemblages, installations and earthworks. Not 
offered every year. 
Staff 

34 1 Advanced Drawing Emphasis on individual 
concepts as developed in a series of interrelated 
drawing problems, materials, and techniques. 
Prerequisites: WAS 141 or permission of instructor, 
and VAS 142. Offered spring semester only. 
Mr Agard 

351 Advanced Painting Emphasis on advanced 
painting concepts and the development of 
individual student concerns in a series. Prerequisites: 
VAS 141 or permissioti of instructor, and VAS 
251, 252, VAH 322. Offered odd years only. 
Mr. Agard 

355 Advanced Printmaking Experimental 
printmaking concentrating on personal 
development of one method and exploration. 
Prerequisites: VAS 141 or permission of instructor, 
and VAS 255, 256. 
Mr Paulson 

361 Advanced Sculpture Exploration of 
indi\ idiial three-dimensional concerns, with 
concentration in one media and technique. 
Prerequisites: VAS 146 or permission of instructor, 
and VAS 261, 262. 
Mr Paulson 

401 Senior Portfolio Creation of a cohesive, 
individualized body of work for inclusion in the 
Senior Show, accompanied by portfolio 
presentation and facult}' review. Emphasis is 
placed on extending unique student interests 
and strengths in an exploration of media, 
imagery, and technique, which result in mature, 
high quality aesthetic conclusions. Students 
participate in all aspects of offering the public a 
provocative, thoughtful series of well-crafted 
work that is displayed professionally. 
Staff 

Individualized Study 

Provides an opportunity' for the well-qualified 
student to execute supervised projects in the 
area of his or her special interest, whether 
studio or history. 
Staff 



WOMEN'S STUDIES 



Charlotte Armster and Temma Berg, Coordinators 
Professor Richardson Vili 
Distinguished Visiting Professor Aftab 
Associate Professors Gill, Potuchek, and Powers 

Overviev^ 

Women's studies is an interdisciplinary academic 
program which draws on feminist theory and the 
new scholarship on women to examine and 
analyze the roles, perspectives, and contributions 
of women. Through the consideration of 
women's past history, present conditions, and 
future possibilides, students come to understand 
gender as a cultural experience. The women's 
studies ciuriculimi emphasizes critical thinking, 
multiple perspectives, and the diversitv' of 
women's experiences. In women's studies 
courses, students learn a number of methods for 
examining and stiategies for modifying the 
conditions that affect all of our lives. 

Women's studies stresses cross-cultural 
perspectives and analysis. Through an array 
of interdisciplinary courses and disciplinary 
courses that focus on gender within particular 
disciplines, women's studies integrates women 
and feminist scholarship into all levels of the 
curriculum. 

Women's studies is governed by the Women's 
Studies Program Advisory Council. The 
members of this advisory council are drawn 
from faculty, administrators, staff, and students. 
Twenty-four faculty from sixteen departments 
and programs teach the core, cross-listed, and 
affiliated courses. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Major Requirements: Ten courses are required for 
the major in women's studies, and all majors are 
required to take the following courses: 

WS 120: Introduction to Women's Studies 

WS 300: Feminist Theories 

WS 320: Pracficum in Feminist Theory and 
Collective Action 

WS 400: Senior Seminar 

In addition, students must take at least one core 
or cross-listed course above the 100 level that 
focuses in depth on the diversity of women's 
experiences or on the ways that gender 
intersects with other forms of inequality. Of the 
remaining five courses, at least one must be a 
core or cross-listed coinse in the social sciences 
and at least one must be a core or cross-listed 
course in the arts or humanides. No more than 



two affiliated courses may be counted toward the 
requirements for the major. 

Students choosing a major in women's studies 
must combine it with a minor (or a second 
major) in an arts, humanities, science, or social 
science discipline. 

Minor Requirements: Six courses are required. 
Minors are required to take Women's Studies 
120, Women's Studies .SOO, and Women's 
Studies 400. One additional course must be 
from the list of core or cross-listed courses. The 
remaining two courses may be drawn from any 
of the following: (1) core courses, (2) cross- 
listed courses, (3) affiliated courses, and (4) 
approved courses of individualized study in 
Women's Studies. 

Liberal Arts Core Requirements 

Women Studies 216, 217, 219, 220, 221, and 251 
satisfy the Liberal Arts Core requirement in 
humanities. Women's Studies 222 and 226 
satisfy the Liberal Arts Core requirement in 
social science. Women Studies 219 and 226 
satisfy the non-Western requirement. 

CORE COURSES 

120 Introduction to Women's Studies Study of 
perspectives, findings, and methodologies of 
new scholarship on women in various disciplines. 
Course introduces issues in feminist theory and 
examines the diversit)' of women's experiences, 
suuctural positions in societies, and collective 
efforts for change. Taught b\' an interdisciplinary 
team of instructors. 
Staff 

210 Special Topics in Women's Studies Study of a 
topic not normally covered in depth in the 
regular curriculum of the Women's Studies 
program. Offered irregularly. 

'*>■'«// 

2 1 6 images of Women in Literature Examination 
of various ways women have been imagined in 
literature. Course looks at how and why images 
of women and men and of their relationships to 
one another change, and at how these images 
affect us. Emphasis is on developing the critical 
power to imagine ourselves differently. Cross- 
listed with Eng 216. 

Ms. Berg 

217 Famous French Femmes Fatales Women 
today are attempting to demystify the feminine 
condition, for, as the late Simone de Beauvoir 



observed, the "mythe de la femme" is a male 
invention. Literary images of women have been 
a major focus of this investigation, and this 
course examines some famous French women, 
from the Princess of Cle\'es to Emma Bovary, 
and scrutinizes them from the perspective of 
feminist criticism. 
Ms. Richardson Viti 

1 1 9 Contemporary Women Writers: Cross- 
Cuitural Perspectives Examination of novels 
and short stories by women authors from diverse 
socio-cultural backgrounds in the U.S. and the 
de\eIoping world. Particular attention is given 
to ways in which these writers represent 
universal aspects of women's experience. Course 
examines works written from 1970 to present. 
Ms. Powers 

220 The Pleasures of Looking: Women in Film 

Comsc explores various images of women as 
constructed for the male and female spectator 
in both dominant and independent film. 
Traditional ways in which women have been 
represented in film are examined critically 
through the use of feminist theories. Course 
aims to examine how various feminist 
filmmakers challenge the traditional uses of the 
female voice in their own films. Films from 
other cultiues than the U.S. are included. 
Ms. Artmter 

11 1 Bridging the Borders: Latina and Latin 
American Women's Literature Study of selected 
works in English b) Latin American women and 
Ladna women from the U.S. Course explores 
both connective links and dividing lines of 
women's lives in the context of a common 
cultural heritage that has evolved into multiple 
variants as a result of geographical, historical, 
economic, ethnic, and racial factors. 
Staff 

111 Women's Movements in the United States 

Study of women's activism and social movements 
organized primarily by women. Through the 
study of a broad range of women's activism, the 
course places the development of U.S. feminism 
in its larger socio-historical context. 
Staff 

lib Feminism in Global Perspective Study of 
women's activism to improve their lives around 
the world. Course analyzes similarities and 
differences in the issues women actixdsts address 
in different parts of the world, the theories they 



develop to analyze those issues, and the forms 
their activism takes. Course also considers the 
possibilities for a global women's movement 
and provides theoretical tools for analyzing 
modern feminisms in their global context. 
Staff 

25 1 Women and Nazism Examination of the 
effects of Nazism on women, primarily (but 
not exclusively) in Germany beginning in the 
1920s and extending to postwar times. Course 
focuses on women's perspectives as exhibited 
in historical and literary documentation. 
Offered every other year. 
Ms. Armster 

300 Feminist Theories Exploration of various 
feminist theories about women — about their 
experiences, their representations, and their 
relative positions in diverse societies. 
Contemporary and earlier works are discussed 
in order to evaluate and synthesize multiple 
approaches to feminist issues. Prerequisite: 
Women's Studies 120. 
Stajf 

320 Practicum in Feminist Theory and 
Collective Action Examination of the 
relationship between feminist theory and 
collective action to improve societal conditions 
for women. Course combines seminar 
meetings with student internships in 
communit)' organizations. Readings from 
feminist theory of organizations, collective 
action, and social policy are used as a basis for 
analysis of students' internship experiences. 
Prerequisites: "V^omen^ Studies 120 and one 
other core or cross-listed women's studies 
course, or permission of instructor Offered 
every third semester. 
Staff 

400 Senior Seminar Examination of a topic 
from a variet) of in-depth perspectives. 
Selected topic is broad enough to allow 
students to engage in projects of their own 
devising. Course serves as a bridge between 
the imdergraduate experience and the world 
beyond Gettysburg College as students learn 
to put their feminism into action. Prerequisites: 
Women's Studies 120, 300, and one additional 
core or cross-listed women's studies course. 
Staff 



Cross-Listed Courses 

(See appropriate departmental listings for 
descriptions of the following courses.) 

Anthropology 228 Cross-Cultural Perspectives on 

Women, Sex Roles, and Gender 
CWES 347 Women in Public: Gender and 

Cultiual Transformation in the United States, 

1840-1900 
Economics 252 Gender Issues in Economics 
English 334 Nineteenth-Century English 

Women Writers 
English 349 C'ontemporary African American 

Women Writers 
FYS 125 Witches of Salem 
FYS 172 From Madame Marie Curie to Agent 

Dana Scully: The Role of Gender in Science 

and Technology' 
FYS 196 "You've Come a Long Wav, Baby": 

Milestones in the Lives of .American Women 

over the Past Centur)' 
History 209 Women's History Since 1500 
History 245 Gender and the American Civil War 
History 308 Women, Power, and Politics in Early 

Modern Eiuope 
LAS 22 1 Undressing Frontiers: Transitions and 

Desires in Latin .\merican Literature 
Music 108 Women and Music 
Political Science 382 Feminist Theory in 

American Politics 
Political Science 412 Women and the Political 

Economy of Development 
Sociology 217 Gender Inequality 
VAH 400 Seminar in Art History: Women in Art 

Affiliated Courses 
Classics 1 2 1 Survey of Greek Civilization 
Classics 264 Ancient Tragedy 
Classics 266 Ancient Comedy 
English 333 Victorian Aesthetics 
English 343 .Vmerican Realism and Naturalism 
FYS 193 BeautA, Body Image, and Identity in 

Cross-Ckiltuial Perspective 
Japanese 225 Japanese Women 
Political Science 406 Politics of Povert)' 
Sociology 206 Sociology' of Family 
Sociology 240 Gays, Lesbian, and Societ\' 
Spanish 351 Lyric Poetry 
VAH 227 Arts of the First Nations of North 

.\merica: East and Plains 
VAH 228 Arts of the First Nations of North 

.\merica: North and West 



1^ 



Annual Prizes and Awards 



k 



Gettysburg College has a long tradition of recognizing students for outstanding scholarship 
and achievement. These aivards, made possible by the geneious gifts of alumni and friends, 
are presented at a Fall Honors Program in October or a Spring Honors Convocation in May. 
Grades earned in required courses in exercise sciences are not considered in computations for prizes 
or awards. Transfer students are eligible for prizes and awards. 



ENDOWED ANNUAL PRIZES AND AWARDS 

Betl^ M. Barnes Memorial Award in Biology: 
Established by Dr. & Mrs. Rodger W. Baier, to be 
awarded to a female senior with high academic 
abilit)' preparing for a career in biolog)' or 
medicine. 

Baum Mathematical Prize: Created by Dr. Charles 
Baum (1874), to be given to the student showing 
the greatest proficiency in mathematics through 
his or her sophomore year. 

fohn Edgar Baublitz Pi Lambda Sigma Aiuards: 
Created by John Eberhardt Baublitz in honor 
of his father, John Edgar Baublitz '29, who was 
the first president of the Gamma Chapter of Pi 
Lambda Sigma. Awarded to a senior major in 
economics, a senior major in management, and 
a senior major in political science. 

Anna Marie Budde Aiuard: Established by .\nna 
Marie Budde, instructor and assistant professor 
of voice, 1953-1972, to be given to the 
outstanding sophomore voice student. 

Romeo M. Capozzi Athletic Training Room Azoard: 
Created by Rose Ann Capozzi in memory of her 
late husband, Romeo M. Capozzi, to be given to 
the student who has demonstrated the greatest 
degree of proficiency in athletic training room 
techniques. 

Oscar W. CarLson Memorial Award: Created by the 
family of Oscar W. Carlson '21, to be given to a 
senior who demonstrates excellent academic 
achievement through his or her junior year in 
three or more courses in the Department of 
Religion, including two courses above the 100-level. 

John M. Colestock Student Leadership Award: 
Created by family and friends, to be given to the 
male senior whose optimism, enthusiasm, and 
strength of character have provided exceptional 
leadership in student affairs. 

Malcolm R. Dougherty Mathematiccd Axuard: 
Established by the Columbian Cutlery Company, 
Reading, Pennsylvania, in memory of Malcolm 
R. Doughert)' '42, to be awarded to the student 



who had the highest average in mathematics 
during his or her first year of college and who is 
working to earn part of his or her college expenses. 

Margaret E. Fisher Memorial Scholarship Award: 
Created by Dr. Nelson F. Fisher '18 in memory 
of his mother, to be awarded to a male student 
who excels in one or more major sports and 
who achieves the highest academic average 
among winners of varsity letters. 

Lena S. Fortenbaugh Memorial Prize in Geiman: 
Established by the children of Lena S. Fortenbaugh 
and Robert Fortenbaugh '13, professor of history 
at the College from 1923-1959. Awarded to a senior 
with outstanding achievement in the study of 
German language and cultiue. 

Holly Gabriel Memorial Award: Established by 
friends and classmates of Holly Gabriel '78, to 
be awarded to a senior sociology' major who 
demonstrates superior academic achievement, 
concern for the welfare of others, and the intent 
to continue this service beyond graduation. 

Samuel Garver Greek Prize: Created by the Rev. 
Austin S. Garver (1869) in memory of his father, 
to be awarded to the student who has made the 
greatest progress in Greek dining the first year 
of college. 

Samuel Garver Latin Prize: Created by the Rev. 
Ausdn S. Garver (1869) in memory of his father, 
to be awarded to the student who has made the 
greatest progress in Latin during the first year 
of college. 

Graeff English Prize: Established in 1866, to be 
awarded to a senior who demonstrates outstanding 
achievement in English. 

David H. Greenlaw Memoricd Prize: Created by Mr. 
and Mrs. Ralph W. Greenlaw in memory of their 
son, Da\id H. Greenlaw '66, to be awarded to 
the student who has offered excepdonal 
contributions to the College's theatre program. 

Edioin T. Greninger Award in History: Established 
by Edwin T. Greninger '41, to be awarded on the 
ba-sis of tlie qualitv' of a student's paper written for 
any of the courses in the Department of History. 



John Alfivd Hamm/' Awards: Tv/o awards, established 
by John Alfred Hamme '18, to be given to the 
two juniors who have demonstrated in the 
highest degree the qualities of loyalty, kindness, 
coiutesy, true democracy, and leadership. 

Dr. Carl Arnold Hanson, President Emmtus, 
Leadership Aimrd: Created b)' his wife, .\nne Keet 
Hanson, friends and alumni, in honor of Dr. 
Carl .-Vrnold Hanson, President of Gettysburg 
College from 1961-1977. Awarded to a student 
who has achieved at least a 3.0 average in his or 
her major through the middle of thejimior year 
and has demonstrated significant leadership 
abilities in one or more areas of college life. 

Henry W. A. Hanson Scholarship Foundation Award: 
Created by College alumni in honor of Henry • 
W. A. Hanson and in recognition of his leadership 
of and distinguished ser\ice to Getrvsbiug 
College and to the cause of education in the 
Lutheran Church and the nation. Awarded to a 
.senior who plans to enter graduate school in 
preparation for college teaching. 

Harry C. and Catherine Noffsinger Harlzell Award: 
Created by James Hamilton Hartzell '24 in 
memory of his parents, to be awarded to the 
outstanding jtmior student in the Department 
of Sociology and Anthropology. 

James Boyd Hartzell Memorial Award: Established 
by James Hamilton Hartzell '24 and his wife, 
Lucretia Ir\ine Boyd Hartzell, to be awarded to 
a jimior student majoring in economics or in 
management for outstanding scholarship and 
promise in these fields. 

James Hamilton and Lucretia Irvine Boyd Hartzell 
Award: Created by James Hamilton Hartzell '24 
and his wife, to be awarded to a sophomore 
student for outstanding scholarship and promise 
in the field of history. 

Mildred H. Hartzell Prize: Created by Mildred H. 
Hartzell '26, to be awarded to a student who 
shows high quality in more than scholarship; 
preference is given to a member of Alpha Phi 
Omega, the national service fraternity, or other 
organizations that may reflect similar quality 
and ideals. 

Hassler Latin Prize: Established by C^harles W. 
Hassler, to be awarded to the best Latin student 
in the junior class. 



John A. Hatiser Meritorious Prize in Business: 
Created by the family of John A. Hauser, to 
be awarded to an oiustanding management 
major who has achieved excellence in both 
academic studies and campus leadership, while 
demonstrating good character and concern 
for high moral standards. 

Grace C. Kenney Award: Created to honor Grace 
C. Kenney, an educator for 39 years at Gettysburg 
College, to be given to a junior or senior. First 
preference is given to a student who has 
participated in health and exercise sciences 
studies, intramiual and athletic programs, and 
has demonstrated the highest academic 
accomplishments and leadership skills. 

Rev. George N. Lauffer ( 1 899) and M. Naomi 
Lauffe)' (1898) Scholarship Award: Given each year 
to a jimior who has maintained high scholarship 
and who evidences outstanding ability and 
character. It is understood that the recipient will 
complete the senior year at Gettysburg College. 

/. Andrew Marsh Memorial Awards: Awarded each 
year to the sophomore and junior students of 
Gettysburg College who best exemplify the 
"whole person" concept through positive 
attitude, exceptional spirit, high standards, and 
notable achievement, both curricular and 
extracurricular. 

Miller First Year Student Prize in Physics: Created 
by alumni and friends in memory of George R. 
Miller '19, to be awarded to a sophomore for 
outstanding performance in physics as a first- 
year student. 

Miller Senior Prize in Physics: Created by alumni 
and friends in memory of George R. Miller '19, 
to be awarded to a senior for sustained 
outstanding performance in physics. 

Franklin Moore Award: Established by friends 
of Mr. Moore, to be given to the senior who, 
during his or her imdergraduate years, has 
shown the highest degree of good citizenship 
and, by character, industry, enterprise, initiative, 
and activities, has contributed the most toward 
campus morale and the prestige of the College. 

Samuel A. Mudd Psychology Aiuard: Established by 
Paul M. Muchinsky '69 in honor of Samuel A. 
Mudd '57, professor of psycholog}', emeritus. 
Award is presented to a graduating senior 
psycholog}^ major who has demonstrated a high 
level of personal integrity and outstanding 
scholarship. 



Muhlenberg First Year Student Prize: Created by Dr. 
Frederick A. Muhlenberg (1836), to be awarded 
to the first-year student taking Greek or Latin 
wlu) attains the highest general quality point 
average. 

Muhlenberg Goodiuill Prize: Awarded to a male 
senior "for growth during formative years at 
Gettysburg College in awareness of personal 
responsibility for the welfare of all peoples; for a 
degree of achievement in same during College 
years and in the hope of future accomplishment 
for betterment of Communit)', State and 
Nation." 

William F. Mnhlenheig Award: Awarded to two 
juniors on the basis of character, scholarship, 
and proficiency in campus activities. 

J. Rogers Musselman Aivard: Established by Peter 
R. Musselman in memory of his father, J. Rogers 
Musselman, to be awarded to a student 
majoring in mathematics who is proficient in 
the study of mathematics during his or her third 
year of enrollment. 

Nicholas Bible Prize: Created by the Rev. Dr. J.C. 
Nicholas (1894), to be awarded to the senior 
who has done the best work in advanced courses 
in religion. 

Clair B. and Mary E. Noerr Memorial Award: 
Established by Constance (Noerr) Baker '58 
in memory of her father and mother, to be 
awarded to a female senior on the basis of 
proficiency in adiletics, scholarship, and ch;uacter. 

Drjohn W. Ostrom Composition Awards: 
Established by Dr. John W. Ostrom '26, to be 
awarded to the student who achieves excellence 
and demonstrates the greatest improvement in 
first-year composition (English 101) and to the 
student who achieves excellence and demonstrates 
the greatest improvement in advanced 
composition (English 201). 

Dr. John W. Ostrom English Award: Created by 
Dr. John W. Ostrom '26, to be awarded to the 
student who has written the best expository 
essay for an upper level English course. 

Vivian Wickey Otto Christinn Service Award: 
Created by Vivian Wickey Otto '46 through the 
Woman's General League of Gettysbiug 
College, to be given to a student at the end of 
his or her junior year who plans to enter full- 
time Christian service work. 



Keith Pappas Memorial Award: Given as a 
memorial to Keith Pappas '74, an honors graduate 
who made an extraordinary contribution to the 
life of this College and its people. Awarded to a 
current student who most significantly affects 
the College commimity through the quality of 
his or her participation in its functions and 
whose divergent contribiuions give form to what 
is called Gettysburg College. 

Jeffrey Pierce Memorial Award: Established in 
honor of Jeffrey Pierce '71, to be awarded to a 
male senior who has reached the highest level of 
achievement in the field of history. 

Martha Ellen Sachs Prize: Created by John E. Haas 
in memory of his aunt, a lectiner at the College, 
to be awarded to a student exhibiting excellence 
in English composition, with consideration 
given to improvement made during the year. 

Captain Michael D. Scotton (1982) Award: 
Established by David R. and Sally R. Scotton, 
parents of Michael D. Scotton, to be awarded 
to a junior who demonstrates a high degree of 
extracurricular activity and diligence to his or 
her academic work. 

Senior Scholarship Prize: Established by the Class 
of 1996 and Mr. Robert Stockberger '33, to be 
presented annually to two rising seniors who 
best exemplify Gettysburg College through 
academics and service to the campus 
community. The Senior Scholarship Prize Fund 
is augmented with future senior class gifts. 

Stine Chemistry Prize: Created by Dr. Charles M. 
A. Sane '01, to be awarded to a senior chemistry 
major on the basis of grades in chemistry, 
laboratory technique, personalit)', general 
improvement in four years, and proficiency in 
chemistry at the time of selection. 

Earl Kresge Stock Writing Prizes: Established by 
Earl Kiesge Stock '19, to be awarded to the 
three students who write the classroom papers 
judged best in the areas of the humanities, the 
sciences, and the social sciences. 

Samuel P. Weaver Scholarship Foundation Prizes: 
Established by Samuel P. Weaver '04, to be 
awarded to the two students writing the best 
essays on an a.ssigned topic in the field of 
constitutional law and government. 

EarlE. Ziegler Junior Mathematics Aivard: (treated 
by Phi Delta Thela alumni, to be given in honor 
of Earl E. Ziegler, associate professor of 
mathematics at Gettysbiug College from 193.5- 



UXiH. Awarded to die mathematics major wlio 
lias the highest average in mathematics through 
die junior year. 

Earl E. Ziegler Senior Mathematics Award: Created 
by Earl E. Ziegler, associate professor of 
mathematics at Gett)'sburg College from 1935- 
1968, to be awarded to the mathematics major 
who has achieved the highest average in 
mathematics through the senior year. 

Edxuin and Leander M. Zimmerman Senior Prize: 
Awarded to the senior whose character, 
influence on students, and scholarship have 
contributed most to the welfare of the College. 

John B. Zinn Chemistry Research Award: Created 
by Frances and John Zinn in honor of John B. 
Zinn '09, who was professor of chemistry at the • 
College from 1924-1959. Awarded to the senior 
making the greatest contributions in his or her 
own research in chemistry and to the research 
activities of the Department of Chemistry. 

UNENDOWED ANNUAL PRIZES AND AWARDS 

Award for Excellence in Theory and Practice in 
Women 's Studies: Given to a senior in recognition 
of outstanding achievement in the study of 
feminist theory and in social service on behalf 
of women and children. 

Charles W. Beachem Athletic Award: Created in 
memory of Charles W. Beachem '25, the first 
alumni secretary of the College, to be awarded 
to a male senior on the basis of character, 
scholarship, and athletic achievement. 

C. E. and Mary G. Bilheimer Award: Given to the 
senior major in health and exercise sciences 
with the highest academic average. 

Esther Brandt Chemistry or Biology Award: Created 
by Mr. and Mrs. Walter Brandt and Ms. Loel 
Rosenberry in honor of Esther Brandt, to be 
given to a junior or senior who has demonstrated 
academic excellence through the highest grade 
point average in the declared major of 
chemistry or biology. 

Archie and Flo Butler English Award: Created by 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Brandt and Ms. Loel 
Rosenberry in honor of Archie and Flo Buder, 
to be given to a junior or senior with a declared 
English major who has demonstrated academic 
excellence through the highest grade point 
average in English. 



Miguel Cervantes Axuard in Spanish: Presented to a 
jmiior Spanish major or minor for academic 
excellence in Spanish and outstanding 
involvement in Hispanic activities. 

Annajulia Cooper, Cheikh Anta-Diof), W.E.B. 
DuBois Award for Academic Excellence in African 
American Studies: A major African American 
Studies book (signed by the author), a commem- 
orative plaque, and an explicatory document 
are awarded to the best African American 
Studies minor. Award is based on a combination 
of significant scholarship, at least a 3.1 average 
in African American Studies, and service to the 
college commiuiity and the larger community. 

Chan L. Coulter Philosophy Aioard: Established 
by the Department of Philosophy in honor of 
Chan L. Coulter, Professor of Philosophy from 
1958-1995, to be presented to a student whose 
achievements in philosophy display excellence 
and creativity and exemplify the spirit of inquiry 
so essential to the examined life. 

Sorjuana ines de la Cruz Axuards in Spanish: 
Presented to two senior Spanish majors for 
academic excellence in Spanish and 
outstanding involvement in Hispanic activities. 

Robert E. Curtis Axuard: Established by Margaret 
Curtis '52, George WTiite, and the members of 
the Education Department, in honor of Robert 
E. Curtis, who served as a faculty member in the 
Department of Education from 1987-2000, to 
be presented to two qualified, worthy, and 
promising students, one in elementary and one 
in secondary education, who have distinguished 
themselves in student teaching. 

Delta Phi Alpha Prize: Awarded to the oiustanding 
student for the year in the Department of 
German. 

Anthony di Palma Memorial Award: Established by 
the family of Anthony di Palma '56, to be 
awarded to the junior having the highest marks 
in history. Other things being equal, preference 
is given to a member of Sigma Chi fraternity. 

Dwight D. Eisenhoxver Society /R. M. Hoffman Family 
Memorial Prize in Economics: Created by the R. M. 
Hoffman Family Memorial Trust through the 
Dwight D. Eisenhower Society in memory of 
Gettysburg businessman R. M. Hoffman. Awarded 
to the student writing the best quantitative 
paper or project (v\ith public policy implications) 
in economics. 



Dwighl D. Eisenhower Society /R. M. Hoffman Family 
Memorial Prize in Manugemenl: Created by the 
R. M. Hoffman Family Memorial Trust through 
the Dwight D. Eisenhower Societ)' in memory of 
Gettysburg businessman R. M. Hoffman. Awarded 
to an outstanding senior in the management 
department. 

Julius Eno Physics Prize: Created by Julius Eno Jr., 
to be awarded to the outstanding junior majoring 
in physics. 

French Cultural Counselor's Azvard: Established by 
the cultural counselor of the French Embassy, 
to be awarded to a senior for outstanding 
achievement in French. 

Gettysburg College Award in Athletics: Awarded to a 
female student who excels in one or more major 
sports and who achieves the highest academic 
average among wnners of varsity letters. 

Gettysburg College Aiuard in History: Awarded to 
the female senior who has reached a high level 
of achievement in the field of history. 

Gettysburg College Senior Prize: Awarded to a 
female senior who exemplifies commitment to 
community and concern for the welfare of 
others during the student's years at Gettysburg 
College and who shows promise of future 
accomplishment in support of commimity, state, 
and nation. 

Gettysburg College Student Leadership Award: 
Awarded to a female senior whose enthusiasm, 
energy, and contribiUions in student affairs 
demonstrated outstanding leadership. 

Maria Leonard Senior Book Award: Created by the 
Gettysburg Chapter of Alpha Lambda Delta, the 
national academic honorary society for first-year 
students. Awarded to the graduating Alpha 
Lambda Delta member who has the highest 
grade point average through the first semester 
of the senior year. 

Karl J. Mattson Service Award: Established by the 
Center for Public Service in honor of Karl J. 
Mattson, Director of the Center for Public 
Service from 1992-2001 and Chaplain of the 
College from 1977-1992, to be presented 
to a graduating senior who demonstrates 
compassion and a commitment to social justice 
by making significant contributions to the 
College and the larger communit)' through 
service and advocacy. 



Toni Mo7'ri son— Wale Soyinka African American 
Studies Essay Award: A monetary gift, a major 
African American Studies book (signed by the 
aiuhor), a commemorative plaque, and an 
explicatory document are awarded for the best 
essay written in an African American Studies 
class during the preceding year by a junior, 
sophomore, or first-year student. 

Pi Sigma Alpha Award: Established by the Nu 
Psi Chapter of Pi Sigma Alpha, the national 
political science honorary society, to be 
presented to the outstanding graduating senior 
in political science. 

Psi Chi Junior Aiuard: AmavAgA to a senior 
psychology major who has displayed outstanding 
potential and initiative throughout his or her 
jimior year. 

Emile O. Schmidt Aiuard: Established by students, 
friends, audience members, and colleagues of 
Emile Schmidt, Professor of English and 
Theatre at Gettvsburg College from 1962-1999. 
Award is presented each year to a theatre 
student for scholarly excellence and distinguished 
service to the Gettysbiug College theatre 
program, as well as professional promise. 

Sigma Alpha Iota College Honor Award: Created 
by Sigma .\lpha lota, an international music 
fraternit)', to be awarded to a student in the 
local chapter who has exemplified the highest 
musical, scholastic, and ethical standards, 
whatever the class standing. 

Sigma Alpha Iota Scholastic Award: Awarded to 
the graduating senior who holds the highest 
academic average among music majors. 

Dr. George W. Stoner Award: Awarded to a worthy 
male senior accepted by a recognized medical 
college. 

Student Life Council Award: Awarded to a student 
in recognition of the quiet influence he or she 
has exerted for the improvement of the campus 
commimity. 

Supeiior Scholarship in Computer Science: Awarded 
to an outstanding computer science major at 
the discretion of the facult). 

Wall Street Journal Student Achievement Award: 
Awarded to a senior in the Department of 
Economics who has shown outstanding academic 
achievement in the study of finance and 
economics. 



Wonwn's Studies Service Axmrd: An award for 
excellence in Women's Studies, given to a senior 
for outstanding service exemplifying feminist 
ideals. 

Marion Ziilauf Poetry Prize: Established at The 
Academy of American Poets by Sander Zulauf '68 
in memory of his mother, to be awarded to the 
student who writes the winning entry in a poetry 
contest sponsored by the Department of English. 

ENDOWED SCHOLARSHIPS (GRANTS-IN-AID) 

Student Aid 

All students who apply for financial assistance 
and are determined to have financial need will 
be considered for these scholarships (grants-in- 
aid). Recipients are selected by the College. 

Though the College administers scholarships 
restricted to members of a particular sex, the 
discriminating effect of these awards has been 
eliminated in the overall administration of the 
financial aid program through use of other 
fluids made available by the College. 

George H. (1949) and Janet L. Allamong Scholarship 
Fund: Established by George H. Allamong and 
Janet L. Allamong, to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students. 

Frederic S. Almy, Sr. Scholarship Fund: Created by 
the son of Mr Almy, in memory of "a man who 
did not have the opportunit)' to attend college," 
to be awarded to a deserving and financially 
needy student. 

Ruth C. Apple Scholarship Fund: Eslahlished by 
members of the Apple family of Sunbury, 
Pennsylvania, to honor their mother. To be 
awarded to promising biu needy students, with a 
preference to those from Snyder, Union, or 
Northumberland Coundes in Pennsylvania, 
especially those with skills and aspiraUons in the 
performing arts. 

Nelson P. Aiigo '43 Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Henrietta Arigo in memory of her husband. 
Nelson P. Aiigo. 

Dean B. Armold, Class of 1929 Endoiued Scholarship: 
Awarded to one or more worthv and promising 
students in need of scholarship funds. 



Dean B. Armold Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Dean B. Armold "29, to be awarded to a highly 
qualified scholar involved in extracurricular 
activities, with emphasis on academic excellence. 

Richard A. Arms Scholarship Fund: Created by the 
Class of 1924 in memory of the chair of the 
mathematics department (1920-1963), to be 
awarded to a worthy student. 

Gertrude and Albert Bachman and Albert E. 
Bachman '58 Endoiued Scholarship: Awarded to 
one or more worthy and promising students, 
with preference given to students majoring in 
French, music (B.A.) or psychology. 

Dk Joseph B. Baker (1901) and Rma L. Baker 
Scholarship Fund: Established by the Woman's 
General League of Gettysburg College for a needy 
and deserving student in the music department. 

William Balthaser (1925) Scholarship Fund: 
Created from a bequest by William Balthaser, to 
be awarded to needy and promising students. 

The William K. Bane '38 Scholarship: Created by 
Walter A. Dubovick '38 in memory of his friend 
and classmate killed in W^^I. Awarded to a first- 
year student and continued up to four years, if 
the recipient maintains a satisfactory grade 
point average. The scholarship can also be 
awarded to a sophomore, junior or senior. 

Dr. Ray Alfred Barnard (1915) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Dr. Barnard, to be awarded to a 
male student from the Central Pennsylvania 
Synod who is preparing for the Lutheran ministiv . 

Rev. Sydney E. Bateman (1887) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a needy ministerial student. 

The Milton T and Catherine K Becker Family Endowed 
Scholarship Fund: EsVdhlhhed in appreciation of 
the education of their son, Donald T. Becker 
'67, and grandchildren, Richard T. Becker '97 
and Jasmin Becker '9L to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students in need of 
scholarship funds. 

Admiral William W. Behrens, Jr. Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the family of Admiral William W. 
Behrens (Hon'74), to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students entering 
the final year of undergraduate study and 
preparing for a career in public service. 



^^v 



Henry S. Belbn, II Scholfinliip Fund: Awarded to 
a first-year student and may be continued up to 
four years; preference is given to individuals 
who engage in extracurricular activities. 

Belt Hess-Quay Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Effie E. Hess Belt (1898) in commemoration of 
several relatives. First preference is given to a 
member of Grace Lutheran Church, Westminster, 
Maryland; second preference to any other 
resident of Carroll County, Maryland who is 
pursuing theological studies at the College; and 
third preference is given to any deserving student. 

Helen A. Giles and James B. Bender Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded on the basis of need and ability; 
preference is given to residents of Adams 
Count), Pennsylvania, majoring in economics 
and/or management. 

Jesse E. Benner (1907) and Minerva B. Benner 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to worthy students, 
preferably preministerial students. 

Burton F Blough Scholarship Fit nd: Established by 
a former trustee to aid needy and deserving 
students. 

Jean Aument Bonebrake Presidential Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Roy Bonebrake (1928) in 
memory of his wife, to be a\varded to promising 
and worthy students in need of scholarship aid; 
preference is given to students who possess 
exceptional academic abilities and outstanding 
promise. 

Harry F. Borleis (1925) Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to needy and deserving students. 

Charles E. Bowman (1925) Scholarship Trust Fund: 
Awarded to need)' and deserving students. 

Elsie Paul Boyle (1912) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Elsie Paul Boyle, to be awarded 
to a needy and worthy student, \vith preference 
given to a Lutheran from Weatheriy, located in 
Carbon County, Pennsylvania. 

Henry T. Bream (1924) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by alumni and friends of the College in honor 
of Henry T. Bream, professor of health and 
physical education, 1926-1969, to be awarded to 
a needy and deserving male scholar-athlete. 

James H. (1960) and Mary Jane (1960) Brenneman 
Endoived Scholarship Fund: Established by James 
H. Brenneman, former member of the Board of 
the Trustees of the College, and his wife, Mary 



Jane, in honor of their daughter Kathleen 
(1984), and son Stephen (1987), to be awarded 
annually to needy and deserving students. 

Lavem H. Brenneman (1 936) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Lavern H. Brenneman (1936), 
former chair of the Board of Trustees of the 
College, and his wife, Miriam, in honor of their 
son, James (1960); daughter-in-law, Mary Jane 
(1960); granddaughter, Kathleen (1984); and 
grandson, Stephen (1987). Awarded annually to 
needy and deserving students. 

Randall Sammis Brush (1 973) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Created by family and friends in memory 
of Randall Sammis Brush, to be awarded to a 
needv and deserving student particularly 
proficient in the study of history. 

Ediuard B. Buller (1923) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by the Lutheran Church of the Good Shepherd, 
Pearl River, New York, and friends in honor of 
the Rev. Edward B. Buller, to be awarded to a 
deserving student; preference is given to a 
student from Good Shepherd congregadon. 

H. Edgar (1 924) and M. Helene Bush Scholarship: 
Awarded to deserving persons in need. 

The William A. and Anne D. Cannell Endowed 
Scholarship: Awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 

Dr. Anthony G. Ciavarelli (1913) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Dr. Anthony G. Ciavarelli, to be 
awarded annually to a student (or students) who 
demonstrates superior character, industry, 
serious academic purpose, and financial need. 
Preference is given to a student preparing for 
the medical profession. 

Class of 1903, George S. Rentz Memorial Fund: 
Created to support the College scholarship 
program. 

Numerous classes have established scholarships to be 
awarded to a needy and deserving student. They are: 

Class of 1913 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1915 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1916 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1917 Schmucker-Breidenbaugh 
Memorial Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1918 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 920 Scholarship Fu nd 



Clas.s of 1921 Scholarship Fluid 

Class of 1 925 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1927 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1933 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to students who, beyond academic and 
personal qualifications, are descendants of 
members of the Class of 1933. 

Class of 1934 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 936 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1937 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to students who intend to enter a field 
of service focused on developing greater 
understanding bet^veen oiu^ nation and other 
parts of the world and majoring in political 
science, economics, or history. 

Class of 1938 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1939 Scholarship Fund: Established in 
honor of past President Dr. Henry W. A. Hanson 
and former Dean Dr. Wilbur E. Tilberg. 

Class of 1 943 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 944 Scholarship Fund: Dedicated to 
classmates who lost their lives in World War II. 

Class of 1 945 Scholarship Fund 

Class of 1 949 Scholarship Fund: Established with 
contributions to the College in celebration of 
their 50th reunion in 1999. 

Class of 1 971 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to students who exemplify the qualities of 
sincere scholarship, extracurricular iiUerests, 
and commitment to community service. 

Class of 1 973 Endowed Scholarship: Awarded 
annually to a male and female on an equal basis 
according to the guidelines established by the 
Board of Trustees. 

Class of 1974 Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more worth\' and promising students. 

Class of 1993 Scholarship Fund: Preference is 
given to a student from the Gettysbiug area. 

Class of 1994 Scholarship Fund: Established as a 
tribute to the life of Paul Leary, a classmate 
killed in the summer of 1993. Awarded to a 
current student who demonstrates financial 
need and self-initiative in meeting that need by 
working, preferably in a work-study program. 



Class of 1995 Scholarship Fmul: Preference is 
given to students participating in service-learning 
projects. 

The Christopher j. Clifford '98 Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mr. and Mrs. Joseph P. Clifford in 
loving memory of Christopher J. Clifford '98. 
Awarded to worthy and promising students, with 
preference to qualified students from 
northeastern Pennsylvania. 

Bill Cosby Scholarship: Established by the Trustees 
of Gettysbiug College to honor Dr. Bill Cosby, 
the 1997 Gettysburg College Commencement 
speaker. Awarded with preference to students 
from the greater Philadelphia area or those with 
a particular interest in becoming teachers. 

Christopher M. Cowan Scholarship Fund: 
Established by David J. Cowan and M. Deborah 
Larsen Cowan in loving memory of Christopher 
M. Cowan. To be awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising students with preference 
to students majoring in environmental studies. 

Ernst M. and Agnes H. Cronlund Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: Established in memory of Ernst 
Magnus and Agnes Hoffsten Cronlund by their 
children Ernest and Shirley, Eleanor, Martin '29 
and Rebecca, Raymond '33 and Lillian. Awarded 
to needy and promising students. 

William C. and Helen H. Darrah Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the Department of Biologv' in 
honor of William C. and Helen H. Darrah, to 
be awarded to a promising student majoring in 
biolog)'. 

Frank L. Daugheity (1922) Scholarship: Established 
by Frank L. Daugherty, to be awarded to a 
deserving York Coimty resident who would 
otherwise be imablc to attend Gett)sbiu-g 
College. Recipient is selected by the College. 

The Kermit H. (1932) and Mary B. Deardorff 
Endowed Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more promising students in need of scholarship 
funds. First preference is given to students from 
Adams County, PA. 

Anita Conner Derry and Thomas James Faulkener 
Memorial Scholarship Fund: Created by Ellis 
Derry '39 and Peggy Derry, to be awarded to 
one or more worthy and promising students. 
First preference is given to the family or 
descendants of Anita Conner Derry or Thomas 
James Faulkener, then to students majoring in 
mathematics, compiUer science, or physical 
sciences. 



^^ 



W. K Diehl (1886) Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Norman E. Diehl in memory of his father, W. K. 
Diehl, D.D., to be awarded to needy and 
deserNing students. 

Daniel G. Ebbert Family Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to a first-year student, and may be continued up 
to four years. 

Chris Ebert (1963) Memorial Fund: Established in 
memory of Chris Ebert by his father and 
mother. Awarded annually to a needy student. 
First preference is given to a student pursuing a 
career in teaching or majoring in mathematics, 
and/or participating in intercollegiate wrestling; 
second preference is given to a student studying 
for the ministry. 

Charles L. "Dutch" Eby (1933) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the family and friends of Charles 
L. Eby, to be awarded to needy students. 
Preference is given to sttidents who, beyond 
academic and personal qualifications, are 
residents of south-central Pennsylvania and have 
demonstrated leadership abilit)' through active 
participation and excellent performance in 
extracurricular activities. 

Ehrhart Famih Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Kenneth W. Ehrhart '46 in memory of his 
father. Rev. Kenneth Ehrhart '25 and in honor 
of those members of the Ehrhart family who 
attended Gett\'sburg College, Rev. Carl Ehrhart 
'47, Rev. Richard Ehrhart '46, Sidney Ehrhart 
'50, and David Ehrhart '62. Awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students. 

Jacob C. Eisenhart and Rosa Bolt Eisenhart Scholarship 
Fund: Established by the J. C. Eisenhart Wall 
Paper Compau)', to be awarded to a deser\ing 
Liuheran preministerial student. 

Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the Eisenhower Society in honor 
of the thirt)-fourth President of the United 
States, a former resident of the commtmit) of 
Gettysburg and a friend and trtistee of the 
College. Awarded to needy students who 
exemplifs' superior qualities of honest)', integrity, 
and leadership. Additional monies have been 
contributed to the fund through the R. M. 
Hoffman Memorial Scholarship Fund. 

Eisenhower Leadership Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to class valedictorians and salutatorians, presidents 
of the student coimcil, and other leaders. 



Robert B. and Helen M. Esterly Scholarship Fund: 
Established from estate of Helen M. Esterly, 
awarded to qualified students with an interest 
in history, especially Ci\al War, or students 
preparing for the ordained ministry. 

Clarence A. Eyler (1880) and Myrtle B. Eyler 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a worthy Liuheran 
preministerial student. 

Ayinie C. Felty Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a 
needy and deserving student. 

Alan S. Fischer (1929) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Marian Fischer Hammer '30 and 
Robert H. Fischer '39 in honor of their brother, 
to be awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students; preference is given to 
mathematics or computer science majors. 

H. Keith Fischer Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising students; 
preference is given to premedical students or to 
social or natural sciences or mathematics majors. 

H. Keith and Dorothy S. Fischer Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a first-year student, and may be 
continued up to four years. Preference is given 
to premedical students or students majoring in 
natural science. 

Wilbur H. Fleck (1902) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a graduate cum laude of the 
Protestant faith of the Wyoming Seminary. 

Fouija\ Foundation Scholarship Fund: Awarded to 
declared management majors or to students 
who express a high degree of interest in 
management or related fields and demonstrate 
academic excellence, leadership, and need. 

Donald D. Freedman, M.D. (1944) and Richard S. 
Freedman, D. V.AI. (1 973) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a junior or senior, with preference 
given to students pursuing the study of 
medicine, denfistry, or veterinary medicine 
and participating in varsity athletics. 

David Garbacz (1964) Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Gerald G. Garbacz and his family, to be awarded 
to students who, beyond academic and personal 
qualifications, pursue a major in economics. 

Dr. Daniel F. Garland (1888) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a deserving ministerial student. 

Richard W. Gaver(1966) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Created by Dr. and Mrs. Leo J. Gaver in 
memory of their son, to be awarded to a worthy 
student. Preference is given to a premedical 
student. 



Getlyshurg College Alumni Association Scholarship 
Fund: Formerly the Gettysburg College Alumni 
Loan Program of 1933. The Gettysburg College 
Aliunni Association Scholarship Fund was 
established in 1984. Awarded annually; 
preference is given to sons or daughters of 
alumni in accordance with criteria established 
by Gettysburg College. 

Lorna Gibb Scholarship Fund: Established by the 
Gibb Foundation in memory of the Foundation's 
foimder, to be awarded to needy students who 
have demonstrated good academic ability, as well 
as a willingness to contribute to the Gettysburg 
College campus community in other ways. 

Millard E. GladfeUer (1925) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Millard E. Gladfelter, to be 
awarded to first-year students and may be 
continued up to four years; preference is given 
to students from York County, Pennsylvania. 

William L. and Philip H. Glatfelter Memorial 
Scholarship: Established by Elizabeth G. 
Rosenmiller, to be awarded to a first-year 
student. May be continued up to four years. 

Dr. and Mrs. James E. Glenn Scholarship Fmid: 
Created by J. Donald Glenn '23 in memory of 
his parents, to be awarded to a worthy student 
preparing for the Christian ministry or the 
medical profession. 

Gordon-Davis Linen Supply Company Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to a deserving student. 

Windom Cook Gramley (1904) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Theresa M. Gramley in memory 
of Windom Cook Gramley, to be awarded to a 
worthy and promising student. 

Grand Army of the Republic Living Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: Created by the Daughters of 
Union Veterans, to be awarded to a needy and 
deserving student, preferably the descendant of 
a Union veteran. 

Dr. H. Leonard Green Scholarship Fund: EtitahWshed 
by the family and friends of Dr. H. Leonard 
Green, to be awarded to worthy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students 
majoring in religion or philosophy. 

Ida E. Grover Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a 
needv and deservina; student. 



Merle B. and Mary M. Hafer Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Merle B. Hafer, to be awarded to 
a deserving student, preferably one preparing 
for the Christian ministry. 

Paid R. Haldeman '67 Endowed Scholarship Ihind: 
Established by Paul R. Haldeman '67, to be 
awarded to worthy and promising students. 
Preference is given to individuals majoring in 
management or economics and who express an 
interest in entrepreneurial studies. 

John Alfred Hamme (1918) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a deserving student. 

Dr. Carl A. Hanson, President Emeritus, Geltyshurg 
College, 1961-1977 Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Anne Keet Hanson, in honor of her hu.sband, 
Dr. Carl A. Hanson. 

Dr C. Arnold Hanson and Anne Keet Hanson 
Scholarship Fund in American History: Established 
by Anne Keet Hanson in honor of Dr. Jean S. 
Holder, Dr. Leonard L Holder, Dr. Gabor S. 
Boritt, and Elizabeth L. Boritt in recognition of 
their devotion and dedication to Gettysburg 
College. Preference shall be given to worthy and 
promising students who have demonsdated a 
scholarly interest and achievement in American 
history and specifically the Civil War. 

Dr. C.A. Hanson and Anne Keet Hanson Endowed 
Scholarship for the Arts: Established by Anne Keet 
Hanson, awarded to worthy and promising 
students, with first preference given to students 
who major in art and/or music or the theatre 
arts. 

Marie H. Harshman Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Marie H. Harshman, to be awarded to a 
Lutheran student preparing for the ministry. 
Preference is given to a student who intends to 
enroll at the Gettysburg Lutheran Seminary. 

Henry M. Hartmanjr. (1 938) and Audrey Harrison 
Hartman (1940) Scholarship Fund: EstabMshed by 
Henry M. Hartmanjr. as a memorial in honor 
of Audrey Harrison Hartman, to be awarded to 
a student majoring in chemistry or biochemistry. 

Hartranft-Dean Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Mary Alice Hartranft-Dean, to be awarded to 
one or more worthy and promising students. 

Adam and Martha Hazlett Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mrs. Adam J. Hazlett, to be awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students. 



P 



Robert W. He^nperly (1947) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Established in memory of Dr. Hemperly 
by Mr. and Mrs. G. M. Easley. Awarded to one 
or more needy students of high academic 
abilit)' and outstanding personal qualifications; 
preference is given to a student preparing for 
a career in medicine or dentistry. 

Herman^Chronister Endowed Family Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Karen Chronister Leader 
'73 in memory of Martha Herman Chronister 
"38, awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 

Milton S. Hershey Scholarship Fund: Established by 
A.John Gabig (1957). Awarded to one or more 
students who are graduates of Milton Hershey 
School or Hershey High School, Hershey, PA, 
who show financial need and demonsuate good 
character and leadership qualities. 

Harvey A. Hesser (1 923) and Dorothy M. Hesser 
Scholarship Fu7id: Awarded to a needy and worthy 
student. 

Hicks Utterback Family Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Harry K. and Phyllis H. Utterback, 
to be awarded to a first-year student and may be 
continued up to four years. 

Rev. Clinton F Hildebrand Jr. (1920) and Mrs. 
Clinton F. Hildebrand Jr. Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to aid worthy preministerial students. 

Edgar L. Hildebrand (1928) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Louis O. Hildebrand as a 
memorial to his son Edgar L. Hildebrand, to 
be awarded to worthy students. 

Pearl Hodgson Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the Woman's League of Gettysburg College in 
honor of Pearl Hodgson, to be awarded 
annually to needy and deserving students. 

Dean W. Hollabaugh Scholarship: Awarded to one 
or more students who merit financial assistance. 

Houtz Family Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Kenneth H. Houtz, to be awarded to a first-year 
student intending to major in the sciences; may 
be continued up to four years. 

Arthur D. Hunger Sr., M.D. (1910) Scholarship 
Funrf.- Established by Aithur D. Hunger Jr. '39 
and Josephine T. Hunger '40 in honor of Arthur 
D. Hunger Sr. Awarded to a junior or senior 
who demonstrates academic excellence and 
leadership and who is studying for a medical, 



dental, veterinary, or biological research 
profession. 

The faeger Family .Scholarship: Established by John 
F.Jaeger '65, to be awarded to one or more 
promising students in need of scholarship 
funds. 

Dr. and Mrs. Leslie M. Kauffnum Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Dr. Leslie M. (1890) and Nellie G. 
Kauffman, to be awarded to a deserving student. 
Preference is given to students from Franklin 
County, Pennsylvania, or preministerial or 
premedical students. 

Spurgeon M. Keen\ and Norman S. Wolf Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Dr. Spurgeon M. Keeny '14 
and his son, Spurgeon M. Keeny Jr., in honor of 
the Reverend Norman S. Wolf. Awarded to one 
or more worthy students. 

Hon. Hiram H. Keller (1901) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Mr. Keller, a former trustee, to be 
awarded to needy and worthy students. 
Preference is given to students from Bucks 
County, Pennsylvania. 

Alvin Ray Kirschner Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Mr. and Mrs. C.J. Kirschner in memory of 
their son, who lost his life in World War L Awarded 
to two students; preference is given to applicants 
from Hazleton, Pennsylvania, and vicinity. 

Kletle Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Dr. Inunanual Klette '39 and friends in honor of 
Mrs. Margaret Klette, to be awarded to a student 
(or students) whose activities evidence an 
innovative accomplishment and potential in the 
promotion of human betterment. 

Kathken M. and Samuel W. Knisely (1947) 
Scholarship Fund: Established by Dr. and Mrs. 
Sanuiel W. Knisely, to be awarded to students 
majoring in, or intending to major in, biologv 
or chemistry who show promise for 
conuibutions to their chosen field of study. 

Rev. Frederick R. Knubel (1918) Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: Created by John McCullough 
'18 in memory of his classmate, to be awarded 
to an outstanding senior ministerial student 
with financial need. 

Charles L. Kopp (1909) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Grace Shatzer Kopp. to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students majoring 
in the himtanities. 



Bernard S. Lrnvyer (1912) Srholarship Fund: 
Awarded to needy and deserving students. 
First preference is given to members or former 
members of St. Mary's Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, Silver Run, Maryland; second 
preference is given to members or former 
members of Evangelical l>utheran Churches in 
Maryland and Pennsylvania. 

Clarence Gordon and Elfie Lealherman Scholarship 
Fund: Established by the Leathermans, to be 
awarded to a deserving preministcrial student. 

Rev. H.J. H. Lemcke {I860) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Ruth Evangeline Lemcke 
in memory of her father, to be awarded to 
worthy male students who are graduates of 
Pennsylvania secondary schools. 

Bruce and Lynda Limpert Endou'ed Scholarship: 
Awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. 

Ren. Justus H. Liesmann (1930) and Mardelle 
Tipton Liesmann (1932) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mrs. Mardelle Liesmann, to be 
awarded to a first-year student and may be 
continued up to four years. 

Frank M. Long (1936) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Created in memory of Frank M. Long, to be 
awarded to worthy students. 

Kenneth C. Lundeen (1966) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by James and Diana Topper in 
honor of Kenneth Lundeen, to be awarded to 
one or more deserving and promising students 
who may be in a prelaw curriculum. 

The Lutheran Brotherhood Fund for Lutheran 
Students: Established by The Lutheran 
Brotherhood, to be awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising Lutheran students who 
demonstrate financial need. 

William and Marilyn MacCartney Family Endowed 
Scholarship: Established by Michael Alan Berk 
and Kerry MacCartney Berk in tjibute of Kerry 
M. Berk's parents' lifelong encouragement of 
scholarship, initiative and leadership. Awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students. 

MarPherson Scholarship: Established by the 
Foimdation, to be awarded to residents of 
Adams Comity, Pennsylvania, or (Carroll County, 
Maryland. 



James Eugene '16 and Ralph '22 Mahafjie 
Scholarship Fund: CreMed by Ralph Mahaffie "22 
in honor of his brothei- James Eugene Mahaffie 
'16, to be awarded to worthy and promising 
students. 

Francis E. and Wilcla P. Malcolm Family Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Ann B. Malcolm '71, to be 
awarded to a first-year student and may be 
continued up to foiu" years. 

Charles H. May (1904) Scholarship Fund: Crcdled 
by Mr. May, to be awarded to deserving male 
students from York (>ounty, Pennsylvania. 

Charles B. McCollough, Jr Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: Created by Charles B. McCollough '16 
and Florence McCollough in memory of their 
son, and by H. R. Earhart in memory of his 
grandnephew. Awarded to one or more worthy 
male students. 

Robert McCoy Scholarship Fund: Established by the 
family and friends of Robert McCoy, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. 

William R. McElhiney (1936) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by William R. and Pauline McElhiney, 
to be awarded to needy and deserving students 
who demonstrate an interest in the College 
band and choir. 

Michael J. McTighe Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by his wife, Carolyn L. Carter, family 
members and friends, to be awarded to a first- 
year student. Preference is given to first- 
generation college students and/or students 
whose enrollment at Gettysburg College would 
increase the racial and ethnic diversity of the 
student population. 

Dr. John E. Meisenhelder (1897) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Dr. Meisenhelder, to be awarded 
to a deserving student. 

Jane S. Melber ( 1 983) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Theodore W. and Lucile M. 
Melber in memory of their daughter, to be 
awarded to worthy and promising students for 
the study of music in Great Britain. 

Forrest L. Mercer (1908) Scholarship Fund: (treated 
by Forrest L. Mercer, to be awarded to a 
deserving and needy student. 



Carl F. and Dorothy Miller Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the Carl F. and Dorothy Miller 
Foundation, to be awarded to a student pursuing 
accounting or a science-related course of study. 

/. Elsie Miller (1 903) Scholarship Fund: Created by 
\h. Miller, to be awarded to a preministerial 
student. 

Robnt H. Miller (1938) and PaulD. Miller (1940) 
Brazilian Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more needy and worthy students. First reference 
is given to a student wishing to study in Brazil 
lor a semester or a year; second preference is 
s;iven to a Brazilian student entering as a first- 
sear student, who graduated from either the 
Escola Americana, Rio de Janeiro, the Escola 
Ciraduada de Sao Paulo, or Pan American 
Christian Academy. 

Miller-Dewey Scholarship Fund: Created by the 
Rev. Adam B. Miller (1873), to be awarded to a 
deserving student. 

Rev. William J. Miller (1903) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mary Willing Miller, to be awarded 
lo worthy young persons. Preference is given to 
students preparing for the Lutheran ministry and 
especially to those from Tabernacle Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

M. Scott and Margaret A. Moorhead Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to a student with a strong interest 
in music; preference is given to a student with 
interest to continue piano or organ instruction. 

Anna Jane Mnye)- Scholarship Fund: Established b\' 
Anne Keet Hanson in memory of her husband. 
Dr. C.A. Hanson, President Emeritus, to honor 
Anna Jane Moyer, retired librarian, and the 
library staff, awarded to worthy and promising 
senior students who have maintained at least a 
,").0 average in their major after their jimior year 
and who have demonstrated an interest and 
abilit)' in conducting scholarly research. 

Charles D. Moyer (1957) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fiuid contributed by Charles D. 
Moyer, his family, and friends is awarded to 
worthy and promising students in need of 
scholarship aid. Preference is given to students 
who can contribute to the ethnic and 
intercultural environment of the College. 

JohnE. Mumper (1930) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to a needy and worthy first-year 
student, and may be continued up to four years. 



Andreiu Lee Muns Memorial Scholarship: 
Established by Dr. Mary Lou Taylor, Mr. Frank 
Muns, and Mr. Thomas A. Mims, in loving 
memory of their brother, Andrew Lee Muns, 
a 1965 graduate of Gett)'sburg College. 
Preference is given to students majoring in 
chemistry, biology, biochemistry/molecular 
biology, or related sciences. 

Musselman Scholarship Fund: Established by the 
Musselman Foimdation, to be awarded to a 
deserving student; preference is given to sons or 
daughters of employees of the Musselman Fruit 
Product Division, Pet hicorporated. 

Arthur B. Myers and Marion V. Myers Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to needy and deserving students 
of good moral character. 

Albert C. and Linda Neumann Endowment Fund: 
Established by .Albert C. Neumann '64, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students with an 
interest in pursuing a career in the health 
sciences. 

John Spangler Nicholas (1916) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by John Spangler Nicholas, to be 
awarded to a member of the junior or senior 
class of sterling character and high intellectual 
ability in the field of biology, preferably zoology. 

Henry B. Nightingale (1917) Scholarship Fund: 
Awarded to worthy students who have successfully 
completed their first two years at the College. 

Patrick F. Noonan (1965) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Patrick and Nancy Noonan, to be 
awarded to one or more needy and worthy 
students. Preference is given to the student or 
students who are majoring in management and 
have demonstrated leadership ability through 
active participation and excellent performance 
in extracurricular activities. 

Charlotte L. Noss Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Charlotte Noss, to be awarded to a needy and 
deserving woman student from York Count)', 
Pennsylvania. 

Edward J. Nowicki,Jr (1935) and Christine M. 
Noivicki Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students. 

John P. O'l^ary ,Jr. (1969) and Pamela O'Leary 
(1969) Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a worthy 
and promising student. 



PaulF. Olinge}- {1922} and Anna E. Oiinger 
Scholarship Fund: Created by Gertrude Oiinger, 
to be awarded to one or more needy and worthy 
students. Preference is given to students interested 
in the ministerial or teaching professions. 

Nellie Oiler and Bernard Oiler Memmial Scholarship 
Fund: Created by Ida R. Gray in memory of 
her daughter and son-in-law, to be awarded to 
a deserving student; preference is given to a 
Lutheran applicant from Waynesboro, 
Pennsylvania. 

One in Mission Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the One in Mission Campaign of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church in America, to be awarded to 
worthy and deserving students; preference is 
given to students who are Liuheran. 

Lovina Openlander Scholarship Fund: Awarded to 
needy and deserving students. 

The John K. Orr Endowed Scholarship: Established 
by John K. Orr '70. Awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising students in need, with 
preference given to students with special needs. 

Robert A. Ortenzio '79 Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Robert A. Ortenzio '79, 
preference is given to worthy students who have 
demonstrated excellence and leadership in one 
or more extracurricular activities. 

Thomas O. Oyler Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Thomas O. Oyler, Sr., and his wife, Janet B. 
Oyler, in honor of their children, Thomas O. 
Oyler, Jr., Jane A. Oyler, Jerome P. Oyler, 
William J. Oyler '77, and Susan T. Oyler '85, to 
be awarded to a deserving Pennsylvania student 
whose major is management or German, with 
elective courses in the other field of study. 

C. Eugene Painter Scholarship Fund: Established by 
C. Eugene Painter '33, to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students; preference 
is given to students majoring in chemistry. 

Steven E. Parker '73 Endowed Scholarship: Awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students. 

Lillian M. and William H. Patrick Jr (1916) 
Scholarship Fund: Created by William H. Patrick 
Jr., to be awarded on a competitive basis to 
students with musical ability, who demonstrate 
financial need. 



C. Gloria Paul Scholarship Fund: Awarded to 
graduates of Weatherly Aiea High School who 
have financial need. 

The Mary A. and Rufus D. Paul Endowed 
Scholarship Fund: Established by Dr. Ronald L. 
Paul '59 and Jane N. H. Paul, including gifts in 
memory of Dr. Paul's parents, Mary A. Paul and 
Rufus D. Paul. Awarded to an entering first-year 
student and continued up to four years, if the 
recipient maintains a satisfactory grade point 
average and satisfactorily progresses toward a 
baccalaureate degree. 

Willard S. Paul Scholarship Fund: Established by 
friends of the College on the occasion of President 
Paul's retirement. Awarded to a deserving student. 

Martin L. Peters (1913) and Martin E Peters (1937) 
Scholarship Fund: Created by Martin F. Peters, to 
be awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 

James D. Pickering and Charles Ft. Glatfelter 
Endowed Scholarship Fu7id: Established by 
Anne Keet Hanson in memory of her husband, 
Dr. C.A. Hanson, President Emeritus, to honor 
Dr. James D. Pickering and Dr. Charles H. 
Glatfelter, distinguished professors and former 
Deans of the Faculty during Dr. Hanson's tenure 
as President. Preference shall be given to worthy 
and promising Junior or senior students 
majoring in history or English who have 
maintained at least a 3.0 average after their 
sophomore year. 

Earl G. Ports (1923) Scholarship Fund: Established 
by Horace G. Ports (1925) in memory of his 
brother, to be awarded to a worthy student, 
preferably in the field of physics. 

Dr and Mrs. William F Railing Endowed 
Scholarship Fund: Established by Dr. and Mrs. 
William F. Railing, the scholarship will be given 
to a rising .senior economics major of high 
academic achievement, in need of scholarship 
funds, who has made positive contributions to 
the College community and/or the Gett)'sburg 
community. 

Dr and Mrs. Carl C. Rasmussen Scholarship Fund: 
Created by the Reverend Carl C. '12 and Alma L 
Rasmussen, to be awarded to a deserving 
student. Preference is given to a student prepaiing 
for the ministry in the Lutheran Church. 



k 



David W. Raymond (1967) Endowed Scholarship: 
Warded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. Preference given to students who 
express an interest in attending law school or 
are majoring in history, political science, 
economics, management, English, sociology, or 
psychology. 

Rn>. ClayE. Rice (1911) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Minnie Catherine Rice in honor 
of her husband. Rev. Clay E. Rice, to be awarded 
to a student preparing for the ministry. 

John S. and Luene Rice Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Ellen F. and Luene Rice, to be 
awarded to students of exceptional academic 
abilit}' and outstanding promise of contributions 
to the College. 

James A. Rider Scholarship Fund: Established by 
James A. Rider, to be awarded to worthy and 
deserving students in financial need. First 
preference is given to dependents of active 
employees of Thermos hidustries, Inc., of 
Raleigh, North Carolina; second preference is 
given to students who compete in intercollegiate 
athletics; and third, to students who may be 
orphans. 

Steven R Ri^s Music Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Patricia C. Chamberlain, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students, preferably members of the Gettysburg 
College Choir. 

Clarence B. Rogers, Jr Endowed Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the Equifax Foundation to honor 
Clarence B. 'Jack" Rogers Jr. '51 for his years of 
leadership at Equifax. Awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising students who exhibit high 
motivation and excellent academic achievement 
and who qualify for Presidential Scholarships 
based on merit. Preference is given to students 
with demonstrated interest in public service. 

The Carlene and Randolph Rose '73 Endowed 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or more 
worthy and promising students. 

Laiorence E. Rost (1917) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Jeanne Preus Rost in memory of 
her husband, Lawrence E. Rost, to be awarded 
to deserving students. First preference is given 
to descendants of Charles A. Rost, Red Lion, 
York Coimt)', Pennsylvania. 



Philip P. Rudhart Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Emma Bennix in memory of her brother, to be 
awarded to deserving male students. 

Mary Sachs Scholarship Fund: Established as a 
memorial to Mary Sachs, to be awarded to a 
needy and deserving student; preference is 
given to a student in management whose 
interests are in retailing. 

Grace Durboraw Sahle '33 Endowed Scholarship 
Fund: Created by Knute Sahle '35 as a lasting 
memorial to his late wife, to be awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising students. 

Charles Samphjr. Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the friends and family of Charles Samph Jr., to 
be awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students involved 
in the campus Greek system and who major in 
mathematics. 

Andrew C. Schaedler Foundalicm Scholarship: 
Established as a memorial to .\ndrew C. 
Schaedler, to be awarded to worthy and needy 
students from Central Pennsylvania who 
graduated from a high school located in 
Dauphin, Lebanon, Cmnberland, York, 
Franklin, Lancaster, Perry, Mifflin, Adams, 
Northumberland, or Hundngdon Coundes. 

Jeffrey M. Schissler ( 1 97 1 ) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Melvin and Greta Schissler, to be 
awarded to a worthy and promising student. 
First preference is given to a student majoring 
in Theatre Arts; second preference, to a student 
majoring in English. 

Calvin L. Schlueter Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Calvin F. Schlueter, to be awarded to needy and 
promising students. 

Scholarship pn- Community Service Leadership: 
Established by Kenneth C. Lundeen, to be 
awarded to a first-year student and may be 
condnued up to four years. Preference is given 
to students who demonstrate an active interest 
in voluntary community .service. 

Brent Scowcrofi Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a 
needy and deserving student. 

The Robeit G. Seaks Scholarship: Established by 
Terry G. Seaks to honor the memory of his 
father, an alumnus of Gettysburg College. 
Awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students who exemplify the academic excellence 



of Robert G. Seaks, Class of 1931, whose out- 
standing record earned him Class Honors and 
election to Phi Beta Kappa. 

Gregory Seckler (1965) Memorial Srholarship Fund: 
Created by Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Arnold Sr. in 
memory of Gregory Seckler, to be awarded to 
a deserving student. Preference is given to an 
English major. 

Senior Scholarship Prize: Established by the Class 
of 1 996, to be awarded to one male and one 
female junior advancing to the senior year who 
best exemplify the College through academics 
and ser\ice to the communit). 

Ralph E. Sentz (1949) Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Ralph E. Sentz and his wife, Veronica, to be 
awarded to needy and deser\ing students. 
Preference is given to those with disabilities. 

J. Douglas Shand Endowed Presidential Scholarship: 
Established by J. Douglas Shand to support a 
student who has attained at least sophomore 
status and who plans to major in psycholog). 

Samuel Shaulis (1954) Memorial Scholarship Fu7id: 
Established by Barry B. Wright '55 and other 
friends and family of Samuel Shaulis, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students who, 
beyond other academic and personal 
qualifications, have a special interest in 
extracurricular activities. 

Joseph T. Simpson /Divight D. Eisenhoiver Scholarship 
Fund: Established by the friends and colleagues 
of Joseph Simpson, to be awarded to needy and 
worthy students. Preference is given to those 
students with exceptional leadership ability. 

Edgar Fahs Smith (1874) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Margie A. Smith in honor of her father, 
Edgar Fahs Smith, to be awarded to a student 
recommended by the Department of Chemistry. 

George Wellington and Lucy Heir Smith Scholarships: 
A bequest from the estate of Lucy Herr Smith; 
George Wellington Smith was a member of the 
Class of 1924. 

The Jessica Weaver Smith (Class of 1927) Family 
Endowed Scholarship: Established by Jessica 
Weaver Smith, Class of 1927, from her estate, 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. 



Robert D. Smith Endoxued Scholarship Fund: 
Established by friends and former athletes of 
Robert S. Smith '59, in recognition of the 
impact Robert D. Smith had on the lives of 
countless Gettysburgians. Awarded io a worthy 
and promising student. 

Ronald James Smith (1972) and Diane (Werley) 
Smith (1973) Endowed Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to one or more worthy and promising students 
who are in need. 

Albert E. Speck (1927) Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to a first-year student, and may be continued up 
to four years. 

Maiy Ann Ocker Spital Scholarship Fund: Awarded 
to a qualified male student. 

Edward J. Stackpole Scholarship Fund: Created by 
the friends of General Stackpole, to be awarded 
to a deserving student. Preference is given to a 
student in American history interested in the 
Civil War. 

Arthur Kistler Staymates Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mildred C. Stine, to be awarded 
to one or more needy and worthy students. First 
preference is given to students preparing for 
careers in the ministry or education; second 
preference, to students from Frederick Count)', 
Maryland. 

Bruce R. Stefany '71 Scholarship: Awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising students. 

Rev. Milton H. Stine (1877) and Mary J. Stine 
Memorial Scholarship Fund: Established by Dr. 
Charles M. A. Stine '01 in memory of his parents, 
to be awarded to a preministerial student. 

Earl K. Stock Scholarship Fund: Created by Earl K. 
Stock '19, to be awarded to one or more needy 
and deserving students. 

Robert (1933) and Betty Stockberger Scholarship 
FwHrf.- Awarded to needy and promising students. 

Strine-Manners Scholarship Fund: Established in 
honor and memory of Howard H. Strine, M.D. 
'24, Virginia Manners Strine, Dana Whitman 
Manners, and Elizabeth Manners. Awarded to 
two or more worthy and promising students. 

F. Stroehmann Scholarship Fund: Established by the 
family of F. Stroehmann, to be awarded to one 
or more needy and deserving students. 



Dr.J.H. W. Stuckenberg Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Dr. Stuckenberg, to be awarded to a 
qualified student. 

Surdna Foundation Scholarship Fund: Established 
l)y the Surdna Foundation, to be awarded to 
students of exceptional academic ability and 
oiustanding promise of contributions to the 
('ollege. 

Rev. Viggo Siuensen (1931) and Martha Swensen 
Scholarship Fund: Awarded to a first-year student, 
and may be continued up to four years. 

Warren L. Swope (1943) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Warren L. Swope, a career diplomat, to be 
awarded to a qualified student. Preference is 
given to students of American parentage who 
have spent a significant portion of their 
precoUege years abroad. 

Raymond A. Taylor (1937) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Dr. and Mrs. Raymond A. Taylor, 
to be awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 

William J. (1929) and Ruth Krug Thomas (1928) 
Scholarship Fund: Created by the Thomases in 
gratitude for the contribution the College has 
made toward the enrichment of their lives, to 
be awarded to worthy students, preferably 
English majors. 

Colonel Wcdter K. Thrush Fund: Established by 
Edna L. Thrush in memory of her husband, 
Walter K. Thrush 19, to be awarded to a 
student who is a member of ATO Fraternity 
studying in the field of engineering. 

Robert and Donna Tillitt Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mr. and Mrs. Robert Tillitt, to be 
awarded to one or more needy and deserving 
students who have an interest in music. 

Martin L. Valentine (1912) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Martin L. Valentine, to be awarded 
to a needy and deserving student majoring in 
chemistry. 

Llcyyd Van Doren Scholarship Fund: Established by 
Tempie Van Doren, to be awarded to one or 
more needy and deserxing students. 

John H. von der Lieth Memorial Musical Scholarship 
Fund: Established through a gift to the ELCA 
Foundation of The Evangelical Lutheran 
(Church in America, by Mrs. von der Lieth in 



memory of her husband. To be awarded to 
needy and deserving students who are studying 
music. Pi-eference given to those studying organ 
or piano. 

Parker B. Wagnild Scholarship Fund: Created by 
alumni and friends of the Gettysburg College 
Choir, to be awarded to needy and deserving 
music students. 

Parker B. and Helen D. Wagnild Music Scholarship 
Fund: Established by Helen D. Wagnild, to be 
awarded to worthy and promising music students. 

John G. Walbmn (1937) Scholarship Fund: Created 
by John G. Walborn, to be awarded to needy 
and deserving students. Preference is given to 
students majoring in economics or management. 

Clayton D. (1948) and Anne Ilgen Warman (1948) 
Endowed Scholarship Fund: Awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students who are 
in need of scholarship funds. 

Stuart Warrenfeltz Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Ethel Warrenfeltz McHenry in 
memory of her son Stuart Warrenfeltz, to be 
awarded to a worthy young man. Preference is 
given to students from Funkstown, Washington 
County, Maryland. 

Dr. Rufus B. Weaver (1862) Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Dr. Weaver, to be awarded to 
deserving students. 

Rev. David Sparks Weimer and Joseph Michael 
Weimer/Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Mrs. Ralph Michener, daughter 
and sister of David and Joseph Weimer, to be 
awarded to needy and worthy students. 

Senator George L. Wellington Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Mr. Wellington, to be awarded to 
a deserving Lutheran preministerial student. 

Paul B. and Mary E. Werner Scholarship Fund: 
Created by Paul and Mary Werner, to be awarded 
to a preministerial student; preference is given 
to students from Glen Rock, Pennsylvania, or 
York County, Pennsylvania. 

Richard C. Wetzel Scholarship Fund: Created by 
Richard C. Wetzel, to be awarded to a deser\ing 
and needy student. 

Stella Moyer Wible (1927) Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Helen A. Moyer, to be awarded 
to worthy and promising students with an 
outstanding record of academic achievement. 



Bertram M. Wilde Scholarship Fund: Established by 
members of the family of Bertram M. Wilde, to 
be awarded to worthy and promising students. 
Preference is given to students who have 
demonstrated superior character and industry, 
as well as diverse interests and active participation 
in extracurricular and academic affairs. 

Jtnemiah A. Winter and Annie C. Winter Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: Created by Amelia C. Winter in 
memory of her parents, to be awarded to a 
needy and deserving student. 

Charles W. Wolf 1934 Scholarship Fund: Established 
by David '68 and Jennifer LeVan to honor the 
life and many contributions of Attorney Charles 
W. Wolf (1912-2001 ), awarded to worthy 
students from Adams Countv', Pennsylvania, who 
are enrolled at Gettysburg College. A prominent 
native son of Adams County, Wolf was a 1934 
graduate and a trustee emeritus of the College, 
a former attorney to President Dwight David 
Eisenhower, and founder of The Eisenhower 
Society. 

Woman s League Scholarship Fund: Established by 
the Woman's General League of Gettysburg 
College, to be awarded to needy and promising 
students. 

Peter W. Wright Scholarship Fund: Established by 
LT COL Peter W. Wright, USAF (RET) , to be 
awarded to one or more worthy students. 
Preference is given to students who have an 
interest and involvement in extracurricular 
activities and are members of Alpha Tan Omega 
Fraternity. 

Yocum Family Scholarship: Established by James H. 
Yocum, to be awarded to one or more deserving 
students. 

The Martha M. Yocum Scholarship Fund: Created 
by Dr. Ronald H. Yocimi '61, to be awarded 
to a jimior or senior majoring in chemistry 
or biochemistry with an overall grade point 
average of 2.85 and a mininumi grade point 
average in their major of 3.0. 

John T. Ziegler, DOS, (1952) Pre-Dental Scholarship 
Fund: Awarded to one or more worthy pre-dental 
students. First preference is given to the junior 
or senior student who has achieved the highest 
academic standing and who has applied to a 
U.S. dental school to pursue a DDS or DMD 
degree. 



Drjohn B. Zinn Scholarship in the Sciences: 
Established by the Class of 194L to be awarded to 
talented students pursuing a science education. 

John B. Zinn Scholarship Fund: Established by 
friends and former students of Professor John B. 
Zinn, former chair of the chemistry department, 
to be awarded to needy and promising students. 
Preference is given to students preparing for 
fields associated with the healing arts. 

Loan Funds 

Ediuard Anderson. (1955) and Patricia Anderson Loan 
Fund: Established by Edward and Patricia 
Anderson, to provide loans to LtUheran students 
who have exhibited creative and entrepreneurial 
tendencies while in high school and through their 
activities at Gettysbiug College. 

Milton T. Nafey and Mary M. Nafey Student Loan 
Fund: Created by Mary M. Nafey, to provide a 
fund for student loans. 

Eva R. Pape Student Loan Fund: Established by Eva 
R. Pape of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to provide 
students of high promise with financial assistance. 

David Forry Powers Loan Fund: Established by 
Catherine N. Maurer in memory of her nephew, 
David Forry Powers '62, to provide loans to needy 
and worthy student.s. 

Other Scholarship Aid 

Aid Association for Lutherans Campus Scholarship: 
Makes available scholarship fimds to assist needy 
students who hold membership with the 
Association. Selection of recipients is made by the 
College. 

Frank D. Baker Scholarship: Aids worthy students in 
immediate need. Selection of recipients is made 
by the College. 

Robert Bloom Research Award: Supports seniors 
pursuing research in Senior Research Seminars in 
the Department of History. 

Center for Public Service Endoiued Fund for Volunteer 
Service: Established by the Board of Fellows to 
support students participating in volunteer 
programs of the Center for Public Service. Special 
consideration is given to smdents who demonstrate a 
commitment to activism and public service. 

Class of 1995 Service Learning Project: Awarded to a 
student who needs financial aid to participate in a 
service-learning project. 



Robert W. Dirkgiesser Memorial Fund: Provides aid 
to students participating in volunteer programs 
of the Center for Public Service. 

Dwight D. Eisenhower/Conrad N. Hilton 
Scholarship: Created by the Conrad N. Hilton 
Foundation to support the tuition cost for 
a semester of study abroad. Scholarship is 
awarded competitively to a student who shows, 
through career aspirations and corresponding 
( urriculiun choices, an appreciation of the role 
that travel, global trade, and cross-cultmal 
exchange can play in fostering international 
understanding. 

W. Emerson Gentzler ( 1 925) Scholarship: 
Established by W. Emerson Gentzler, to be 
awarded to deserxing students, with preference 
given to members in good standing of one of 
the 4-H Clubs of York County, Pennsylvania. 

Charles E. and Mary W. Glassick Scholarship Fund: 
Established by the Board of Trustees in honor 
of former President and Mrs. Glassick, to be 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students. 

J. David Hair Endowed Fund for Volunteer Service: 
Established to support students participating in 
volunteer programs of the Center for Public 
Service. 

Julius Hlubb Athletic Endoiunient: Created to 
support the College's athletic program. 

R. M. Hoffman Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
Established by Margaret L. Hoffman in memory 
of her father, to be awarded annually as part of 
the Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship 
Program. 

Dean W. Hollabaugh Scholarship: Awarded to one 
or more students who merit financial assistance. 

The Dr. Wade F. Hook Endowed Fund for Volunteer 
Service: Established by Malverda P. Hook and 
memorial gifts in thankful recognition of Dr. 
Wade F. Hook's lifelong commitment to 
volunteersim and public service. Awarded to 
students with need who may not otherwise 
participate in volunteer programs, with 
preference given to students who have 
espressed an interest in a teaching career or 
Christian ministry. 



Lutheran Brotherhood Lutheran Senior College 
Scholarship: Awarded to Lutheran students who 
will begin their first year of post-secondary study 
at (iettysburg College. Recipients are selected by 
Gettysburg College on the basis of scholastic 
achievement, religious leadership, and financial 
need. 

Lutheran Brotherhood Memtjers' Scholarship Program: 
Established to assist Lutheran Brotherhood 
members attending accredited post-secondary 
institiuions. Information is available from 
Lutheran Brotherhood, 625 Fourth Avenue 
South, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55415. 

Guy L. Moser Scholarship: Established Guy L. 
Moser, to support grants to students from Berks 
Coimty, Pennsylvania who are majoring in history 
or political science and who rank in the upper 
third of their class. Application should be made 
directly to Ms. Kim M. McKeon, Hamilton Bank, 
P.O. Box 14L Reading, Pennsylvania 19603. 

Ernest D. Schwartz (1916) Scholarship: EsXSihVished 
in memory of Ernest D. Schwartz, to be awarded 
to a needy and worthy student. Recipient is 
selected by the College. 

Clare M. Stecher Scholarship: Established by Clare 
M. Stecher, to be awarded to needy students 
from Himimelstown, Pennsylvania. 

Weaver-Bittinger Classical Scholarship: Created by 
Rufus M. Weaver (1907), to be awarded to a needy 
and deserving student(s) who has demonstrated 
outstanding academic achievement. Recipients 
are selected by the College. 

Weaver Classical-Natural Science-Religion 
Scholarship: Created by Rufus M. Weaver (1907) , 
to be awarded to a deserving student pursuing a 
classical, natural science, or religion course of 
insUiiction. Recipients are selected by the College. 

Rufus M. Weaver Mathematical Scholarship: 
Created by Rufus M. Weaver (1907), to be 
awarded to deserving students pursuing a 
mathematical course of instrucdon. Recipients 
are selected by the College. 



Endowment Funds 



Gettysburg College has benefitted over the years and continues to benefit from th^ income offiinds 
contributed to the College's endowment. Income fiom unrestricted endoioment fiinds may be 
used for the general purpose of the College or- for any special purposes; income fiom restricted 
endowment funds is used solely for the purpose specified by the donor The generous support of the donors 
listed belmu has been vital to the continuing success of the College. 



(Unrestricted) 

Allshouse Family Endowment Fund: In honor of 
William Craig Allshouse (1981) and Mrs. 
Catherine Reaser Allshouse (1924), and in 
memory of William Kenneth Allshouse 
(1925) and Richard Reaser Allshouse (1950). 

Alumni Memorial Endowment Fund 

fackson Anderson (1977) and Laurene Anderson (1977) 

E. W Baker Estate 

Frank D. Baker 

Robert f. Barkley Estate 

Charles Bender Trust 

Fay S. Benedict Memorial Fund 

H. Mehrin Binktey Estate 

Margarethe A. Brinkman Estate 

H. Brua Campbell Estate 

Dr John Chelenden Fund (1928): In honor of 
JohnB. Zinn (1909) 

Class of 1919 Fund 

Class of 1926, 60th Reunion Fund 

Louise Cuthbertson: In memory of Arthur 
Herring, Anna Wiener Herring and 
Louise Cuthbertson. 

Charles W. Diehljr. (1929) 

Harold Sheely Diehl Estate 

Geo. &' Helen Eidam Trust 

Faculty and Staff Memorial Endowment Fund 

Ralph C. Fischer- 

Rot)erl G. Fluhrer- (1912) 

The Ford Foundation 

Walter B. Freed Estate 

Oiuen Fries EstateRichard V. Gardiner Memorial 

Fund 

The Garman Fund: A perpetual family memorial. 

The Geltyslmrg Times 

Mamie Ragan Getty Fund 

Frank Gilbert 

Margant E. Giles 

Ralph and Katherine M. Gresh 

lames H. Gross Estate 

William D. Hartshorne Estate 



George G Hatter (1911) 

Adam Hazletl (1910) 

f Kerrnit Hereter Trust 

Ralph E. Heusner Estate 

foseph H. Himes (1910) 

Marion Huey 

KarlF. Irwin Trust 

John E. Jacobsen Family Endowment Fund 

Bryan E. Keller Estate 

Edmund Keller Estate 

Caroline C. Knox 

William f Knox (1910) 

Frank H. Kramer (1914) and Mrs. Kramer 

Harris Lee Estate 

Ralph D. Lindemun Memorial Fund 

The Richard Lewis Lloyd Fund: In memory 

of Arthur C. Carty 
Robert T McClarin Estate 
Ralph McCreary Estate 
James MacFarlane Fund, Class of 1837 
f. Clyde Market (1900) and Caroline O. Market 
Robert T . Marks 
FredG. Masters ( 1 904) 
Ralph Mease Estate 
Gertrude Maddock Irust 
A.L. Mat/lias (1926) 
John H. Mickely (1928): In memory of his 

brother William Blocher Mickely. 
Alice Miller- 
Robert H. Miller- 
Thomas Z. Minehart (1894) 
Ruth G. Moyer- Estate: 

Professors Endowment Fund 
Bernice Baker Musser 
Helen Overmiller 
Ivy L. Palmer 
Joseph Parment Gnmpany 
Floyd Csf Eva Peterson 
Andrew H. Phelps 
C. Lawrence Rehurk 



A 



Mary Hart Rinn 

Carroll W. Royston Estate 

Sarah Ellen Sanders 

Robert and Helene Schubauer Estate 

Anna D. Seaman 

A. Richard Shay (1928) 

PaulR.Sheffer(1918) 

Herbert Shimer (1896) 

Robert O. Sinclair 

Albert T. Smith Memorial Fund 

James Milton Smith Fund 

Anna K. and Harry L. Snyder 

Mary Heilman Spangler 

Harvey W. Strayer 

Leah Tipton Taylor Estate 

Veronica K. Tollner Estate 

Romayne T. UJiler '23 Estate: For the memorial 

of Rev. George I. Uhler, Class of 1895 
Edith Wachter Estate 
Vera and Paul Wagner Fund 
Walter- G. Warner Memorial Fund: Given by 

Bergliot J. Wagner 
LeonaS. &' L. Ray Weaver- Memorial Fund 
Richard C. Wetzel 

Jack Lyter Williams (1951) Memorial Fund 
Alice D. Wrather 
Romaine H. Yagel Trust 
George L. Yocum Memorial Fund 
John and Caroline Yordy Memorial Fund 

(Restricted) 

Mary Catherine Albaugh (Class of 1954) Chemistry 
Fund for Student Research: Established from a 
bequest from her estate to be used to award 
annual summer research stipends to students 
majoring in chemistry and/or biochemistry and 
molecular biology. 

Conrad Christian Arensberg Memorial Fund: 
Established in 1948 by Francis Louis Arensberg 
in memory of his father, a Union veteran, for 
the purchase of Civil War books and materials. 

Robert Barnes Memorial Fund: Created to support 
a combined dinner and lecture each spring 
during the Biology Awards Day. 

The Rev. Peter C. Bell Memorial Lectureship Fund: 
Created for the establishment of a lectureship 
on the claims of the gospel on college men. 



Bikle Endoiumenl Fund: Established in 1925 to 
honor Dr. Philip Bikle (1866), dean of Gettysburg 
College, 1889-1925. Used to support debating. 

Joseph Bittinger: Chair of political science. 

Lydia Bittinger: Chair of history. 

Joseph and Lydia Bittinger Memorial Fund: 
Established to support the needs of the history 
and political science departments. 

Blavatt Family Lectureship: Created to establish 
the Blavatt Family Lecture Series in Political 
Science. 

Robert Bloom Fund: For Civil War Institute. 

Merle S. Boyer Chair in Poetry: Established to 
create a faculty chair in poetry. 

The Chang-Burton Fund for Creative Teaching: 
Established by Charles A. Burton and Melinda 
Chang Bin-ton, members of the Class of 1967, to 
preserve and strengthen the tradition of 
distinguished teaching at Gett)'sburg College. 
Preference is given to proposals that enhance 
faculty members' ability to meet the unique 
challenges of a classroom environment that is in 
transition due to an increase in the number of 
students from races or cultures historically 
underrepresented at Gettysburg College. 

Mr Cjf Mrs. Thortuis Citron: Established by Mr. & 
Mrs. Thomas Citron (1947) to endow insurance 
on a 1934 oil paindng by Minna Citron. 

Class of 191 1 Memorial Trust Fund: Established in 
1961, on the fiftieth anniversary of the Class of 
1911, to provide income for the piuchase of 
books for the College library. 

Thomas Y. Coofjer Endowment: A bequest to 
Gettysburg College in support of its libraries: 
(a) for acquisitions in literature and .\merican 
history, as a memorial to his parents. Dr. 8c Mrs. 
Moses Cooper; and (b) for the operating budget 
of the library. 

William C. Darrah Lectureship: Created for the 
biology department to use for a Darrah Lecture 
every two or three years. 

William C. Darrah Prize: Created to support a 
yearly prize for students in the biology 
department 

A. Bruce Denny Fund: Created by fellow students 
in memory of A. Bruce Denny (1973), to purchase 
library books. 



Joe Dnrig Memorial Fund: Established to subsidize 
student participation in a service-learning 
program related to AIDS. Also supports a yearly 
presentation on AIDS awareness. 

Luther P. Eisenhart Fund: Established for the use 
of emeriti faculty and widows of former 
members of the facult)' in need of assistance. 

Harold G. Evans Chair in Eisenhower Leadership 
Studies: Established to foster an educational 
program in leadership. 

Esther Kenyan Fortenbaugh Endoived Internship: 
Created by Robert B. Fortenbaugh and Esther 
Kenyon Fortenbaugh to fund a semester-long or 
siunmer internship for a student interested in 
pursuing studies in librarianship, information 
science, preservation or museum work during, 
the fall or spring semester or in the summer. 

The Georgia A. Franyo Endowed Fund for the 
Department of Theatre Arts: Adminhiered by the 
Provost to provide grants to support faculty and 
program development in the Department of 
Theatre Arts at Gettysburg College. 

Clyde E. and Sarah A. Gerberich Endowment Fund: 
Established in memory of Dr. Robert Fortenbaugh 
(1913) to support a series of lectures. Fund is 
also supported by a matching gift from the 
Hewlett Foundation to support the Robert 
Fortenbaugh Memorial Lecture. 

Gettysburg Reidew Fund: Y.&idih\is\\ed to provide 
annual support for the Gettysburg Review. 

Russell P. Getz Memorial Fund: Established for 
support of the music department. 

Millard E. Gladfelter Prize: Created to support a 
student who has completed the jimior year at 
Gettysburg College with excellent scholarship in 
the social sciences, and especially American 
history. To be used for research and a thesis 
report diu ing the senior year. 

/. Donald and Mary Heir Glenn Endowment Fund: 
To be used for educational piuposes at the 
discretion of the President of the College, 
subject to supervision of the Board of Trustees. 

Fund for Global Understanding: Established by Dr. 
Janet M. Powers, Global Studies Coordinator 
and Associate Professor of Interdepartmental 
Studies and Women's Studies, with additional 
contributions, and Kenneth P. Powers: an 
endowment to secure and strengthen the Global 
Studies Program. 



Dr. C.A. Hanson, President Emeritus, and Anne Keet 
Hanson Endowment Funds for the Beautification of 
Campus Grounds: The income from gifts to be 
used to support the landscaping, maintenance, 
cultivation, and beautification of college 
grounds. 

Jean Landefeld Hanson Fund: Established in 1971 
by family and friends of the late wife of former 
President C. Arnold Hanson, to support 
purposes related to the Chapel program. 

George Hatter Fund: Income from this restricted 
endowment fiuid will be transferred to principal 
for a period of 60 years. After 60 years, the fund 
will be closed and transferred to Unrestricted 
Endowment/Hatter Fund. 

The John A. Hauser Executive-in-Residence Fund: 
Established by family and friends of John A. 
Hauser and Gettysburg College, to support a 
business or governmental executive-in-residence. 

The Harry D. Holloxuay Memorial Fund: Created to 
support purposes of keeping alive on campus 
the spirit of Abraham Lincoln. 

Japan Program Fund: Created for use by the 
library department to purchase library and 
instructional materials related to Japan. 

Stanley G. and Frances P.Jean Fund: To assist the 
Center for Public Service at Gettysburg College 
in the commendable efforts being made to meet 
current-day public service needs and objectives 
by improving and expanding programs offered 
through the Center. 

William R. Kenan, Jr. Endowment Fund for Teaching 
Excellence: Established to support high quality 
and effective teaching. 

Ediuin T.Johnson and Cynthia Shearer Johnson 
Distinguished Teaching Chair: Established by 
Edwin T. '51 and Cynthia Shearer '52 Johnson. 

Ralph D. Lindeman Memorial Fund: Established by 
family and friends in memory of Ralph D. 
Lindeman, to be used annually by the English 
Department for the purchase of books. 

MNC Management Curriculum: Created by the 
Maryland National Foundation to provide 
financial support for the management program. 

Dr. G. Bowers and Louise Hook Mansdorfer 
Distinguished Chair in Chemistry: Established to 
provide an endowed chair in chemistry. Provides 
fimds for faculty salaries, research needs, payment 
for research assistants, and travel for conferences. 



»V 



> 



Andrnu Mellon Foundation Fund: Created to 
support interdisciplinary teaching and small 
group learning projects for workshops. 

Dr. Amos S. and Barbara K. Musselman Art 
Fndowment Fund: Created to support and 
advance knowledge and appreciation of art at 
Gettysburg College. 

Dr Amos S. and Barbara K. Musselman Chemistry 
Endounnent Fund: Created to support the chemistr)- 
|MograiTi, primarily through the purchase of 
laboratory equipment and supplies. 

Musselman Endowment For Music Workshop: 
Kstablished by the Musselman Foundation to 
support workshops in music performance and 
seminars in music education. 

Musselman Endowment For Theatre Arts: Created 
liy the Musselman Foundation to support visits 
lo the campus by individuals with expertise in 
the technical aspects of the theatre. 

Musselman Endowment for Visiting Scientists: 
( -reated by the Musselman Foundation to 
support \isiLs by scientists to the College. 

NEH Fluhrer-Civil War Chair: Created by the 
Robert Fluhrer estate to establish a Civil War 
Chair in the history department. 

NEH Fund for Faculty and Curriculum Developirwnt 
in the Humanities: Established by a Challenge 
Crant from the National Endowment for the 
Humanities to promote high qualit)' work in 
the humanities through facult)' and curriculum 
development activity of particular merit. Fund 
is part of the larger Institutional Fund for Self- 
Renewal. 

NEH Senim- Scholars ' Seminar: Established by the 
National Endowment for the Humanities to 
support the Senior Scholars' Seminar. 

Robert Nesto Biology Fund: Created to support 
travel to scientific meetings by biolog)' students. 

John P. O'LearyJr. and Pamda O'Eeary Endowed 
Fund: Created for the management department 
lo be used for discretionary purposes. 

One in a Mission Program Fund: Created by the 
(Central Pennsylvania Synod to provide 
additional endowment fimds to enhance the 
church-related mission of the College. 

EdredJ. and Ruth Pennell Trust Foimdation: 
Created to purchase new materials in the fields 
of political science, management, and economics. 



Political Science Research/Development: Established 
by Elmer Plischke to assist faculty in the political 
science department in research activities. 

Paul H. Rhoads Teaching and Professional 
Development Fund: Established by Paul H. Rhoads, 
Gett^'sburg College, and others to support 
scholarly research, professional development, or 
the improvement of undergraduate instruction 
by the College's faculty. 

Norman F. Richardson Memorial Lectureship Fund: 
Created to support an annual event that stimulates 
reflection on interdisciplinary studies, world 
civilization, the philosophy of religion, values, 
and culture. 

Louis and Claudia Schatanoff Library Fund: 
Created to support the purcha.se of books and 
other publications for the chemistry library at 
the College. 

Henry M. Scharf Lecture Fund: Created by Dr. F. 
William Sunderman (1919) in memory of 
Henry M. Scharf, to establish a lectureship on 
current affairs. 

J. Douglas Shand Fund for Faculty-Student Summer 
Research in Psychology: Created to support 
opportunities for promising and talented 
students to work collaboratively with faculty 
members who are conducting research in 
psychology'. Grants provide stipends to support 
students working on research projects that 
primarily occur in the summer. 

Jack Shand Psychology Research Fund: Created to 
provide financial support of seniors registered 
for honors research in the psychology department 

James A. Singmaster (1898) Fund for Chemistry: 
Established by Mrs. James A. Singmaster in 
memory of her husband, to be used for the 
purcha.se of library materials in chemistry or 
related areas. 

Dr Kenneth L. Smoke Memorial Trust Fund: Created 
to honor the man who in 1946 established the 
department of psychology' at Getty.sburg College 
and served as its chair until his death in 1970. 
Used in part by the College library to purchase 
library resources in the field of psychology and 
in part by the psychology' department for special 
departmental needs. 

Stoever Alcove Fund: Established by Laura M. 
Stoever for the support of the library. 



J. H. W. Slitckenherg Memorial Lectureship: 
Created by Mary G. Stuckenberg in memory of 
her husband, to sponsor lectines in the general 
area of social ethics. 

The Sunderman Chamber Music Foundation of 
Gettyshurg College: Established by F. William 
Sunderman (1919) to stimulate and further the 
interest in chamber music at Oettysburg (.ollege 
through the sponsorship of chamber music 
concerts. 

Walte my er Seminar Roo7n Fund: Established by 
Carroll W. Royston (1934) and the family and 
friends of Dr. William C. Waltemyer (1913), former 
head of the Bible department at the College, to 
provide furnishings for and to maintain the 
library in a seminar room in his memory. 

Steve Warner Trust Fund: Created for the purpose 
of expenditures for books, periodicals, microfilm, 
etc. in the area of Asian Studies for the Musselman 
Libr;\ry; to care for and maintain those purchased 
materials and the Stephen H. Warner papers 
maintained in Musselman Library's Special 
Collection at the College; and to support 
publications derived from the Collection. 

Thejaynes M. Weaver '64 Fund for Creative 
teaching: Established by James M. Weaver 
'64 to secure and strengthen the quality of 
teaching at the College by providing financial 
resources for pedagogical innovation and 
faculty development. 

Donald K. Weiser Book Acquisition Fund: 
Established in honor of Donald K. Weiser 
(1924) for the purchase of library books in the 
field of insurance, management, and business 
administration. 

Woman ',« League Fund for Upkeep and Fiepair of the 
YMCA Building (Weidensall Hall): Created by 
Louisa Paulus. 



Dr. and Mrs. Jeremiah Zimmerman Fund: Established 
by Dr. Jeremiah Zimmerman (1873) to create an 
endowment in support of the annual operating 
budget of the library. 

John B. 7Jnn Memorial Fund in Admissions: 
Established in honor of John B. Zinn by friends 
and former students, to support admissions 
efforts in fields a.ssociated with the healing arts. 

John B. Zinn President Discretionary Institutional and 
Faculty Institutional Develctpinent Fund: Established 
to provide support for research and professional 
development by Gettysburg College faculty and 
staff; to support new or experimental academic 
programs; and to support professional 
development and research for professors in fields 
associated with the healing arts. 



I {egister /Trustees 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
2001-2002 ACADEMIC YEAR 



Date in parentheses indicates year of election to 
the Board of Trustees. 

David M. LeVan (1994), Chairperson, Managing 
Partner, Battlefield Harley Davidson, Gett)'sburg, 
Pennsylvania 

John P. O'Leary Jr. (1995), Vice Chairperson, 

President & Chief Executive Officer, Tuscarora, Inc., 
New Brighton, Pennsylvania 

Patricia W. Henry (1993), Secretary, Senior Associate 
Director of Athletics, Harvard University, Boston, 
Massachusetts 

Patricia C. Bacon (1991), Business Consultant, 
Sausalito, California 

Sherrin H. Baky (1997), Retired Chief Association 
Officer, Association of Clinical Research Professionals, 
Radnor, Pennsylvania 

Stephen G. Bishop (1992), Associate Vice President 
for Economic Development and Cmporate Relatimis, 
University ofRlinois, Urbana, Illinois 

Jeffrey M. Blavatt (2000), Vice President of Operations, 
A/S/C Corp., Owings Mills, Maryland 

James H. Brenneman (1999), Retired Vice President, 
Operations Cjf Planning, Bell Atlantic Enterprises 
Internnlicmal. Ambler, Pennsylvania 

Karen A. Burdack (2001), Vice President/ 
International Counsel, Alcon Laboratories, Inc., 
Fort Worth, Texas 

Charles A. Burton ( 1 996), President, Philadelphia 
Ventures, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

James Corkran ( 1 999), Retired Partner &" Director, 
Cottman Tmnsmission Systems, Doylestown, 
Pennsylvania 

Frank A. Delaney IV (2001), Managing Director, Bear; 
Stearns, Hunter; New York, New York 

Gwendoln Jordan Dungy (1997), Executive Director, 
Natioiud Association of Student Personnel 
Administrators, Washington, D.C. 

Joyce Hamm Eisner (2000), Pianist and volunteer; 

Hanover, Pennsylvania 

Arthur M. Feldman (1998), Chief Division of 
Cardiology, University of Pittslrurgh Medical Center, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Fred F. Fielding (1998), Attorney /Senior Partner, 
Wiley, Rein Cf Eielding, Washington, D.C. 



A. John Gabig (1996), Retired Attorney /Member; Miller 
& Chevalier, Chartered, Williamsburg, Virginia 

Gerald G. Garbacz ( 1 995), Private Investor/ 
Consultant; Former (Chairman i^ CEO, Nashua Corp., 
RiNa, Maryland 

Bruce S. Gordon (1999), President, Retail Markets 
Group, Verizon, New York, New York 

Andrew G. Gurley, Managing Director; Paine Webber, 
New York, New York 

Gordon A. Haaland, President, Gettysburg College, 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

John J. Hewes (2001), Senior Executive Vice President, 
MBNA America Bank, Wilmington, Delaware 

Sotaro Ishii (1999), Investment Consultant, Ishii 
firnusho, Tokyo, Japan 

John F. Jaeger (1998), President, DAJ^AC 
Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland 

MacGregor S. Jones (2000), Former President, 
Mac Jones Ford, Inc., York, Pennsylvania 

Robert H. Joseph Jr. (1998), Sejiior Vice President 6^ 
Chief Financial Officer; Alliance Capital Management 
Corfjoration, New York, New York 

J. Michael Kelly (2000), Chief Operating Officer, 
AOL. Dulles, Virginia 

Jean Cleveland Kirchhoff (2000), Former Account 
Executive, Lemoyne, Pennsylvania 

E. James Morton (1990), Director, Retired Chair & 
Chief FxecHtive Officer; John Hancock Mutual Life 
Insurance Co., Boston, Massachusetts 

Joseph A. Ripp ( 1 998), Executive Vice President & 
Chief Financi(d Officer; America Online, Dulles, 
Virginia 

Randolph Rose (1999), Former President isf CEO, 
Philips Communication and Security Systems, 
Lancaster, Pennsvlvania 

Jean Deimler Seibert (1998), Attorney/Partner; Wion, 
Zulu &" Seibert, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Arne Selbyg ( 1 998), Director, Colleges (sf Universities 
Division for Higher Education &' Schools, 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Chicago, 
Illinois 

Gill M. Taylor-Tyree Sr., M.D. (1995), Assistant 
Professor, Diagnostic Radiology, University of 
Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, Maryland 

Debra K. Wallet (1990), Attorney, Camp Hill, 
Pennsvlvania 



Register /Faculty 



James M. Weaver (2000), President, Dearden, 
Maguire, Weaver, & Barrett Inc., West 
Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 

I. Charles Widger (1997), Managing Partner and 
Investment Management Consultant, Brinker 
Capital, Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 

Debra J. Wolgemuth (2000), Professor of Genetics 
isf Development, Columbia University, New York, 
New York 

Ronald H. Yocum (1997), Retired President i^ Chief 
Executive Officer, American Plastics Council, 
Williamsburg, Michigan 

HONORARY LIFE TRUSTEES 

Dates in parentheses indicate years of service. 

Uvern H. Brenneman (1962-1974) (1976-1988), 

Retired Chair iff President, York Shipley, Inc., York, 
Pennsylvania 

Ralph W. Cox (1972-1984), Retired Manager, 
Connecticut General Life Insurance Co., Savannah, 
Georgia 

F. William Sunderman, M.D. (1967-1979). 

Director if President, Institute /or Clinical Science, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

TRUSTEES EMERITI 

Charles E. Anderson, Avon, Connecticut 

James G. Apple, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania 

Henry S. Belber, Devon, Pennsylvania 

Clyde 0. Black II, Roaring Spring, Pennsylvania 

Margaret Blanchard Curtis, Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania 

Guy S. Edmiston Jr., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

William S. Eisenhart Jr., York, Pennsylvania 

Henry W. Grayblll Jr., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Angeline F. Haines, Lutherville, Maryland 

Robert D. Hanson, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Edwin T. Johnson, Newtown, Pennsylvania 

Robert S. Jones Jr., New York, New York 

William T. Kirchhoff, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Howard J. McCarney, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 

Thomas C. Norris, Spring Grove, Pennsylvania 

Paul M. Orso, Millers\ille, Maryland 



Richard Patterson, Wilmington, Deleware 

James A. Perrott, Palm Beach Shores, Florida 

Samuel A. Schreckengaust Jr., Lemoyne, 
Pennsylvania 

Frederick H. Settelmeyer, London, England 

Arline Shannon, Lititz, Pennsylvania 

Donna I. Shavllk, Estes Park, Colorado 

Herman G. Stuempfle, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

James I. Tarman, State College, Pennsylvania 

James R. Thomas, Allendale, New Jersey 

Barry Wright, Washington, D.C. 

irvin G. Zimmerman, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 

FACULTY 

(2001-2002 ACADEMIC YEAR) 

Emeriti 

Dates in parentheses indicate years of service. 

Paul Baird (1951-1985), Professor of Economics, 
Emeritus 

Guillermo Barriga (1951-1981), Professor of Romnnce 
Languages, Emeritus 

Neil W. Beach (1960-1993). Professor of Biology, 
Emeritus 

Gareth V. Biser (1959-1999), Professor of Health and 
Exercise Sciences, Emeritus 

A. Bruce Boenau (1957-1991), Professor of Politiccd 
Science, Emeritus 

Lois J. Bowers (1969-1992), Coordinator of Women's 
Athletics and Professor of Health and Physical 
Education, Emerita 

John F. Clarke (1966-1989), Professor of English, 
Emeritus 

David J. Cowan (1965-2001), Professor of Physics, 

Emeritus 

David L. Crowner ( 1 967-200 1 ), Professor of German, 
Emeritus 

Harold A. Dunkelberger (1950-1983), Professor of 
Religion, Emeritus 

George H. FIck (1967-1995), Professor of History, 
Emeritus 

Kermit H. Finstad (1970-1999), Professor of Music, 
Emeritus 



Norman 0. Forness ( 1 964-2000), Professor of 
History, Emeritus 

Donald H. Fortnum (1965-2000), Professor of 
( '.hemislry, Kmeril us 

Lewis B. Frank (1957-1986), Professor of Psychology, 
Emeiitus 

Edwin D. Freed (1948-1951), (1953-1986), Professor 
of Religion, Emeritus 

Robert H. Fryling (1947-1950), (1958-1987), 

Professor of Mathematics, Emeritus 

R. Michael Gemmill (1958-1999), Professor of 
Economics, Emeritus 

Charles H. Glatfelter (1949-1989), Professor of 
History, Emeritus 

Gertrude G. Gobbel (1968-1989), Professor of 
Psychology, Emerita 

Louis J. Hammann (1956-1997), Professor of Religion, 
Emeritus 

J. Richard Haskins (1959-1988), Professor of Physics, 
Emeritus 

John T. Held (1960-1988), Professor of Education, 
Emeritus 

Caroline M. Hendrickson (1959-1984), Professor of 
Spanish, Emerita 

Thomas j. Hendrickson (1960-1988), Professor of 
Physics, Emeritus 

Leonard I. Holder (1964-1994), Professor of 
Mathematics, Emeritus 

R. Eugene Hummel (1957-1987), Coach and Professor 
of Health atul Physical Education, Emeritus 

John M. Kellett (1968-1999), Professor of 
Mathematics, Emeritus 

Jack S. Locher (1957-1987), Professor of English, 
Emeritus 

Rowland E. Logan (1958-1988), Professor of Biology, 
Emerita 

Franklin 0. Loveland (1972-1998), Professor of 
Sociology and Anthropology, Emeritus 

Fredric Michelman (1973-2000), Professor of French, 
Emeritus 

Carey A. Moore (1955-1956), (1959-2000), Professor 
of Religion, Emeritus 

Samuel A. Mudd (1958-1964; 1965-1998), Professor 
of Psychology, Emeritus 



Norman K. Nunamaker (1963-1997), Professor of 
Music, Emeritus 

Robert A. Pitts (1986-2000), Professor of 

Management, Emeritus 

Ray R. Reider (1962-1998), Professor of Hecdth and 
Exercise Sciences, Emeritus 

Russell S. Rosenberger (1956-1981), Professor of 

Education, Emerilns 

Alex T. Rowland (1958-2001), Professor of Chemistry, 
Emeritus 

Calvin E. Schildknecht (1959-1979), Professor of 
Chemistry, Etneritus 

Emile 0. Schmidt (1962-1999), Professor of Theatre 
Arts. Emeritus 

W. Richard Schubart (1950-1981), Professor of 
Philosophy, Emeritus 

Walter J. Scott (1959-1984), Professor of Physics, 
Emeritus 

Howard Shoemaker (1957-1985), Professor of Health 
and Physical Education. Emeritus 

James F. Slaybaugh Jr. (1964-1989), Professor of 
Education, Emeritus 

John R. Stemen {\96\-l994). Professor of History, 
Emeritus 

Mary Margaret Stewart (1959-1996), Professor of 
English, Emerita 

Amie G. Tannenbaum (1968-2001), Professor of 
Erench, Emerita 

Robert H. Trone (1956-1997), Professor of Religion, 
Emeritus 

Janis Weaner (1957-1985), Professor of Spanish, 
Emerita 

Dexter N. Weikei (1962-1988), Professor of Music, 
Emeritus 

Robert F. Zellner (1968-1998), Professor of Music, 
Emeritus 

CURRENT FACULTY 

Date in parentheses indicates year of 
appointment to the faculty. 

Tahera Aftab (1997-1998; 2000); Distinguished 
\ 'isiting Professor of Wonwn 's Studies; M .A. , 
University of Lucknow, India; Ph.D., University 
of Karachi 



James D. Agard ( 1 982); Associate Professor of Visual 
Arts; B.S., The State University of New York at 
New Palt2; M.F.A.. Rutgers University' 

Randolph R. Aldinger' (1989); Associate Professor of 
Physics; B.S., Arizona State Universit)'; Ph.D., 
L'niversitA' of Texas at Austin 

Pia Altieri (1999); Instructor in Religion; B.A., 
I.eMoyne College; M.T.S., Harvard University- 
Charlotte E. S. Armster ( 1 984); Associate Professor of 
(•rrmaii and Co-Coordinator of Women !s Studies; 
B.A., Eastern Michigan University; M.A., 
Middleburv College; Ph.D., Stanford Universit}' 

Martha E. Arterberry ( 1 989); Associate Professor of 
Psychology, Department Chairperson; B.A., Pomona 
College; Ph.D., Universit)' of Minnesota 

Bela Bajnok (1993); Associate Professor of 
Mathematics; M.Ed., E6t\'6s Universit)' 
(Hungary); M.S., Ph.D., Ohio State University 

Talia Balastegui-Baeza (1999); Instructor in Spanish; 
Bachelors Equivalency, University of Sev'ille 

Rossana Fenu Barbera (200 1 ); Visiting Assistant 
Professor of Italian; Laurea, Facolta di Letter e 
Filosofia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, 
Italy; Ph.D., Johns Hopkins Universit)' 

Lucia Perrotta Bard (1993-1996; 2000); Assistant 
Professor of French; B.A., Seton Hill College; M.A., 
Tufts University; Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

Deborah H. Barnes^ (\991); Associate Professot- of 
English, Coordinator of African American Studies; 
B.A., Tuskegee Institute; M.A., North Carolina 
Agriculture & Technical State Universit)'; Ph.D., 
Howard University 

Kevin Bartram (2001); Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Music; B.M., Northwestern University; M.M., 
University of Missouri-Columbia; D.M.A., 
Shenandoah University 

Claude Benoist (1999); Instructor in French;^.\., 
M.A., Universit)' of Rennes 2 

Temma F. Berg (1985); Professor of English and Co- 
Coordinator ufWotm'n 's Studies; B.A., M.A., Ph.D., 
Temple University 

Emelio R. Betances ( 1 99 1 ); Associate Professor of 
Sociology and Latin American Studies; B.A., 
Adelphi University; M.A., Ph.D., Rutgers, 
The State Universit)' of New Jersey 

Marie-Jose M. Binet (1988); Associate Professor of 
French; B.A., M.A., University of Florida; Ph.D., 
Duke University 



Michael J. Birkner' (1978-1979). (1989); Professor of 
History, Benjamin Franklin Chair in the Liberal Arts, 
Department Chaiiperson; B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Universit) of Virginia 

Jennifer Bivens-Tatum (2000); Visiting Assistant 
Professor of English; B.A., Moimt Holyoke College; 
M.A., University of Illinois at Urbana- 
Champaign 

Philip Bobko ( 1 997); Professor of Management and 
Psychology; B.S., Massachusetts Institute of 
Technolog); M.S., Bucknell Universit)'; Ph.D., 
Cornell University 

Robert E. Bohrer II' (1998); Assistant Professor of 
Political Science; B.S., University of Nebraska at 
Kearney; Ph.D., Texas A&M Universit)' 

Gabor S. Boritt (1981); Robert C. Fluhrer Professor of 
Civil War Studies; B.A., Yankton College; M.A., 
University of South Dakota; Ph.D., Boston 

University 

Robert F. Bornstein (1986); Professor of Psychology; 
B.A., Amherst College; Ph.D., State University of 
New York at Buffalo 

Donald M. Borock {\97A); Associate Professor of 
Political Science; B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Universit)' of 
Cincinnati 

William D. Bowman^ (1996); Associate Professor of 
History; B.A., Universit)' of San Francisco; M.A., 
Ph.D.. Johns Hopkins University 

Judith A. Brough' (1989); Professor of Education, 
Department Chairperson; B.S., Ed.M., 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania; 
Ed.D., State Universit)' of New York at Buffalo 

Vera Brusentsev (2001); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Economics; M.Ec, B.A., Macquarie University 
(Australia); Ph.D., Dalhousie Universit)' 
(Canada) 

Ronald D. Burgess (1980); Professor of Spanish; B.A., 
Washburn Universit) of Topeka; M.A., Ph.D., 
Universit)' of Kansas 

Dan W. Butin (2001); Assislatit Professor of 
Education; B.S., Massachusetts Institute of 
Technolog)'; M.A., St. John's College; Ph.D., 
University of Virginia 

Leslie Cahoon (1988); Professor of Classics; A.K, 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Calilbrnia, Berkeley 

Kathleen M. Cain (1990); Associate Professor of 
Psychology; A.R., College of the Holy Cross; A.M., 
Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 



► 



A. Ralph Cavaliere (1966); Charles H. Graff Professor 
of Biology; B.S., M.S., Aiizona State University; 
Ph.D.. Duke University 

Frank M. Chiteji' (1988); Assodate Professor of 
History; B.A., Universit)' of San Francisco; M.A., 
Ph.D., Michigan State University 

Ron Guey Chu (2001); Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Global Studies; B.A., National Taiwan University; 
M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., Columbia University 

John A. Commito ( 1 993); Professor of Environment al 
Studies and Biology, Coordinator of Environmental 
Studies; A.B., Cornell University; Ph.D., Duke 
University 

Thomas C. Conte (200 1 ); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Political Science; A.K., Boston Universit)" M.A., 
New School for Social Research; Ph.D., 
Universit}' of Maryland at College Park 

Joseph Coohill (2001); Visiting Assistant Professor of 
History; B.A., Humboldt State University; M.A., 
Universit)' of Melbourne; Ph.D., Universit)' of 
Oxford 

Mary Deborah Cowan' ( 1 989); Associate Professor 
of English, M.S. Boy er Chair in Poetry; 
B.A., Mundelein College; M.A., Western 
Washington Universit)' 

Brett E. Crawford (1998-2000; 2001); Assistant 
Professor of Physics; B.S., University of South 
Carolina; M.S., University of Vermont; M.A., 
Ph.D., Duke Universit)' 

Thomas W. Crawford (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Geography and Environmental Studies; B.S., Wake 
Forest University; M.A., Ph.D., University of 
North Carolina, Chapel Hill 

Nancy K. Cushing-Daniels (1994); Associate Professor 
of Spanish; Chairperson oj Interdisciplinary Studies; 
B.A., Alfred University; M.A., State University of 
New York at Albany; Ph.D., University of 
California, Berkeley 

Paul R. D'Agostino (1969); Professor of Psychology; 
B.S., Fordham Universit); M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Virginia 

Roy A. Dawes (1993); Associate Professor of Political 
Science, Department Chairperson; B.A., Universit)' 
of New Orleans; M.S., Ph.D., Florida State 
Universit)' 

Veronique A. Delesalle ( 1 993); Associate Professor of 
Biology; B.Sc, M.Sc, McGill Universit)'; Ph.D., 
University of Arizona 



Daniel R. DeNicola (1996); Provost and Professor of 
Philosophy; A.B., Ohio University; M.Ed., Ed.D., 
Harvard University 

Carolyn M. DeSilva' ( 1 982); Associate Professor of 
Mathematics; B.A., Merrimack College; M.S., 
Northern Arizona University; M.S., Ph.D., 
University of New Hampshire 

Daniel G. Drury (2001); Assistant Professor of Health 
and Exercise Sciences; B.A., Frostburg State 
University; M.A., George Washington Universit)'; 
D.P.E., Springfield College 

Eric S. Egge (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics; B.A., Carleton College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Wisconsin, Madison 

Charles F. Emmons (1974); Professor of Sociology and 
Anthropology; B.A., Gannon College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Illinois 

Kay Etheridge (1986); Associate Professor of Biology; 
B.S., M.S., Auburn University; Ph.D., University 
of Florida 

Christopher R. Fee ( 1 997); Assistant Professor of 
English; B.A., Baldwin-Wallace College; M.A., 
Loyola University; M.A., Universit)' of 
Connecticut; Ph.D., Universit)' of Glasgow 
(Scotland) 

Ann Harper Fender ( 1 978); Professor of Economics; 
A.B., Randolph Macon Woman's College; Ph.D., 
Johns Hopkins Universit)' 

Rebecca H. Fincher-Klefer^ (1988); Associate Professor 
of Psychology; B.S., Washington College; M.S., 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

James P. Fink (1992); Professor of Computer Science; 
Department Chairperson; B.S., Drexel University; 
M.S., Ph.D., Stanford Universit)' 

David E. Flesner ( 1 97 1 ); Associate Professor of 
Mathematics, Department Chairperson; A.Q., 
Wittenberg Universit)'; A.M., Ph.D., University of 
Michigan 

Jean W. Fletcher (1986); Associate Professor of 
Economics, Department Chairperson; B.S., 
University of Missouri; A.M., Ph.D., Wa.shington 
University 

Audias Flores-Ocampo ( 1 996); Instructor in Spanish; 
Master's Equivalency, Escuela Normal Superior 
in Morelos 

Suzanne Johnson Flynn ( 1 990); Associate Professor of 
English; B.A., State University of New York at 
Stony Brook; M.A., Ph.D., University of Virginia 



Peter P. Fong (1994); Associate Professor of Biology; 
A.B., University of California, Berlceley; M.A., 
San Francisco State University; Ph.D., University 
of California, Santa Cruz 

Robert S. Fredrickson (1969); Professor of English; 
B.A., DePauw University; M.A., University of 
Minnesota; Ph.D., University of North Carolina 
at Chapel Hill 

Karen J. Frey (1993); Associate Professor of 
Management; Department Chairperson; B.S., 
B.A., M.B.A., Shippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; Ph.D., University of Maryland 

Fritz R. Gaenslen ( 1 99 1 ); Associate Professor of 
Political Science, B.A., Miami University' (Ohio); 
M.A., Ph.D., University' of Michigan 

J. Matthew Gallman (1998); Henry R. Luce Professor 
of Civil War Era and Professor of History; B.A., 
Princeton University'; Ph.D., Brandeis University 

Robert R. Garnett (1981); Professor of English; ^.\., 
Dartmouth College; M.A., Ph.D., University of 
Virginia 

Cosetta Gaudenzi (200 1 ); Assistant Professor of 
/lalian; Laurea, Facolta di Lettere e Filosofia, 
Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Italy; M.A., 
University of Warwick, UK; Ph.D., University of 
Texas at Austin 

Daniel R. Gilbert Jr. (1999); Professor of Management 
and David M. LeVan Chair in Ethics and 
Management; B.A., Dickinson College; M.B.A., 
Lehigh University; Ph.D., University of 
Minnesota 

Sandra K. Gill (1984); Associate Professor of Sociology 
and Anthropology, Department Chairperson; B.S., 
Auburn University; M.A., University of Alabama; 
Ph.D., University' of Oregon 

Steven J. Gimble (1999); Assistant Professor of 
Philosophy; B.A., University of Maryland; 
M.A., Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 

Leonard S. Goldberg^ ( 1 982); Associate Professor of 
English, Department Chairperson; B.A., University 
of Michigan; M.A., Ph.D., University of 
Pennsylvania 

Derrick K. Gondwe ( 1 977); Professor of Economics; 
B.A., Lake Forest College; M.A., University of 
Wisconsin; Ph.D., University of Manitoba 

Timothy N. Good (1990); Associate Professor of 
Physics; B.S., Dickinson College; M.S., Ph.D., 
University' of California-Irvine 



Nathalie Goubet (2001); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Psychology; B.A., M.A., Ph.D., University of 
Massachusetts, .'\mherst 

Sharon Davis Gratto ( 1 992); Associate Professor of 
Music and Music Education Coordinator; B.Mus., 
Oberlin College; M.A., American University; 
M.Mus., State University of New York at 
Potsdam; D.M.A., The Catholic University 
of America 

Cecil C. Gray ( 1 996); Assistant Professor of Religion; 
B.A., University of Virginia; M.Div., Wesley 
Theological Seminary; Ph.D., Temple University 

Laurence A. Gregorio (1983); Professor of French; 
B.A., Saintjosephs College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Penn.sylvania 

Joseph J. Grzybowski (1979); G. Bowers and Louise 
Hook Alansdorfer Distinguished Professor of Chemistry; 
Department Chairperson; B.S., King's College; 
Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University 

Gordon A. Haaland (1990); President and Professc/r of 
Psychology; K.V>., Wlieaton College; Ph.D., State 
University of New York at Buffalo 

Scott Hancock (200 1 ); Assistant Professor of History 
and African American Studies; B.A., Bryan 
College; M.A., Ph.D., University of New 
Hampshire 

Jennifer L. Hansen (1999); Assistant Professor of 
Philosophy; B.A., Santa Clara University; M.A., 
Boston College; Ph.D., State University of New 
York at Stony Brook 

Jerome 0. Hanson ( 1 984); Associate Professor of 
Theatre Arts, Defmrtment Chairperson; B.A., State 
University of New York at Fredonia; M.A., 
University of Cincinnati 

Caroline A. Hartzell (1993); Associate Professor of 
Political Science, Coordinator of Latin Ametican 
Studies; B.A., University' of Puget Sound; M.A., 
Ph.D., University of California, Davis 

Barbara Schmltter Heisler^ ( 1 989); Professor of 
Sociology and Anthrofmlogy; B.C.S., Roosevelt 
University'; M.A., Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Julia A. Hendon (1996); Assistant Professor of 
Sociology and Anthrofmlogy; B.A., Uni\'ersity of 
Pennsylvania; A.M., Ph.D., Harvard LIniversity 

Sherman S. Hendrix (1964); Professor of Biology; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., Florida State 
University; Ph.D., University of Maryland 



> 



Ann M. Herd (2001); Visiting Associate Professor of 
.Management; B.A., University of Kentucky; Ph.D., 
L'niversity of Tennessee 

Donald W. Hinrichs (1968); Professor of Sociology and 
Anthropology; B.A., Western Maryland College; 
M.A., University of Maryland; Ph.D., Ohio State 
LIniversity 

Kazuo Hiraizumi (\9B7y, Associate Professor of 
Biology, Department Chairperson; B.S., Stanford 
University; Ph.D., North Carolina State 

University 

Pensri Ho (2001); Visiting Assistant Professor and 
Postdoctoral Fellow in Social Anthropology; B.A., 
Barnard College; Ph.D., Universit)' of Southern 
California 

Helenmarie Hofman ( 1 99 1 ); Associate Professor of 
Education; B.S., M.Ed., Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania; Ph.D., University of Minnesota 

Eleanor J. Hogan (1999); Assistant Professor of 
Japanese; B.A., Bates College; M.A., Ph.D., 
Washington University 

Koren A. Holland (1992); Associate Professor of 
Chemistry; B.A., Skidmore College; Ph.D., 
University of Maryland, College Park 

Catherine V. Howard (1998); Assistant Professor 
of Sociology and Anthropology; B.A., Marlboro 
College; M.A., Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Kathleen P. lannello ( 1 990); Associate Professor of 
Politiccd Science; B.A., Universit)' of Arizona; M.A. 
(2), Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University 

Steven W. James (1992); Associate Professor of 
Biology; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., Ph.D., 
University of Minnesota 

Donald L. Jameson ( 1 985); Professor of Chemistry; 
B.S., Bucknell University; Ph.D., University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

John W. Jones^ (1989); Associate Professor of Music, 
Department Chairperson; B.S., Lebanon Valley 
College; M.Ed., Towson State Universit)'; D.M.A., 
Temple University 

Brooks A. Kaiser (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Economics; A.B., Vassar College; Ph.D., 
Northwestern University 

Yoshimltsu Khan (200 1 ); Assistant Professor of 
Japanese Studies; B.S., Sophia University (Tokyo); 
M.A., Seton Hall University; Ph.D., University of 
Pennsvlvania 



Daria J. Kremer^ (1999); Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics; B.S., B.A., Bethel College; M.S., 
Ph.D., Univer-sit)' of Iowa 

Keely K. Lake (2001); Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Classics; B.A., University of South Dakota; Ph.D., 

University of Iowa 

Elizabeth Riley Lambert (1984); Professor of English; 
B.A., Duquesne University; M.A., George Mason 
University; Ph.D., University of Maryland 

Julia Landweber (2001); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of History; B.A., Reed College; Ph.D., Rutgers 
University 

William H. Lane (2000); Lecturer in English; B. A., 
Gett)'sburg College; M.A., Graduate Institute at 
St. John's College 

Fred G. Leebron ( 1 997); Associate Professor of 
English; B.A., Princeton Universit}" M.A., Johns 
Hopkins Universit)'; M.F.A., Universit)' of Iowa 

L. Carl Leinbach (1967); Professor of Computer 
Science; B.A., Lafayette College; M.A., University 
of Delaware; Ph.D., University of Oregon 

Bryan C. Lewis (2000); Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., M.Ed., Frostburg State 
Universit)' 

Dina Lowy (2000); Assistant Professor of History; 
B.A., Universit)' of Pennsylvania; M.A., Princeton 
Universit)'; Ph.D., RiUgers University 

Darren MacFarland (200 1 ); Assistant Professor of 
Chemistry; B.A., Williams College; Ph.D., 
University of Wisconsin 

Antonio Marin (1995); Instructor in Spanish; B.A., 
M.A., Universit)- of Sevilla 

Laurence A. Marschall (1971); W.K.T. Sahm Professor 
of Physics; Department Chairperson; B.S., Cornell 
LIniversirv'; Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Michael E. Matsinko {\ 97 6); Associate Professor of 
Music; B.S., M.M., West Chester Universit)' of 
Pennsylvania 

Lynnell S. Matthews (200 1 ); Instructor in 
Mathematics; B.S.,Towson Universit)'; M.S., 
Howard Universit)' 

Daniel D. McCalP (1998); Assistant Professo}- of 
Psychology; B.A., M.S., Ph.D., University of 
Massachusetts at Amherst 

Robin A. McCann (2001); Visiting Assistant Professor 
o/ Chemistry; B.S., Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy and Science; Ph.D., Pennsylvania 
State Universit)', College of Medicine 



Arthur W. McCardle (1969); Associate Professor of 
(irrmnu. Depart men I Chairperson; ^.A., M.A., 
IMi.D., (loluinbia University 

Jan E. Mikesell (1973); Professor of Biology; h.S., 
M.S., Western Illinois University; Ph.D., Ohio 
State University 

Jacquelynne B. Milingo (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Physics; h.S. (2), University of Kansas; Ph.D., 
Universitv of Oklahoma 

Ronald Miller (1994); Instructor in Education; R.S., 
Shippensbiirg University of Pennsylvania; M.Ed., 
Pennsylvania State University 

Dorothy C. Moore (1999); Lecturer in Spanish; B.A., 
M.A., California State Universit)'-Fresno 

Kenneth F. Mott ( 1 966); Professor of Political Science; 
A.B., Franklin and Marshall College; M.A., 
Lehigh University; Ph.D., Brown University 

George M. Muschamp Jr. (1997); Assistant Professor of 
Theatre Alls: B.A., GettAsbuig College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Minnesota 

Charles D. Myers, Jr. (1986); Associate Professor of 
Religion, Department Chairperson; B.A., Duke 
University; M.Div., Ph.D., Princeton Theological 
Seminary 

James P. Myers, Jr. (1968); Professor of English; B.S., 
LeMoyne College; M.A., University of Aiizona; 
Ph.D., University of Massachusetts 

Robert Natter (1998); Assistant Professor of Music 
and Director of Choral Activities; B.A., M.A., 
University of California, Santa Cruz; D.M.A., 
Universit)' of ( ancinnati College-Conservatory 
of Music 

Todd W. Neller (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Computer Science; B.S., Cornell Universit)'; M.S., 
Ph.D., Stanford University 

Katsuyuki Niiro {\971); Associate Professor of 
Economics; B.A., M.A., University of Hawaii; M.A., 
Ph.D., Universit)' of Pittsburgh 

Jeanne Nijhowne (2001); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Anthropology; B.A., Universit)' of Washington; 
Ph.D., Binghamton Universit) 

Paula D. Olinger (1979); Associate Professor of 
Spanish; B.A., University of Wisconsin; M.A., 
Ph.D., Brandeis Universitv 



David Ozag (1998); Assistant Professor of 
Management; B.S., University of Maryland, 
College Park; M.B.A., Mount Saint Mary's 
College; Ed.D., George Washington University; 

c;pA 

William E. Parker^ (1967); Professor of Chemistry; 
B.A., Haverford C^oUege; M.S., Ph.D., University 
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Alan H. Paulson (1978); Professor of Visual Arts; 
B.F.A., Philadelphia College of Art; M.F.A., 
Universit)' of Pennsylvania 

Peter J. Pella' (1987); Professor of Physics; B.S., 
United States Military Academy; M.S., 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Ph.D., Kent 
State Universit)' 

David F. Petrie (1997); Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences, Department Co-Chairperson; B.A., 
Gett)'sburg College; M.S., University of Delaware 

Thane S. Pittman (1972); Professor of Psychology; 
B.A., Kent State University; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Iowa 

Jonelle E. Pool (1996); Associate Professor of 
Education; B.A., Carroll College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Georgia 

Lisa Portmess (1979); Professor of Philosophy, 
Department Chairperson; B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Queen's University 

Jean L. Potuchek' ( 1 988); Associate Professor of 
Sociology and Anthropology; A.E., Salve Regina 
College; A.M., Ph.D., Brown Universit)' 

Janet M. Powders (1963-65; 1987-88; 1998); Associate 
Professor of Women 's Studies and Interdisciplinary 
Studies and Coordinator of Clobal Studies; B.A., 
Bucknell University; M.A., Universit)' of 
Michigan; M.A., Ph.D., University of Wisconsin 

Clifford Presser (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Computer Science; B.S., Pepperdine University; 
Ph.D., Universit)' of South Carolina 

William F. Railing (1964); Professor of Economics; 
B.S., United States Merchant Marine Academy; 
B.A., Johns Hopkins Universit)'; Ph.D., Cornell 
University 

Rosario Ramos (1997); Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Sociology; B.A., Texas Christian University; M.A., 
Texas Woman's Universit)'; Ph.D., State 
Universitv of New York at ,\lbanv 



David W. Redmon (200 1 ); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Sociology; B.A., Texas Christian University; 
M.A., Texas Woman's University; Ph.D., State 
University of New York at Albany 

Kathryn Rhett (1997); Assistant Professor of English; 
B.A., M.A., Johns Hopkins University; M.F.A., 
Universit)' of Iowa 

Janet Morgan Riggs^ (1981); Professor of Psychology; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Ph.D., Princeton 
Universit)' 

Michael L. Ritterson ( 1 968); Associate Professor of 
German; A.B., Franklin and Marshall College; 
Ph.D., Harvard University 

Marta E. Robertson (1997); Associate Professor of 
Music; B.Miis., University of Kansas; M.Mus., 
Ph.D., University of Michigan 

Alicia Rolon (1994); Associate Professor of Spanish; 
B.A., Instituto Superior del Profesorado "Victor 
Mercante" (Argendna); M.A., Temple Universit)'; 
Ph.D., Universit)' of Colorado, Boulder 

William E. Rosenbach ( 1 984); Harold G. Evans 
Professor of Eisenhower Leadership Studies; B.S., 
B.B.A., Texas A & M University; M.B.A., Golden 
Gate University; Ph.D., University of Colorado 

Susan Russell (1998); Assistant Professor of Theatre 
Arts; B.A.. Hendrix College; M.A., University of 
Wisconsin; Ph.D., Universit)' of Washington 

John E. Ryan ( 1 994); Associate Professor of English; 
A.A., Broome Community College; B.A., New 
York University; M.A., Ph.D., Case Western 
Reserve Universit\' 

Steven A. Samaras (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Management; BBA, Loyola Universit)'; MBA, 
Northern Illinois University; Ph.D., University of 
Nebraska-Lincoln 

Magdalena S. Sanchez ( 1 994); Associate Professor of 
History; B.A., Seton Hall University; M.A., Ph.D., 
Johns Hopkins University 

Felisa Maria Santisteban (2001); Instructor in 
Spanish; I Acenckituvd (M.A. equivalent). 
University of Seville 

Virginia E. Schein (1986); Professor of Management; 
B.A., Cornell Universitv; Ph.D., New York 
University 

Timothy J. Shannon ( 1 996); Associate Professor of 
History; B.A., Brown Lhiivcrsity; Ph.D., 
Northwestern Universitv 



Stephen M. Siviy ( 1 990); Associate Professor of 
Psychology; B.A., Washington and Jefferson 
College; M.S., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; 
Ph.D., Bowling Green State University 

Carol D. Small (1969); Assistant Professor of Visual 
Arts; B.A., Jackson College of Tufts University; 
M.A., Johns Hopkins University 

Carolyn S. Snively' (1982); Professor of Classics; 
B.A., Michigan State University; M.A., Ph.D., 
Universit)' of Texas at Austin 

Barbara A. Sommer (2001); Assistant Professor of 
History; B.A., Colorado College; M.A., University 
of Chicago; Ph.D., University of New Mexico 

Deborah A. Sommer ( 1 998); Assistant Professor of 
Religion; B.A., CJase Western Reserve Universit)'; 
M.A., M.P., Ph.D., Columbia University 

Ralph A. Sorensen (1977); Professor of Biology; B.A., 
Universit)' of California, Riverside; Ph.D., Yale 
University 

Amina M. Steinfels (2001); Instructor in Religion; 
B.A., Amherst College; M.A., Yale University 

Sharon L. Stephenson^ ( 1 997); Assistant Professor of 
Physics; B.S., Millsaps College; Ph.D., North 
Carolina State Universit)' 

Eileen M. Stiliwaggon (1994); Assistant Professor of 
Economics; B.S., Edmund Walsh School of Foreign 
Service, Georgetown University; Diploma in 
Economics, University of Cambridge, England; 
M.A., Ph.D., American University 

Peter A. Stitt ( 1 986); Professor of English, Editor of 
The Gettysburg Review; B.A., M.A., University of 
Minnesota; Ph.D., University of North Carolina 
at Chapel Hill 

Kristin J. Stuempfle (1997); Assistant Professor of 
Health and Exercise Sciences, Department Co- 
Chairperson; B.S., Ursinus College; Ph.D., The 
Pennsylvania State University College of 
Medicine 

Donald G. Tannenbaum ( 1 966); Associate Professor of 
Political Science; B.B.A., M.A., Cit)' College of the 
City University of New York; Ph.D., New York 
University 

Kenichi Tazawa (2000); Instructor in 
Inlerdisciplinary Studies (Japanese); B.A., M.A., 
University of Minnesota 

C. Kerr Thompson (1985); Professor of Spanish; B.A., 
Davidson College; M.A., Ph.D., Louisiana State 
University 



Rodney S. Tosten' ( 1 990); Associate Professor of 
Computer Science; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., 
West Virginia University; Ph.D., George Ma.son 
University' 

Amelia M. Trevelyan (1985); Associate Professor of 
Visual Arts; B.A., M.A., University of Michigan; 
Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles 

Istvan A. Urcuyo (2000); Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Biology; B.S., The Citadel— The Military 
College of South Carolina; Ph.D., Pennsylvania 
.State Uni\ersit}' 

Isabel Valiela (1999); Assistant Professor of Spanish 
and Women's Studies; B.A., State University of 
New York at Albany; M.A., New York Universit)' 
(Madrid); Ph.D., Duke University 

Miguel Vinuela (1988); Associate Professor of Spanish, 
Department Chairperson; B.A., M.A., California 
State University, Fresno; Ph.D., University of 
California, Los Angeles 

Elizabeth Richardson Viti (1984); Professor of French, 
Edwin T. Johnson and Cynthia Shearer Johnson 
Distinguished Teaching Professor in the Humanities; 
B.A., Wake Forest University; M.A., Middlebiuy 
College; Ph.D., New York University 

Robert M. Viti (1971); Professor of French, 
Department Chairperson; B.A., St. Peter's College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Duke University 

John A. Volkmar (1999); Instructor in Management; 
B.A., Ohio State University; M.S., Temple 
LhiiversiU' 

Kerry S. Walters (1985); Professor and William 
Bittinger Chair of Philosophy; B.A., University of 
North Carolina at Charlotte; M.A., Marquette 
University; Ph.D., University of Cincinnati 

H. Charles Walton (1989); Assodate Professor of 
Management; B.S., Auburn University; M.A., East 
Tennessee State University; Ph.D., Florida State 
Uni\ersity; CPA 

Anke Walz (2000); Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics; Diplom, Technical University 
Berlin; M.A., Ph.D., Cornell University 

Shirley A. Warshaw (1987); Professor of Political 
Science; B.A., M.G.A., University of Pennsylvania; 
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 



Mark K. Warwick (2000); Assistant Professor of Visual 
Arts, Department Chairperson; B.A., The 
Polytechnic Wolverhampton in England; M.F.A., 
New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred 
University 

Michael R. Wedlock (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Chemistry; B.S., Hope College; M.S., Ph.D., 
University of Chicago 

David E. Weinreich (200 1 ); Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics; B.S., M.S., Emory University; Ph.D., 
L'niversit)' of Memphis 

Charles L. Weise (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Economics; B.S., Georgetown University; Ph.D., 
University of Wisconsin-Madison 

C. Mark Wessinger (2001); Assistant Professor of 
Psychology; B.S., University of Florida; Ph.D., 
LIniversity of California 

Katharine E. Whitcomb (2001); Lecturer in English; 
B.A., Macalester College; M.F.A., Vermont 
College of Norwich Universit)' 

Randall K. Wilson (2000); Assistant Professor of 
Enxiironmental Studies; B.A., Humboldt State 
University; M.A., Lhiiversit)' of Colorado, 
Bfjulder; Ph.D., University of Iowa 

Robert B. Winans (1987); Professor of English; KA., 
Cornell Universit)'; M.A., Ph.D., New York 
University 

John R. Winklemann' (1963); Associate Professor of 
Biology; B.A., University of lUinoi.s; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Michigan 

Cindy T. Wright (1999); Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., State Universit)' of New 
York at Cortland; M.S., University of Utah 

Kent D. Yager (1986); Associate Professor of Spanish; 
B.A., M.A., University of California, Santa 
Barbara; Ph.D., University of New Mexico 

Charles J. Zabrowski ( 1 987); Associate Professor of 
Classics, Department Chairperson; A..^., Canisius 
College; M.A., Universit)' of Toronto; Ph.D., 
Fordhain University 

' On leave. Fall semester 2002-03 

' On leave. Spring semester 2002-03 

^ On leave. Academic Year 2002-03 

* Off campus, Study Abroad Program, Fall 
Semester, 2002-03 



OTHERS HOLDING FACULTY RANK 
(2001-2002 ACADEMIC YEAR) 

Christine A. Altieri; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., Brown University; M.A., University of 
Virginia 

Gloria C. Alvarez; Adjunct Instructor in Spanish; 
B.A., University of Maryland; M.A., University of 
Texas at El Paso 

Gisela M. Aragon; Spanish Teaching Assistant; R.A., 
Esciiela Superior de Lenguas, Cordoba 

Sebastian Barth; German Teaching Assistant; 
Magister, Universitat des Saarlandes 

Gerald D. Baumgardner; Adjunct Assistant Professor 
oj Economics; B.A., Pennsylvania State University; 
M.B.A., Shippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; M.Ed., Pennsylvania State 
University; Ed.D., George Mason University 

Brent C. Blair; Adjunct Instructor in Visual Arts; 
B.A., West Virginia University 

Duane A. Botterbusch; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Music; B.S., Mansfield University of Pennsylvania; 
M.M., West (>hester University of Pennsylvania 

Teresa Bowers; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music; 
B.M.E., Susquehanna University; M.M., Ohio 
State University' 

Sally M. Brasher; Adjunct Instructor in History; B.A., 
University of (Colorado, Boulder; M.A., 
Minnesota State University 

Michael P. Cantele; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., 
Old Dominion University 

Paul J. Carrick; Adjunct Professor of Philosophy; B.A., 
Michigan State University; M.A., University' of 
Pennsylvania; Ph.D., Temple University 

Pamela J. Castle; Adjunct Instructor in Biology; R.S., 
Oregon Stale University; M.S., Washington State 
University 

Ian R. Clarke; Adjunct Instructor of Physics; E.A., 
University of Virginia; M.F.A., University of Iowa 

Laurel A. Cohen-Pfister; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
German; B.A., M.A., University of Florida; Ph.D., 
University of California, Los Angeles 

Holly Cookcrly; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Scimces; B.S., M.Ed., Pennsyhania State 
University 



P. Richard Cooper; Laboratory Instructor in Physics; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.Ed., Western 
Maryland (College 

Thomas S. Dombrowsky; Adjunct Instructor in 
hiterdisciplinary Studies; B.A., University of Rhode 
Island; M.A., Morgan State University 

Lisa K. Dorrill; Adjunct Instructor in Visual Arts; 
B.A., University of Virginia; M.A., Northwestern 
University; Ph.D., University' of Kansas 

Christina L. Ericson-Hansen; Adjunct Instructor in 
History; B.A., (iettysburg College; M.A., 
University' of Maryland 

Jeffrey Fahnestock; Adjunct Instructor in Music; 
B.M., M.M., Eastman School of Music, 
University of Rochester 

Martin A. Fees; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., Indiana University' of 
PeiHisylvania; M.S., M.P.T., University of 
Delaware 

Jonathan Fenno; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Classics; B.A., Concordia College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of California at Los Angeles 

Linda Karine Fiscus; Adjunct Instructor in 
Mathematics; B.A., Susquehanna University; M.S., 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 

William K. Foreman; Adjunct Instructor in 
Education; B.S., Shippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; M.Ed., Pennsylvania State 
University 

Karen Friedland (Land); Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of Theatre Arts; B.A., Goucher College; M.D.S., 
Johns Hopkins University 

Lisa I. Gregory; Laboratory Instructor II in 
Chemistry; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Lynn E. Gumert; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Music; B.M., Catholic University of America; 
M.M., D.Mus., Indiana University 

Michael Hayden; Laboratory Instructor in Physics; 
B.S., University of Maryland, College Park 

Andrea C. Henry; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Music; B.M., Pennsylvania State University; 
M.M., Southern Methodist University 

James R. Hontz; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music; 
B.M., M.M., Temple University 

Barbara Hulsether; Laboratory Instructor II in 
Biology; B.S., Utica College of S)Tacuse University 



Yukiko Ito; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Visual Aits; 
B.F.A., Stephen F. Austin State University; M.F.A., 
New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred 
University 

Kathryn H. Jones; Laboratory Instructor in Chemistry; 
B.S., University of Notre Dame; M.S., 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 

Paula C. Kellinger; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Iheatre Arts; B.A., B.F.A., Adelphi University; 
M.F.A., Sarah Lawrence College 

Robert M. Knight; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.S., University of Colorado; M.A., DePaul 

University 

Renee A. Lehman; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.S., The Pennsylvania State 
University; M.S., Universit)' of Illinois at Urbana- 
(^hampaign; M.S., University of Rhode Island 

William Leslie; Adjunct Instructor i)i Computer 
Science; B.S., Indiana University of Pennsylvania; 
M.Ed., Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 

Lani Lindeman; Adjunct Instructor in English and 
Interdiscifdinary Studies; B.A., Gett}'sburg College 

Kerry J. MacFarland; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Chemistry; B.A., Williams College; Ph.D., 
University of Wisconsin 

Charles Martin; Erench Teaching Assistant; Licence 
de Francais Langue Euangers; Maitrise 
d'anglais; Maitrise de Francais Langue 
Estrangere, University of Rennes 

John D. Messier; Adjunct Instructor in Economics; 
B.,\., Richard Stockton College 

Donald E. Myers; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Education; B.A., Elizabethtown College; M.Ed., 
Western Maryland College; Ed.D., Temple 
University 

Yukiko Niiro; Adjunct Instructor in Mathematics; 
B.B.A., M.B.A., University of Hawaii 

Lisa E. ?a.igt-StQne; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
English; A.B., Harvard University; M.A., Ph.D., 
Bryn Mawr College 

Cyndy M. Phillips; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., Universit)' of Miami; M.A., Humboldt State 
University (California) 

Phyllis Price; Laboratory Instructor II in Biology; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

James G. Ramos; Adjunct Instructor in Visual Arts; 
B.S., M.Ed., Pennsylvania State University 



Alden H. Reese; Laboratory Instructor II in Biology; 
A.B., Hood College 

Pamela J. Rosenberg; Adjunct Associate Professor of 
Sociology and Anthropology; B.A., Beloi( College; 
M.A., University of New Hampshire; Ph.D., 
Cornell University 

Catharine E. Roth; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., Earlham College; M.A., University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill 

James Ryon; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music; 
B.Mus., East Carolina University; M.Mus., Peabody 
Institute; D.M.A., Catholic University of America 

Charles Saltzman; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
A.B., Harvard College; M.A.T., Harvard 
Graduate School of Education 

Anne E. Sauve; Adjunct Assistant Projessor of 
Psychology; B.A., Getty.sburg College; M.A., Ph.D., 
Hofstra Universit}' 

James Schafer; Adjunct Instructor in Education; 
B.A., Wake Forest College; M.A., University of 
Maryland 

Stephanie A. Sellers; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., American University; M.F.A., Goddard 

College 

Allison C. Singley; Adjunct Instructor in English; 
B.A., University of Pennsylvania; M.A., 
University of Connecticut 

Stephanie A. Slocum-Schaffer; Adjunct Assistant 
Projessor of Political Science; B.A., Bucknell 
University; Ph.D., American University, School 
of Public -\ffairs 

Jeremy A. Smith; Laboratory Instructor in Physics; 
B.S., Gettysburg College 

Barbara Streeter; Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.A., Lebanon V'alley College 

Kenneth C. Washinger; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics; B.S., Shippensbing University of 
Pennsylvania; M.Ed., Pennsylvania State 
Universit)'; Ed.D., Rutgers Universit)' 

Victor Wertz; Adjunct Instructor in Music; B.M., 
Sus(|ueiiaiuia University; M.M., University of 
North Texas 

Helen J. Winkelmann; Senior Laboratory Instructor in 
Biology and Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Exercise Sciences; B.A., Notre Dame College of 
Staten Island; M.S., University of Michigan 



Register/Administration 



^^y 



John Winship; Adjmict Instructor in Visual Arts; 
H.A., Middlebury College 

Miyuki Yoshikami; Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Music; B.A., University of California at Los 
Angeles; M.A., Ph.D., University of Maryland, 
( ollege Park 

Jo Ann K. Zeman; Laboratory Instructor II in Biology; 
1>..\., Western Maryland College 

Lori G. Zeshonsky; Adjunct Instructor in Music; 
B.A., West Chester University 

ADMINISTRATION 
(2001-2002 ACADEMIC YEAR) 

Emeriti 

Date in parentheses indicate years of service. 

Jay P. Brown (1947-1988), Bursar, Emeritus 

Mary G. Burel (1970-1986), Librarian, Emerita 

Roland E. Hansen (1973-1989), Business Manager, 
Emeiitus 

Robert B. Kenworthy (1959-1999), Director of Sports 
Information, Emeritus 

Nancy C. Locher (1968-1989), Dean of Student 
Advisemen t, Emerita 

Karl J. Mattson (1977-2001), Director of the Center 
for Public Service, Emeritus 

Edward F. McManness (1970-1988), Director of the 

College Union, Emeritus 

Anna Jane Moyer (1961-2000), Librarian, Emerita 

James H. Richards, Jr. (1974-1983), Librarian 

Emeritus 

Robert D. Smith (\9S9-1999), Director of Alumni 
Relations, Emeritus 

Frank B. Williams (1966-1993), Dean of Student Life 
and Educational Services. Emeritus 

Richard K. Wood (1969-1990), Director of Academic 
Compu ting, Emeiitus 

Office of the President 

Gordon A. Haaland (1990); President and Professor of 
Psychology; A.R., Wheaton College; Ph.D., State 
Universitv of New York at Buffalo 

Sherry Heflin (2001); Program Director of the 
Gettysburg Learning Experience and Coordinator 
of the Eisenhower Institute 



Cheryl Miller ( 1 994); Executive Assistant to the 
President; B.S., Dickinson College; M.B.A., 
Columbia University' 

Perrin Reid (2000); Director of Employment Equity 
and Diversity; B.A., Tufts University; M.A., 
University of Massachusetts, Amherst; J. D., 
Loyola Law School 

Dana Scaduto (2001); General Counsel; A.R., 
Purdue L^niversity; J.D., Indiana University 

Cathy W. Staneck ( 1 989); Assistant to the President; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Provost 

Daniel R. DeNicola (1996); Provost and Professor of 
Philosophy; A.R.. Ohio University; M.Ed., Ed.D., 
Harvard University 

Greg Anderson (1994); Assistant Director of the 
Advancing Science Program, Biology; B.S., St. 
Bonaventure University, Teacher Certification, 
Daemen College 

Teresa Amott (2000); Vice Provost; B.A., Smith 
College; Pli.D., Boston College 

Rebecca A. Bergren (1997); Director of Off-Campus 
Studies; B.A., M.RS., Alfred University 

G. Ronald Couchman (1967); Registrar; B.A., 
Gett)sburg College 

Rhonda Good (2001); Assistant Provost for the 
Sciences; B.A., Millersville University 

Tina M. Grim (1980); Program Manager, Civil War 
Institute 

Barbara J. Herman (1975); Executive Assistant to the 
Provost 

Ronald D. Miller (1993); Director of Eield Experiences; 
B.S., Shippensburg Universit)'; M.Ed., Penn 
State Universit)' 

Alan Szarawarski (2001); Interim Assistant Provost; 
B.S., MIT; Ph.D., Harvard Universit)' 

Jack W. Sipe (1998); Teacher Specialist; B.S., 
Millers\ille University; M.S., Shippensburg 
University 

Glenn Snyder (1992); Research Associate/Programmer, 
Physics; B.S., Case Institute of Technolog)'; 
Ph.D., Case Western Reserve Universit)' 

Deborah M. Wailes (1991); Director fen- t/w Center of 
Internships and Pre-Law/Pre-Med Advising; B.A., 
Wilmington College; M.H.S., Lincoln Universit)' 

Mary Waltz; Manage)- of Registrar's IS 



Gettysburg Review 

Peter Stitt (1986); Editm; Professor of English; B.A., 
M.A., University of Minnesota; Ph.D., University 
of North Carolina-Chapel Hill 

Mark S. Drew (1998); AssislanI Editor; B.A., 
Kent (A)llege; M.F.A., University of Alabama 

Melinda Wilson; Managing Editor; ^.h.. University 
of Louisiana, Monroe; M.F.A., University of 
Alabama 

Information Technology and Computing 

David Steinour (1999); Vice Provost for IT 

Mark A. Albert (1998); Weh Programmer/Analyst; 
B..\., Shippensbiug University' 

John C. Baker (1998); MIS Programmer/Analyst; 
B.A., Geneva College; M.S., Shippensburg 
University 

Lisa Becker (2001); MIS Progianuim/Analysl 
(Ancillary System); A. A., York College 

Sharon Birch; Director of Instructional Technology; 
B.A., Southwestern University at Georgetown; 
M.A., Bowling Green State University; Ph.D., 
Bowling Green State University 

David M. Czar (1994); MIS DBA C^ Systems Analyst; 
B.A., Drew University 

John Duffy (2001); CNAV Admin/Systems Analyst; 
B.A., Wesleyan University; M.A., Brown 
University'; Ph.D., Boston University 

Richard J. Fawley (1995); Network 
Operator/Computer Lab Specialist 

Michael B. Hayden {\99b); Director of Infrastructure 
and Operations; B.S.E.E., University of Maryland 
at College Park 

David Heinzelmann; MIS Configuration Management 
Specialist; A. A., Devry Technical Institiue 

Marianne Kingston (lOOl); Director of Response 

David Kline (1999); MIS Programmer/Analyst;V>.S., 
M.B.A, Frostburg State University 

Stephan Lewis (1999); Director- of MIS; B.S., Penn 
State University; M.S., Troy State University 

Eric Markle (2001); Webmaster; B.S., York College 

Gary Miliburn (1999); MIS Programmer/Analyst; B.S., 
University- of Southern Florida 



David Nettekoven; MIS Programmer /Anahsl; B.S., 
Indiana University 

David Rice (1999); MAS' Programmer /Analyst; B.S., 
Shippensburg University 

Amy Riley (1999); UNIX/NT Systems Administrator; 
B.S., University of Washington; M.S., Johns 
Hopkins University 

James Riley (1999); MIS DBA ^^ Systems Analyst; 
B.S., Uni\ersity' of Maryland 

Patricia Rollins (2001); Manager of 
Telecommunications 

James Rutkowski (2001); Instructional Technologist; 
B.S.. Towson University; M.A., UMBC 

William P. Wilson (1979); Director of Web Technology; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Ph.D., University 
of Connecticut 

Eric J. Yurick (1995); Internet Sennces Specialist; 
B.S., M.S., Shippensburg University 

Musselman Library 

Robin Wagner ( 1 995); Director of Library Services; 
B.A., Dickinson College; M.L.S., University of 
Kentucky; M.A., Dartmouth College 

Christine Amadure (1999); Processing Reference 
Archivist; B.A., Shippensburg University; M.A., 
Penn State University; M.S.L.S., Clarion 
University' 

Laura Bowen (2001); Systems Librarian; B.A., Kent 
State Uni\'ersit> ; M.L.S., S)Tacuse University 

Kathleen D'Angelo (2001); Serials/Acquisitions 
Librarian; B.A., University of North Carolina; 
M.L.S., University of North Carolina 

Sidney G. Dreese (1995); Reference/Instructional 
Librarian; B.A., Clarion University; M.S., Drexel 
Universitv' 

Karen Drickamer (1999); Archivist/Special Collections 
Librmian; B.A., North Adams State College, MA; 
M.L.S., State University' of New York-Albany 

Cynthia Gibbon (2001); Access Services Manager; 
B.A., Slippery Rock University; Teacher 
Certification in Secondary English, hidiana 
University of Penn.sylvania; M.L.A., Western 
Maryland College 



i 



David T. Hedrick (1972); Coordinator of Collections; 
B.A., Emory and Henry College; M.A., 

I 'niversitv of Den\cr 

Amrita McKinney (2001); Hmd of Ihhnical Services; 
li.S., Northern Arizona University; M.L.S., 
Louisiana State University 

Janelle Wertzberger (1997); Head of Reference/ 
Instructional Librarian; B.A., Southwestern 
University; M.A., University of Florida; M.L.I.S., 
University of Texas at Austin 

College Life 

Julie L. Ramsey (1981); Dean of the College; B.A., 
Dtnison Universit) ; M.A., Indiana Universit)' 

Loretta W. Hylton (1989); Executive Assistant to the 
Dean 

Thomas Mottola (1998); Director of Judicial 
Affairs/Community Development; B.A., Georgetown 
Universitv; M.E.D., Harvard University' 

Margaret-Ann Radford-Wedemeyer ( 1 986); Associate 
Dean of the College & Sexual Harassment Officer; 
B.A., Texas Women's University; M.A., Hood 
College 

Academic Advising 

GailAnn Ricl<ert (1997); Associate Dean and Director 
of Academic Advising; B.A., Dickinson College; 
M.A., University of Oxford; Ph.D., Harvard 
University 

Anne B. Lane (1989); Associate Dean of Academic 
Advising; B.A., Elizabethtown College; M.A., 
University of Iowa 

Robert C. Nordvall (1972); Dean of First-Year 
Students; B.A., DePaiiw University; J. D., Harvard 
Law School; Ed.D., Indiana University 

Career Planning and Advising 

Kathleen L. Williams (1998); Director of Career 
Flanning and Advising; B.A., Albion College; 
M.A., Western Michigan University 

Lorie Davis (2001); Career Counselor; Q.S., 
Kutztown University; M.A., Shippensburg 
University 

Kathleen Regentin (2001); Assistant Director of 
Career Planning and Advising; B.S., Radford 
University; M.S., Shippensburg University 

Susan Schlak ( 1 999); Career Services Specialist 



Center for Public Service 

Julia Reed (2001); Director; B.A.. M.S.S.W., 
University, of Wisconsin 

Gretchen Natter ( 1 998); Associcite Director for the 
Center for Public Service; B.S., Baldwin Wallace 

Chaplain 

Rev. Joseph A. Donnella II (1997); Chaplain ;?> A., 
Duquesne University; M.Div., Lutheran School 
of Theology, Chicago 

Josephine Bailey Freund (1991); College Organist, 
Adjunct Instructor in Music; B.S.,John Hopkins 
University; B.Mus., M.Mus., Peabody 
Conservatory 

Counseling Services 

William H. Jones (1964); Coordinator of Counseling; 
B.A., Eastern Nazarene College; M.A., University 
of Wisconsin; Ed.D., Boston University 

Shirley S. Armstrong (1995); Counselor; B.A., 
Gett)'sburg College; M.A., Shippensbiug University 

Harriet Barriga Marritz ( 1 989); Counselor, Drug 
Education Coordinator; B.A., Lafayette College; 
M.S., Millers\illf University of Pennsylvania 

LaDonna B. Mullins (1995); Health Education 
Consultant; B.A., Augustana, Sioux Falls 

Frances F. Parker (1980); Associate Coordinator of 
Cou)iseUng; B..\., M.A., University of Kentucky 

Health Services 

Frederick Kinsella ( 1 990); Nurse Practitioner and 
Director of Student Health Services; B.S., Wagner 
College; M.S., Wagner College; Post-Master's 
Certificate, University of Virginia 

Janice O'Nieal (1997); Nurse Practitioner; B.A., 
B.S.N., Jersey City State College; M.S.N. , Seton 
Hall Universitv 

Constance A. Songer (1986); Nurse Practitioner; 
R.N., Washington Hospital Center 

Intercultural Advancement 

H. Pete Curry (1997); Dea)i of Intercultural 
Advancenwut; B.A., Baldwin Wallace C:ollege; 
M.A., Bowling Green Slate University 

Mikiko Kumasaka (2000); Assistant Director of 
Intercultural Advancement and Coordinator of 
International Studies Programs; B.A., San Diego 
State University; M.Div., Fuller Theological 
Seminary 



Yukiko K. Niiro (1986); Counselor, InlercuUural 
Resources Center; B.A., M.A., University of Hawaii 

Office of Greek Organizations 

Dennis K. Murphy (1990); Assistant Dean oj the 
College and Director of Greek Organizations; B.A., 
Saint Francis College (Pennsylvania); M.S., 
Shippensbiirg University of Pennsylvania; Ed.D., 
Indiana University 

Greg Henderson (200 1 ); Assistant Director of 
Experiential Education and Campus Recreation; 
B.A., SUNYGeneseo; M.Ed., College of William 
and Mary 

Marikate Murren (2000); Director of Campus 
Recreation, B.A., University of Connecticut; M.A., 
University of Connecticut 

John E. Regentin ([99S)\ Director of Experiential 
Education; B.S., M.S., Radford University 

Residence Life 

Jim Wiltgen (2001); Director of Residence Eife;'&A., 
l.oras College; M.Ed., Ajizona State University 

Natalie Basil (2000); Area Manager; B.A., Marietta 
College; M.A., Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania 

Lindsey Rosenberg (2001); Area Manager; B.A., 
Bucknell University 

Thomas Segar (1999); Associate Director, Residence 
Life; B.S., L'niversity of Maryland 

Jeff Terpstra (2001); Area Manager; B.S., Calvin 
College; M.A., Geneva College 

Safety and Security Services 

William Lafferty (2000); Director of Security Services; 
B.A., Eastern College; M.S., Villanova University 

David Taylor (1999); Associate Director of Campus 
Safety; A.A., Harrisburg Area Coniinunity College 

Student Activities 

John Archer (1996); Night Activities Manager; B.A., 
Universit)' of Hartford, Connecticut 

Christine Sedlacko (2000); Program Coordinator; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

S. Mark Sikes (1999); Associate Director of Student 
Activities; B.A., University of South Carolina; 
M.Ed., Virginia Tech 



College Relations 

Lex 0. McMillan, III (1993); Vice President for College 
Relations; B.A., Washington & Lee University; 
M.A., Georgia State University; Ph.D., University 
of Notre Dame 

Susanne Shaw (2001); Assistant Vice President for 
Development; B.A., Regis College 

Advancement Services 

Alan J. Hejnal (2001); Director of Advancement 
Services; B.A., Hobart College; M.A., University of 
Michigan; M.A., School of Theology at Claremont 

Diana Snell (2000); Assistant Director of 
Advancemen t Services 

Alumni Relations 

Joseph Lynch (2000); Director of Alumni Relations; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Mary Anstine (2000); Associcite Director of Alumni 
Relations; B.A., Washington and Lee University; 
J.D., Washington and Lee School of Law 

Katherine Casey (2000); Assistant Director of Alumni 
Relations; B.S.E., Millersville University 

Annual Giving 

Penny L. Jenkins (1999); Director of Annual Giving; 
B.A., Mary Baldwin College 

Brian Allen (1999); Annucd Giving Office)- 

Laura Cotton (2000); Assistant Director of Annual 
Giving; B.S., Hobart and William Smith Colleges 

Craig Diehl (1999); Executive Director of the Orange 
&' Blue Club; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Jennifer Nesbit (2001); Associate Director of Annual 
Giving; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Capital Giving 

Christine A. Benecke (1992); Manager of Research; 
B.Hiun., Penn State University 

Emily Clarke ( 1 99 1 ); Associate Director of Planned 
Giving; B.A., University of North Carolina 

Donald R. Cooney (1995); Associate Vice President for 
Development; B.A., Gettysbiug College 

Elizabeth Dahmus (2000); Director of Planned 
Giving; B.S., Penn State University; M.P.A., Penn 
State University 



William P. Deptula (1997); Associate Director of 
Capital Giving; B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., 
Bowling Green University 

Jeanne deBrun Duffy (1999); Director of Foundation 
and Corporate Support; B.A., Gettysburg College; 
Ph.D., Brown University 

Jean S. LeGros (1978-1988), (1991); Associate 
Director oj Capital Giving; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Janet Wiley Mulderrig (1999); Director of Major Gifts; 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Jeffrey Pierce (2000); Capital Gifts Officer; B.S., 
Towson State University 

Jean Straub Stitt (2000); Capitnl Gifts Officer; B.S., 
Lamar University 

Karen Weiss (1999); Capital Gifts Officer; B.A., West 
Chester University 

Public Relations 

Patricia A. Lawson ( 1 999); Associate Vice President 
for Communications and Public Relations; B.A., 
Eastern Connecticut State College; M.S., 
Syracuse University 

Matthew G. Daskivich ( 1 999); Sports Information 
Director; B.S., Muhlenberg (x)llege; M.A.M., 
University of Virginia 

Mary E. Dotheimer (1991); Directm of Media 
Relations; B.S., Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania 

James Hale (2000); Staff Writer; B.A., Valparaiso 
University' 

Steven Westfall (2000); Graphic Designer; ?>.¥ A., 
Maine College of /\rt 

Jerold Wikoff (1985); College Editor, Directm- of 
Publications and Neiu Media; B.A., M.A., Ph.D., 
Stanford University 

Enrollment and Educational Services 

Barbara Fritze (200 1 ); Vice President of Enrollment 
and Educational Services; B.A., Beaver College; 
M.S., Drexel University 

Admissions 

Gail Sweezey ( 1 983); Director of Adynissions; 
B.A., Allegheu}' College 

Nathan Anderson (1999); Assistant Director of 
Admissions; B.A., College of Wooster 



Leigh Anne Bennett (2000); Admissions Counselor; 
B.A., Colgate University 

Daniel A. Dundon (1972); Senior Associate Director of 
Admissions; B.A., Stale University of New York at 
Buffalo; M.A., Eastern Michigan University 

Darryl W. Jones (1985); Assodate Director of 
Admissions; B.A., Pennsylvania State University 

Sarah Kotlinski (2000); Associate Directm of 
Admissions &' Coordinator of Technical Operations; 
B.A., Susquehanna University 

Joseph C. Sharrah (1996); Admissions Counselor; 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.B.A., Shippensburg 
University 

Courtney Wege (2001); Admissions Counselor; B.A., 
Gett\'sbnrg Colk-ge 

Mary Wilkes (2000); Admissions Counselor; B.A., 
Gettysburg College 

Institutional Analysis 

Salvatore Ciolino ( 1 97 1 ); Associate Dean of 
Enrollment and Educational Services; B.A., State 
University of New York at Geneseo; M.S., State 
University of New York at Albany; Ed.D., Nova 
University 

intercollegiate Athletics 

Charles W. Winters (1989); Director of Intercollegiate 
Athletics; B.S., M.Ed., Bowling Green State 
University 

John W. Campo (1985); Head Coach/Baseball, 
Assistant Coach /Eootba II; B.S., University of 
Delaware; M.S., Queens College of the City 
University of New York 

Carol D. Cantele ( 1 992); Head Coach/Field Hockey, 
Head Coach/Women 's Lacrosse; B.A., Gettysburg 
College; M.A., Miami University at Oxford 

Michael P. Cantele (1990); Athletic Trainer; B.A., 
Gettysburg College; M.S., Old Dominion 
University 

Robert T. Condon (1993); Head Coach/Men's and 
Women ",s Cross Country, Head Coach/Track and 
Field; B.A., Olivet College; M.Ed., Miami 
Uni\'ersity at Oxford 

Troy A. Dell (1995); Head Wrestling Coach /Strength 
iff Conditioning Coach; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Joseph D. Donolli (1971); Head Athletic Trainer; E.S., 
University of Delaware; M.Ed., Temple 
University 



Henry Janczyk (1987); Head Coach/Men's Lacrosse; 
B.A., Hobait College; M.A., Albany State University 

Kimberly A. Kelly (1992); Head Vollijball Coach/ 
Assistant Softball Coach: B.S., Gettysburg College 

Michael T. Kirkpatrick (1989); Head Coach/Women's 
Basketball, Head Coach/Softball; A.A., Community 
College of Allegheny, Boyce Campus; B.S., 
University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown 

George R. Petrle (1989); Head Coach/Men's 
Basketball, Co-Head Coach/Golf; B.A., Lebanon 
Valley College; M.Ed., University of Utah 

Michael K. Rawleigh (1985); Head Coach/Men's and 
Women's Swimming, Aquatics Director; B.A., 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 
M.S., Western Maryland College 

John F. Schmid (1990); Assistaut Coach/Football, 
Assistant Coach/Track and Field; B.S., Ursinus 
College 

Barb Streeter (1991); Assistant Director of Campus 
Recreation, Director of Women 's Athletics; B.A., 
Lebanon Valley College 

Barry H. Streeter (1975); Head Coach/Football; 
B.A., Lebanon Vallev College; M.S., University of 
Delaware 

Todd D. Wawrousek (1990); Head Coach /Wo7nen's 
Soccer, Assistant Tennis Coach; B.S., University' of 
Pittsburgh; M.Ed., Alfred University 

David W. Wright (1986); Associate Athletic Director, 
Head Coach/Soccer, Head Coach/Tennis; B.S., State 
University of New York at Cortland; M.A., 
Brigham Young University 

Intercollegiate Athletics/Part-Time Coaches 

Darrell Alt (2000); Graduate Assistant (Football); 
B.S. Frostburg State University 

Kenneth Armacost (1996); Assistant 
Coach/Volleyball; B.A., Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania; M.S., Western Maryland College 

Thomas Bachman (1991); Assistant Coach/Women's 
Soccer; B.S., West Chester State College 

Melissa Ballance (2001); Graduate Assistant (Field 
Hockey and Women's Lacrosse); B.A., Mary 
Washington College 

Robert Campbell (2000); Assistant Coach /Football; 
B.S., Penn State University; M.S., SUNYat 
Cortland 



Kenneth Corbran (1998); Assistant Coach/Men's 
Soccer; B.S., Rutgers University; M.S., Western 
Maryland t^tjllege 

David Gorman (2001); Assistant Coach/Men's and 
Women's Cross Country/Track and Field; B.S., West 
Chester Universit)' 

Mike Graham (1999); Graduate Assistant (Football); 
B.A., Gettvsburg (College 

Robert Klock (2001); Assistant Coach /Football; B.S., 
Shippensburg Universit)' 

Kevin Lawrence (200 1 ); Assistant Coach/Women 's 
Basketball; B.A.,University of Maryland 

Brian McGurn (2001); Graduate Assistant (Men's 
Lacrosse); B.A., Gettysburg College 

Wayne Mickley (1994); Assistant Coach/Baseball; 
B.S., Shippensburg University' 

Dave Neff (1998); Assistant Coach/Women's 
Basketball 

James Page (2000); Assistant Coach/Football; B.A., 
Susquehanna University 

William Pfitzinger (1999); Head Coach/Men's df 
Women's Tennis; B.A., Roanoke College 

Camilla Rawleigh (1989); Assistant Coach/Men's Cjf 
Women's Swimming; B.A., University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Paul Redfern (2000); Ciraduate Assistant (Men's 
Basketball); B.A., Gettysburg College 

James Reigel (2000); Assistant Coach/Men 's Soccer; 
B.S., Towson State University 

Lee Rentzel (1991); Assistant Coach/Baseball; B.A., 
Penn State University; M.A., Western Maryland 
College 

Matthew Rothenberger (2001); Assistant 
Coach/Men's Basketball; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Douglas Sage (200 1 ); Assistant Coach/Men 's 
Lacrosse; B.A., Gettysburg College 

Aimee Seward (2000); Graduate Assistant (Field 
Hockey /Women 's Lacrosse); B.S., Mary Washington 
College 

Aubrey Shenk (1984); Assistant Coach/Men's &" 
Women 's Cross Country/Field Hockey 

Joseph Yeck (1999); Assistant Coach/Men's 
Basketball; B.S., Temple Universitv-; M.A., 
University of Maryland 

Trevor Zeiders (2001); Assistant Coach/Football; 
B.S., West Virginia University' 



Student Financial Aid 

Ronald L. Shunk (1983); Director of Financial Aid; 
B.A., M.Ed., Pennsylvania State University 

Christina Richardson (200 1 ); Associate Director of 
linancial Aid; B.A., Bloomsburg University; 
M.A.. Binghamton University 

Jean Riley (2000); Assistant Director of Financial Aid; 
B.S., University of Maryland, Baltimore Count)' 

Finance and Administration 

Jennie L. Mingolelli (1993); Vice President for Finance 
and Administration/Treasurer; B.A., Stetson 
I niversit)'; M.A., Ph.D., Syracuse Universit)' 

William Baldwin (1989); Building Trades Manager 

James R. Biesecker ( 1 983); Assistant Director of 
Facilities Services; B.S., Mt. St. Mary's College 

Mike Bishop (2000); College Union Food Service 
Manager; B.S., Shepard College 

Ana Crider (2000); Director of Planning and Budget; 
B.S., B.A., Indiana University 

Larry Eighmy ( 1 998); Director of Facilities 
Manngemfut Services; B.A., Middlcbury College 

Robert Butch ( 1 999); Special Assistant to the 
Director of Facilities Management Services; B.A., 
Swarthmore College 

Ed Earp (2000); Executive Chef 

Brian Erb (1999); Associate Vice President for 
Financial Systems and Services/Associate Treasurer; 
C.P.A.; B.S., Rutgers University 

Carmen Glynn (2000); Sous Chef 

Christine L. Gormley (1994); Assistant Director of 
Financial Services/Operations; B.A., Western 
Maryland College 

Melissa A. Grimsley (1988); Manager of HRIS System 

Roger Heyser (1984); Manager, Energy &f HVAC; 
Gateway Technical Institute 

Margaret Mollis (2000); Conference and Event 
Manager; B.S., Sliippensburg University- 
Deb Hydock; Customer Service Managei;^.?)., 
M.B.A., Mount St. Mary's College 

Ellen M. McCarthy (1999); Comptrolle}; C.P.A.; B.A., 
Stonehill College 



Kimberly McGlaughlin (1999); Payroll Manager; ^.S., 
Mount St. Mary's College 

John V. Myers ( 1 978); Director of Dining Services; 
B.S., University of Scranton 

Randy Nenninger (1997); Manager, Grounds and 
Landscape Sei vices; Associate in Forestry, Penn 
State University 

Jane D. North ( 1 992); Director of Human Resources 
and Risk Management; B.S., Miami Uni\ersit\' at 
Oxford 

Peter C. North ( 1 992); Director of Auxiliary and 
Campus Food Services; B.S., B.A., Slippery Rock 
University 

Jeffrey Nye (2000); Catering Manager for Dining 
Serx'ices 

Wendy Quinley (1999); Manager of Student 
Accounts; B.A., Western Maryland College; 
M.B.A., Mount St. Mary's College 

Chris Rinehart ( 1 994); Purchasing Manager of 
Dining Services 

Jennifer T. Robertson ( 1 995); Associate Director of 
Human Resources; B.S., James Madison University 

Elaine Saxe (1999); Assistant Comptroller and 
Manager of Financial Information Systems; C.P.A.; 
B.B.A., Stephen F. Austin University- 
John R. Shaddock (2000); President & CEO, Shared 
Services Consortium; B.S., Universit)' of Maryland; 
M.S., Troy State University- 
Ken Shultes (2000); Director of Facilities Services; 
B.A., Dickinson C>)llege 

David M. Swisher II (1970); Associate Director of 
Facilities Services 

Kimberly L. Wolf (1991); Director, College Bookstore 

Christine Zuber (2000); Assistant Director of Budget; 
B.S., Bloomsburg University 



'tidex 



Academic: Advising 28-29 

Academic Honors 43-44 

Academic Internships 30 

Academic Policies and Programs 25-38 

Academic Regulations 39-42 

Academic Standing 40-41 

Administration 190-196 

Admission Policy and Procedure 4-6 

African-American Studies 46-48 

Alcohol and Drug Education 15 

Alpha Lambda Delta 43 

American Studies 99 

Annual Prizes and Awards 154-1 72 

Anthropology 133-139 

Area Studies 100 

Art (See Visual Arts) 

Art Gallery 147 

Asian Studies 99 

Astronomy (See Physics) 

Athletics 23 

Bands 21 

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 48 

Biology 49-52 

Board of Trustees 178-1 79 

Business Administration 

(See Mnnngement) 
Campus Media 21 
Campus Recreation 23 
Career Planning and Advising 1 5 
Career Opportimities 

(See Departmental Course Introductions) 
Center for Public Service 23 
Chapel Programs 22 
Chemistry 52-55 
Civil War Institute 30 
Choirs 21 

Civil War Era Studies 55-56 
Classics 56-58 

Clubs and Organizations 20-22 
College Life 17-23 
College Store 9 
College Union 18-19 
Comparative Literatiue 99-100 
Computer Science 58-61 
Core Requirements 

(See Liberal Arts Core Requirements) 
Costs 7-9 

Counseling Services 15 
Course Requirements 26-28 
Courses of Study 45-1 53 
Credit System (Credit Hotirs) 26 
Deans' Lists 43 



Degree Requirements 26-28 

Exemption From 40 
Dental School, Preparation for 37 
Dining Accommodations 14 
Drama (See Theatre Arts) 
Dramatics 21 
Dual-Degree Programs 

(See Engineering, Forestry, Nursing, 
and Optometry) 
Early Decision 5 
East Asian Studies 61-62 
Economics 62-67 
Education 67-69 
Endowed Scholarships 159-171 
Endowment Fimds 173-177 
Engineering Dual-Degree Programs 

(See also Physics) 35-36, 1 18 
English 69-75 

Environmental Studies 75-80 
Environmental Studies and Forestry 

Dual-Degree Program 36-37 
Expenses/Services 7-9 
Facilities 24 
Faculty 179-190 
Fees 7-9 

Financial Aid 10-12 
First- Year Experience 18 
First- Year Residential College 18 
First-Year Seminars 46 
Foreign Study (See Off-Campus Study) 
Forestry and Environmental Studies 

Dual-Degree Program 36—37 
Fraleinities (See Greek Organizations) 
French 80-84 

Geographical Distribution of Students 6 
German 84-87 
Gettysburg Review 30-31 
Global Studies 100 
Government (See Political Science) 
Grading System 39-40 
Graduation 

Reqviirements for 26-28 

With honors 43 
Greek 57 

Greek Organizations 21-22 
Health Center 14-15 
Health and Exercise Science 87-90 
History 91-95 
Honor Code 17 
Honorary Societies 43-44 
Individualized Study 29 
Insiuance 9 



Intercultural Advancement 13-14 
Interdisciplinary Studies 95-100 
International Affairs Concentration 100-101 
Internships 30 

(See also Department Course Listings) 
Intramural Sports 23 
Italian 80-84 
Japanese Studies 101-102 
Jimction, The 19 
Latin 56-58 

Latin American Studies 102-105 
Law, Ethics, and Society 100 
Leadership Development Program 20 
Liberal Arts Core Requirements 45 
Loan Programs 10-12 

Lutheran Theological Seminary Exchange 35 
Major Fields of Study 27-28 
Management 105-106 

Marine Biolog)' Cooperative Programs 34-35 
Mathematics 106-109 
Medical School, Preparation for 37-38 
Minority Affairs 

(See Intercultural Advancement) 
Music Activities 21 
Music 109-115 
Music Education 

Bachelor of Science Degree 109-1 10 
Ninth Semester Education Program 67-68 
Nursing, Dual-Degree Program 36 
Off-Campus Study 31-35^ 
Optometry, Dual-Degree Program 36 
Orchestra 21 

Overseas Programs (See Off-Campus Study) 
Owl & Nightingale Players 21 
Performing Arts 21 
Phi Beta Kappa 43 
Philosophy 115-117 
Physical and Learning Disabilities 

Policy on Accommodation of 29 
Physics 117-120 
Political Science 121-125 
Portuguese 143 
Preprofessional Studies 

Physical Therapy 38 

Predental 37 

Prelaw 37 

Premedical 37-38 
Presidential Scholars Program 1 1 
Prizes and Awards 154-172 
Psychology 125-129 
Readmission 41-42 
Recreation Programs 23 



Refund Policy 8 

Registration 39 

Religion 129-132 

Religious Life 22 

Residence Life 13 

Residence Requirements 41 

Safety and Security 16 

SAT 5 

Senior Scholars' Seminar 29-30 

Sociology and Anthropology 133-139 

Sororities (See Greek Organizations) 

Spanish 139-143 

Special Major 28 

Speech 146 

Student Programs and Activities 20-23 

Student Conduct 17 

Student Government 19 

Student Newspapei- (Geltysburgian) 21 

Student Originated Studies 29 

Student Radio Station (WZBT) 21 

Student Yearbook (The Spectrum) 21 

Study Abroad (See Off-Campus Study) 

Teacher Education Programs 38 

Teacher Placement 38 

Theatre Arts 143-146 

Transcripts 41 

Transfer Credit 40 

Transfer Students 6 

Veterinary Schocjl Preparation 37 

Veterans' Administration Benefits 8 

Visual Arts 146-151 

Wilson College Exchange 35 

Withdrawal and Readmission 41-42 

Women's Studies 151-153 

Writing Center 70 



Listing for Correspondence 



Mailing Address: 

Gettysburg College 
M)0 N. Washington St. 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325 

Telephone: 

7l7-3.S7-r)()()() 

Academic Information 

Daniel DeNicola, Provost 

Finance and Administration 

Jennie L. Mingolelli, Vice President for Finance and 
Administration/Treasurer 

Admission 

Gail M. Sweezey, Director of Admissions 

Alumni Affairs 

Joe Lynch, Director of Alumni Relations 

Athletics 

Charles W. Winters, Director oflntercolkgiale Athletics 

Career Planning 

Kathleen L. Williams, Director of Career Planning 
and Advising 

Church Relations 

Rev. Joseph A. Donnella II, Chaplain 

College Relations 

Lex O. McMillan III, Vice President for College 
Relations 

Counseling Services 

William H. Jones, Coordinator of Counseling 
Services 

Enrollment and Educational Services 

Barbara Fritze, Vice President of Enrollment and 
Educatioucd Services 

Financial Aid 

Ronald L. Shimk, Director of Financicd Aid 

Financial Services/Student Accounts 

Ellen M. McCarthy, Controller and Director of 
Financial Services 

General College Policy and Information 

Patricia A. Lawson, Associate Vice President for 
Communications and Public Relations 

Information Technology 

David P. Steinour, Vice Provost for Information 
Technology and Director of Computing 

Musselman Library 

Robin Wagner, Director of Library Services 

Public Relations 

Patricia A. Lawson, Associate Vice President for 
Communications and Public Relations 

Records and Transcripts 

(i. Ronald Couchman, Registrar 

Student Affairs 

Julie L. Ramsey, Dean of the College 



Advisers and Coordinators of 

Special Programs at Gettysburg College 

Adviser to Minority Students 

Peter (anry. Dean of Intercultural Advancement 

Affirmative Action/Title IX 

Perrin B. Reid, Director of Employment Equity isf 
Diversity 

Coordinator/Sexual Harassment Officer 

Perrin B. Reid, Director of Employment Equity C^f 
Diversity 

Contact Person for Continuing Education 

G. Ronald Couchman, Registrar 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Engineering 

Sharon L. Stephenstjn, Department of Physics 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Forestry 
and Environmental Studies 

John A. Commito, Department of Environmental 
Studies 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Nursing 

Ralph A. Sorensen, Department of Biology 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Optometry 

Ralph A. Sorensen, Department <f Biology 

Coordinator of International Student Affairs 

Mikiko Kuma.saka, Assistant Director of Interculturcd 
Adxiancement 

Coordinator of Off-Campus Programs 

Rebecca Bergren, Director of Off Campus Studies 

Coordinator of the Writing Center 

John E. Ryan, Department of English 

Internship Coordinator 

Deborah M. Wailes, Director of Inlernships 

Prehealth Professions Adviser 

Ralph A. Sorensen, Department of Biology 

Prelaw Adviser 

Kenneth E. Mott, Department of Political Science 

Students and Employees with Disabilities 
Coordinator of Access Policies 

Jane H. North, Director of Human Rescrurces 
Perrin B. Reid, Director of Employment Equity Cf 
Diversity 



Gettysburg College— Calendar for 2002-2003 



FALL SEMESTER, 2002 

August 29-September 1 , Thursday-Sunday 

September 1 , Sunday 

September 2, Monday 

September 27, Friday 

September 27-29, Friday-Sunday 

October 14-15, Monday-Tuesday 

October 18-20, Friday-Sunday 

October 25, Friday 

November 14, Thursday, 11:30 a.m. 

November 26, Tuesday, 5:00 p.m. 

December 2, Monday, 8:00 a.m. 

December 13, Friday 

December 14-15, Saturday-Sunday 

December 15-20, Sunday p.m.-Friday 

December 23, Monday, 8:00 a.m. 



Orientadon 
Registration 
Classes begin 
Fall Honors Day 
Family Weekend 
Reading days 
Alumni Homecoming 
Mid-semester reports due 
Fall Convocation 
Thanksgiving recess begins 
Thanksgiving recess ends 
Last day of classes 
Reading days 
Final examinadons 
All grades due 



SPRING SEMESTER, 2003 

January 15, Wednesday 

January 16, Thursday 

March 7, Friday 

March 7, Friday, 5:00 p.m. 

March 17, Monday, 8:00 a.m. 

April 12, Saturday 

April 17, Thursday 

April 17, Thursday, 5:00 p.m. 

April 22, Tuesday, 8:00 a.m. 

May 2, Friday 

May 3-4, Saturday-Sunday 

May 5-10, Monday-Saturday 

May 12, Monday 

May 17, Saturday 

May 17-18, Saturday-Svmday 

May 29-June 1, Thursday-Sunday 



Registradon adjustments 
Classes begin 
Mid-semester reports due 
Spring recess begins 
Spring recess ends 
Get-Acquainted Day 

(Follow Monday schedule) 
Easter recess begins 
Easter recess ends 
Last day of classes 
Reading days 
Final examinations 
All grades due 
Spring Honors Day 
Baccalaureate and 

Commencement Weekend 
Alumni College and 

Reunion Weekend 



It is the policy of Gettysburg College not to discriminate improperly against any matriculated student, employee 
or prospective employee on account of age, race, color, religion, ethnic or national origin, gender, sexual 
orientation, or being differently abled. Such policy is in compliance with the requirements of Title Vllofthe Civil 
Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and all 
other applicable federal, stale, and local statutes, ordinances, and regulations. Inquiries concerning the 
application of any of these laws may be directed to the Affirmative Action Officer at the College or to the Director 
of the Office for Civil Rights, Department of Education, Washington, D. C. for laws, such as Title IX of the 
Education Amendments of 1972 and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, administered by that department. 

Gettysburg College is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 




wi\